Rural economic deterioration and mass migration

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Rural economic deterioration and mass migration

  1. 1.  I am working on a project on “Rural Economic Deterioration and Mass Migration: A case Study of The State of Bihar”. The objective of my project is to elaborate the relationship between diminishing rural economy and mass migration. Ironically, we are enforced to use the term “Mass”, because here I am discussing the various classes of rural inhabitants, those were originated during the period of post economic reforms to till now- (a) Literate Farmer (b) Illiterate Farmer (c) Students (d) Literate with no land holdings (e) Illiterate with no land holdings
  2. 2.  Here, it is very important to discuss the development of mass migrant‟s classes. There is a very little difference between the „Literate farmer category‟ and „Illiterate farmer category‟. Literate farmer category is well known for their product management. They extract maximum output of their agricultural crops. They bring their products directly into the market. They are aware of the high- yielding varieties of genetically modified hybrid and pioneered seeds and their timely use as well. This category is extracting maximum out-put. On the other hand, Illiterate farmers have all facilities, but lacking the concept of product management. They are still being exploited by the middle man and brochures. Literate with no land holdings are finding various occupations, such as teaching, employee in public or private sector, taking land on „NAGADI‟, „BATAIYA‟, CHAUTHAIYA‟ etc to involve themselves into agriculture.Illiterate with no land holdings category are mostly group of laborers.
  3. 3. Now what has been happening in the State of Bihar since fifteen yearsor more, the aforementioned categories of literate and illiterate weredeliberately targeted by the State Government‟s machinery; on accountof establishing so called so called Social Justice. They were accused ofspreading “Fascism”, so called “SAMANTI PEOPLE”. When the wholecountry were resisting the development process in aftermath scenarioof post economic reforms era of Liberalization, Globalization andPrivatization, The State of Bihar were deliberately drawing the line ofpartition across their people on the name of cast and feudalism.Deferred Bihar Land Reforms Act ignited the mind of the people andthey started resisting the farmer classes in the rural areas. Capturingof crops and lands were the part and parcel of the Government‟ssponsored movement of social justice. Where the two-third populationis still uneducated, the State Government worked like a stimulant tosend wrong massages among the 89% rural people. Where thereshould have been an approach to strengthen the education system, theState Government acted like a separatist group.
  4. 4. Paralyzed administrative system developed cast based „Naxalism‟ inCentral Bihar. A parallel administration headed by Private Senas,M.C.C, and P.W.G etc started running in this State. Unfortunately theState Government was providing bases to such Naxal Organizations.Every political party was shaking bread and butter and bringing theState on a verge of new political dilemma. The political nexus to suchnaxal outfits heavily ruined the rural economy. On account of socialjustice, thousands of innocent people have lost their lives in serialmassacre and acres of green lands were enforced to leave unirrigated.This created a huge vacuum in the rural economy generation of theState. The cultivation of naxalism on the most fertile land of Biharruined the rural economy. Those created cast based naxalorganizations deteriorated the very peace and harmony based socialconfiguration of the State. Consequently there initiated a series ofmigration. They were widely dispersed into various cities of India fortheir livelihoods.
  5. 5. Increasing population, vulnerability to consequent natural disasters viz,floods and droughts, limited utilization of resources, short grainopportunistic political alliances, paralyzed political administrative planning,poor coordination among the various organs of the Government,environment of fear and threat among industrialist and business classes,lesser employment opportunity, cast based society etc. transformed into a“hub” of migrant people. Post economic reforms era was bringingsignificant changes in the rural in the rural economy of other states of thecountry. Huge amount of investment either from within or abroad were inprocess in each and every sector of economy, whereas the State of Biharhad no distant objective. Even the Government had nothing to do with theeconomic reforms. This would more or less reduce the chances ofemployment opportunity in the State. Large scale migration startedoccurring after 1995. Rural Economic Deterioration pushed lakhs of peopleto get dispersed into the various cities of country. In this project work,whatsoever question I have raised does not match to even my opinion? Iasked various questions to the people residing in major cities- Delhi,Mumbai, Kolkata, Surat, Ahmadabad, Amritsar etc.
  6. 6. This project is not meant to criticize the functioning of theGovernment, but the question remains stagnant.Why the people particularly from rural origin in masses have migrated?Did the State Government try to take any preventive measures toreduce the intensity of migration?Did the Government assure the people to provide to provide aguaranteed rural employment? Did the Government emphasis more oninfrastructural development, rather them to strengthen the “Vote Bank”equation? What is the state of education in this State?
  7. 7. I am a rural inhabitant. I did my education in a complete rural environment. Myvery purpose is to admit myself with this Programme of Rural Development,because I believe that rural development that the rural development is aninherent aspect of our country‟s all-round development. My State Bihar is anhistoric, cultural and diverse part of our country. Once, Magadha Empireexpanded her region up to Afghanistan, whose capital was Patliputra. NalandaUniversity kept the foundation of the concept of Global Education. This is a landwhere God Buddha got enlightens under the Bodhi tree in Bodh-Gaya. Jain‟s24th Trithankars God Mahavira died of near Pawapuri. Sershah, an Afghan rulerfrom Sasaram kept the foundation of Suri dynasty in India, defeating MughalHumayun. Bihar was the work-land for Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhistarted the Champaran Movement against the tyrannical policies of BritishGovernment against the farmers of the region in 1917. It is the Land of GreatBabu Virkunwar Singh who led the 1857 Revolt. Bihar played a significant role inthe development of this country. They lost their lives in fighting against theBritish to access independence. My State has a long tradition to produce greatleaders like Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Jay Prakash Narayan, etc. Rastrakavi RamdhariSingh Dinkar provided new dimensions to our modern Hindi literature.Vidhyapati, Maulana Mazaharul, Fanishwar Nath Renu etc were the trueacademic ambassadors of my State. I am reminding the history, because thesepeople from complete rural background. At a time when the rural people whenthe rural people were playing eminent role to strengthen the economy of ourcountry and now they are migrating to other parts of the country for theirlivelihoods.
  8. 8. In this project I would try to emphasis on the larger issues like “Roti- Kapra aurMakan”, education, roads, power, water, sanitation, hygiene, administration, disastermanagement, function of Panchayati Raj Institutions, coordination among the ruralinhabitants and the State Administrative Institutions, Role of Public Representatives,National and State owned Rural programmes, Agriculture etc.After Green Revolution, Food could not be the primary necessity for the rural people.In spite of having minimum literacy rate, this State has been producing a bunch ofextraordinary talents. Significant numbers of rural students have cracked the mostprestigious examination of our country, viz civil services, IITs, IIMs, medical services,medical entrance etc. there was a time, when Patna University, Bihar University etcwere known for known producing great amount of intelligence. Particularly PatnaUniversity is one of the renowned glories of our country. This University hasproduced so many famous doctors, engineers, civil servants, public servants,academicians, and politicians etc. but since last 15 years or more, this university haslost her glory and history. The only rays of hopes for the poor rural students havealso been collapsed. There was a peak, when Mr. Lalu Prasad Yadav, Mr. NitishKumar, and Mr. Sushil Kumar Modi etc the three spearhead of present Bihar politicswere studying in this University. It is very unfortunate, when those aforementionedrespectable names get their credentials and powers to manage this State. ThisUniversity has so far traveled a journey from peak to ground zero. Delayed sessionsof various courses, lack of faculties members, mismanagement, wide spread politicalenvironment in the colleges, lack of able teachers etc are the major problems ofhigher education in Bihar. It is a period of trauma in higher education, because thereare hardly any institutions looking to provide a standard education. The structure ofbasic education has been disastrous condition.
  9. 9. I do not think that such structures of education would compete to theother parts of country. The question would be necessarily raised,“Why is it happening in this State?”Through this project, I tried to find out a proportionate relation ofEducation as a revenue resource and the EconomyThe disastrous education culture in this State developed extreme amountof disappointment and desperation among the rural students. Because theUrban students in spite of low standard public basic institutions, preferredto get education from private schools, as their total per capita incomeallow. In contrast, the low per capita income of the rural students does notallow moving towards private system of education. Government reluctancemade the education worst than worsen. Wrong planning, least investment,and lack of political will power have pushed the education as a low prioritysubject. The State government has never utilized “Education” as a revenueresource. Lakhs of students are occupying various degrees from variouscenters of India. Huge amount of revenue is being transferred from Biharto other parts of the country. Why is it happening? We could not developinfrastructure of that standard. We could not list the education as resource.The State Government allowed the managers of education to accessdegrees through theft and corruption. Various cases of fake degrees havefound in the universities. This made the education standard very low.
  10. 10. I do not think that such structures of education would compete to theother parts of country. The question would be necessarily raised,“Why is it happening in this State?”Through this project, I tried to find out a proportionate relation ofEducation as a revenue resource and the EconomyThe disastrous education culture in this State developed extreme amountof disappointment and desperation among the rural students. Because theUrban students in spite of low standard public basic institutions, preferredto get education from private schools, as their total per capita incomeallow. In contrast, the low per capita income of the rural students does notallow moving towards private system of education. Government reluctancemade the education worst than worsen. Wrong planning, least investment,and lack of political will power have pushed the education as a low prioritysubject. The State government has never utilized “Education” as a revenueresource. Lakhs of students are occupying various degrees from variouscenters of India. Huge amount of revenue is being transferred from Biharto other parts of the country. Why is it happening? We could not developinfrastructure of that standard. We could not list the education as resource.The State Government allowed the managers of education to accessdegrees through theft and corruption. Various cases of fake degrees havefound in the universities. This made the education standard very low.
  11. 11. This is the reason why a large number of students are studying atvarious centers of India. Even two-third of rural students‟ populationof BIHAR is getting higher degrees from various centers of the country.After completion of their degrees, they better prefer to contributethere rather than to their State again the question raises,“What is the State Government trying to prevent the rural Brain-Wash”?Huge amount of migrants are of this categories are being invested toaccommodate their study. How the drain of such amount of wealthcould be prevented?I interviewed to more than 100 students who are studying in thevarious centers of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Allahabad,Ahmadabad etc.Brief amount of questionnaire based evidences wouldbe provided in complete project.
  12. 12. Agricultural collapse due to the consequent disaster vulnerability, irregularand discontinuous rainfall rain fall, disastrous power availability, poor landreforms policy, least accessibility to bank credits and complex terms andconditions in facilitating loans, high oil prices, no proper productmanagement and marketing skills etc enforced the farmers to migrateother parts of the country for their livelihoods. This created a large scalemigration of farmers and labors class rural inhabitants. They migrated tovarious parts of Punjab and Haryana. They brought the two States thehighest yielding States in terms of per capita production of crop. Theirefforts and hard labor have put the two States top in the list of economicgrowth. Now, Punjab and Haryana are adopting high technology basedagricultural method. This creates a threat of livelihoods among themigrants that more use of technologies would make them againunemployed. They are again being pushed from there to adopt theoccupation of Guards and Labors par below than their dignity in theNational Capital Region. They did their labor hard, brought the States ofPunjab and Haryana on a figure of a very healthy Gross Domesticproductivity. But they are still in the same condition from where theystarted their journey of life. What can they do? In spite of maximumrepresentation in the Council of Ministers in each and every establishedGovernment, their public representatives still could not do anything morefor their developments.
  13. 13. Agricultural melt down impacts heavily on agro basedindustries. All sugar mills in Bihar almost died of or listed inSick Industries. Large scale labor moved across various regionsto access employment. Those migrated laborers participatedheavily in the process of industrialization and infrastructuraldevelopment of such regions. Where they started contributingin terms of work potential, the regions could develop into amodern shape. They are available on cheap cost. This raisedeyebrow among local laborers of those regions became thereason of rift between the migrants and the local laborers.Politicians of such regions utilized the increasing confrontationsand transformed its color into regional and linguistic basis.Heavy violence turned across the country against those migrantlaborers. Again they were deceived. I would discuss theproblem of such laborers in my complete project. I interviewedto as many as hundred of migrants labor families across Delhi,Kolkata, Mumbai and Surat etc.
  14. 14. Another strong reason of mass migration is the failure of the Governmentof India and the State to control the consequent flood. Entire North Bihar isvulnerable to consequent floods and droughts. This region is occupied bysome of the most dangerous rivers of our country, viz Kosi, Kamla- Balan,Baghmati, Budhi Gandak etc. since Independence; the Government couldnot have formulated a plan to reach at a permanent solution. Floodmanagement is a necessity of this State. The Government of India couldnot even succeed to reach at a consensus with the Nepalese Government toconstruct a dam across river Kosi. This results into heavy amount ofdamage of State property every year. This is the reason why most of therural inhabitants turned into migrants across various parts of the country.This flood happened due to the change of course of course of river kosi;one of the most dreaded flood in the history of this country. I movedacross the relief camps, talked to the flood affected people. I will presenttheir opinion in my complete project work. Since 2000, the State ofJharkhand has been established by bi-furcating the State of Bihar. Our allnatural resources and resource based industries have been shifted. Thiscreates a great financial crisis in this State. Even the Government of Indiacould not pay the compensation to the State which was estimated to beRS.40000 crores. Greater representation in the Council of Ministers couldnot able to compel the Government of India to even provide benefits interms of compensation to the people of this State. However this could havea least impact of migration, because more than 70% of population ofJharkhand still belongs to the people of Bihar origin.
  15. 15. Poor infrastructural development and huge power crisis left thevarious well known cities in an endangered phase. Only Patna couldstand herself as a known city because of her capital status. Patna isan executive city. There are no other means of occupation, as suchas in industrialized cities. However this could provide variousoptions of occupations. Rest of the cities like Bhagalpur,Darbhanga, Mokama, Samastipur, Muzaffarpur, Gaya, Nalanda,Sasaram, Purina etc have continuously been loosing their historicalglories. These cities could not provide employment opportunity tothe larger masses of fringe areas. This is also a major reason ofmass migration.
  16. 16. I started this project after an eye witnessing to a real event that could enforce acitizen of this country to think and rethink at once the levels of misconduct,misgovernence, and corruption. This event belongs to my village Chhoti Nawada. Avery poor rural inhabitant belongs to a Scheduled Class (paswan), named JitanPaswan. He has four daughters and two small sons, living with his wife in the village.He is a rickshaw puller. As my village is near about 28 Kms east of Patna, he used totravel daily pulling rickshaw during day time, and returned back to home in night.Khusrupur is my village‟s block. Once, Jitan was suffering from Kalazar, a verycommon disease in the Gangetic Plain of Bihar, caused by biting of Sand Fly, Carryinga Protozoan parasite Leishmania. As he belongs to a Scheduled class, some peoplesaid him to move into the Block under the National Rural Health Mission programme.As Jitan was the alone working male in his family, and he was suffering from deadlyLeishmaniasis, the family income depends on his wife; she often used to work in thefield and a milking buffalo. Jitan‟s wife Mangri moved to meet the Block DevelopmentOfficer, who was Ram Chandra Paswan. Before moving to the Block, she lends moneyfrom local money lenders at Rs 10/100/month. She lends Rs 200; and moved tomeet B.D.O. On the very first day, a local road brand leader took her into hisconfidence that a he would provide the medical relief to her husband. Innocentilliterate lady came into his talks and gave him Rs 50 as per the leader demanded. Onthat day B.D.O was not in his office, he was absent on that day. On the very next day,the so called leader brought the lady to the peon. The peon demanded Rs 50 toprovide an opportunity to meet the B.D.O. On that day, the B.D.O left the office in theearly hours of his duty. She could not able to meet even on the second day.
  17. 17. She almost lost her Rs 100. This loss was loss to life for her, but optimism also enlightensas a ray of hope that the Sarkar or Malik (B.D.O) will do something for her. With such hopesand optimism, she moved to meet B.D.O again on the consecutive third day. There wasanother peon this time, he demanded Rs 50 again, but when she said, “she has already paidto the other peon yesterday”. The peon got little liberal and said o.k. pay me Rs 30; I wouldimmediately bring to you to the B.D.O Sahib (sir). She paid the demanded amount. Thepeon brought her to the B.D.O. The lady was standing before the B.D.O for five minutes,because B.D.O was talking to somebody on his mobile. After the call off, he asked her nameand whereabouts. When she told her reason of appearance, the B.D.O in this languagestated, “khairat ka hai, sab bbhikmange aa jate ho mangne ke leye. Sarkar ka free me banttihai paisa main apne paise se ilaz Kara dun” (is it free? You all beggars come here todemand money. Does Government distribute money freely? Do I give you money for yourshusband‟s treatment?) The lady said, “The Government is giving medical relief to theschedule classes”. The B.D.O said, o.k. submit a written application for the relief, I wouldsend it forward. Deemag mat khao (don‟t eat my brain), now get lost. Mangari came out ofthe office. She requested the Bada babu to write her application. The Badababu demandedRS 100 to write and submit the application. She said, “I have only Rs 70, how can I pay youRs 100, Bada Babu?” everyone here demands money, how can we people pay? Sheremarked. The Bada Babu said,” does not talk like this, this is a fixed charge, and 50% sharewould be transferred to the B.D.O Sahib. Finally the Bada Babu agreed to write and submitthe application at Rs 70. He received the application and gave her the receiving‟s of theapplication. She was returning back to home with a bankrupt hand, tears from her eyes,desperate and disappointing face, because if the submission of application is so lengthythen she received the relief or not, it was a question of huge consideration; perhaps not. Iwas coming from Patna to my village. I identified her and asked her well beings. She toldeverything what happened to her. I went to her home and told some villagers to bring Jitanto Nalanda Medical and College Hospital and admit him there. Under National KalazarEradication Programme, the Government facilitates free treatment to a kalazar‟s patient andprovides food to the one of the attendants‟. Now he is o.k.
  18. 18. My purpose is not to write a story, but this raises billion questions. Thequestion would again finger towards the Government. Block DevelopmentOfficer is the first line of administrative authority, which administers and funddistribution. There should be a transparent line of communication andcoordination between him and the people. Thousands of cases of corruptionand mis-governence are being registered everyday against the employee andthe officers of the Government. Perhaps this kind environment in my state hasbeen widespread and on saturation. The question remains static, what wouldhappen next? This aforementioned event was not of accessing good grades forthe Programme of Rural Development. I discussed it because Schedule classeswere given prior privileges in our constitution of India and if an officerappointed on the post by getting the benefits of reservations very much as aprivileges under the constitution of India should work in the field ofdevelopment and upliftment of the schedule class. The rude and unmanneredbehavior of the B.D.O showed that the officer had nothing to do with privilegeswhich he himself received under the constitution of India. This question can beraised on broader spectrum, is the bureaucracy in this State of Bihar providing atransparent means of administration to the poor people? B.D.O is supposed tothe first line of officer for the rural inhabitants.
  19. 19. A proper administration can only run when they are people friendly and they are civilservants in true sense. Bureaucracy is the strongest pillar of the Government. They havebeen given the responsibility to implement the laws and plan properly on the ground. Theyhave been given the duty to communicate to the people from time to time and providedirections in connection with the mobilization and utilization of the resources through suchpublic programmes. They are public officers and their duties are assigned to co-operatethe people by and large through proper responsibility and accountability. Their duty is tominimize the corruption at the lower level, so that the funds could be reached properly tothe lower tiers of the society.The Government shall work on a scheme to produce an officer of quality of managingresources at the rural level. The officers could feel the emotions of the people. The profit isnot reaching at the public in this State. Once, when you have limited resources to utilizeand mobilize, you often be more dependent on the Government‟s relief. When the relief isnot reaching at you properly, the desperation develops in the mindset up by and largemasses; and an obvious they turned into migrants.This is a theme of my project. In this Dissertation Proposal, I tried to draw a relationshipbetween rural economic disintegration and the migration. In the complete project, I wouldtry to discuss the state of the family of such migrants like their health, hygiene, sanitationand safe drinking water conditions. Anyhow those rural migrants could participate in theprocess of development of the country. They played a significant role in strengthening theeconomic development of our country. Recent violence in North East, Maharashtra, andPunjab etc against such migrants raised a wide debate, whether those people whoparticipated very much in the process of the development of such cities and States, couldbe thrown out as an exile after the completion of the development or would be given priordisrespect and dishonor?I can not answer such questions, but my project will reveal the rural economic deteriorationafter such huge mass migration. Those migrants could solve their problems of livelihoodsor not, I do not know, my State has almost lost the economic supremacy; the poorest in thelist of all States except Orissa. Rural Brain Drain, Rural work potential Drain combinedcreated rural economic deterioration. Who will pay the price? Still I do not know.
  20. 20. The post economic reforms era of Liberalization, Globalization and Privatization startedduring the Congress Government lead by P.V Narshinga Rao. Then Finance Minister Dr.Manmohan Singh opened the gateway of great economic changes in India. During thisperiod Bihar was passing through a phase of new socio-political transformation. There wasevolving a new political configuration for the establishment of social justice in the State ofBihar.Justice of social, political and economic nature has been an integral part of our basicinfrastructure of the constitution of India. Caste based political orientation has been a partand parcel of modern and British political strategy. But during British period such divisivepolitical mechanism was termed as “Divide and Rule”. Current phase of political dogmatismis highly alarming for the largest democratic country of the world.Economic reforms in India transforms the traditional parameters developmental Index.Tertiary sectors of economy starts contributing major role in the Gross DomesticProductivity, which is supposed to be an economic optimism in terms of economic growthof the country wide economic changes started occurring primarily in the Coastal states ofIndia. India is developing into an Information Technological hub, with its capital atHyderabad, Bangluru, Chennai. There have been started the process of disinvestment inthis country. There was a separate establishment of Department of Disinvestment duringthe National Democratic Alliance Ministry, lead by Mr. (Hon‟ble) Atal Bihari Bajpai. TheGovernment of India stated opening bids to the loss making Industrial Unit for the PrivateInvestors. The Government of India started attracting Foreign Investors through attractivepackages. Special Economic Zones (SEZs) have been developed to promote trade.
  21. 21. The major objectives of this New Economic Reforms Policy of India was to make productionunits more efficient and highly productive as well as to increase the competitiveness of ourproduction units and make use of the global resources for the progress and development.Other major objective was to make Indian economy structurally strong and viable. Anumber of changes have been introduced and initiated since 1991. IndustrialLicensing System has been abolished and no license is required from the Government forsetting up a new units and expansion and diversification of existing production units. TheEconomy has been opened for private capital. Exclusive reservations for public sector havebeen cut down to only safety security and environmental areas. The Monopoly RestrictiveTrade Practices/ MRTP Act have been liberalized and only those activities will be controlledunder this Act which is against the interest of the consumers. Incentives are being given toPrivate Sectors to make investment in infrastructural industries.The policy of Liberalization refers to give Greater Freedom and Liberty to Economic Agentsfor Economic Decision Making. It basically refers to give greater role to private capital andEnterprises in the functioning of the economy that is the private capital will be utilizedmore and more in the process of productive activity and creation of infrastructure. Use ofreceipts from disinvestment has been employed in the expenditure on social sectors,restructuring the public sectors Employs and Redemption of public debts. The majorobjectives behind the process of Disinvestments were: The Government withdrawal from non strategic areas. To bring about improvements in the performance and profitability through diversification of ownerships. Reducing the physical burden of The Government on account of losses of Public Sector Units. Increasing the resources of the Government.
  22. 22. This has lead to increasing integration between different economies of theworld that is it is process of opening the economy for free trade and investmentamong the countries. Globalization was one of the ways through which“International Division of Labour” will be achieved and every country has to payits “Door and Windows” open for International trade. With the advent ofglobalization in Indian economy, each and every country will specialize inmanufacturing of those items which it can manufacture most effectively,efficiently at lower cost in any of the countries at a low price.Significant developments started taking place in the various States of India. Butthe wind of economic reforms could not be blown at its magnificent pace in theState of Bihar. What is observed during the era economic reforms in the State ofBihar is one of the serious developmental crises that raises billion dollarquestions on the planning and management. Large scale social disparities arebeing observed at all sectors of development in this State.
  23. 23. The State of Bihar faced two phases of challenges after the Economic Reforms Era. The firstphase was from 1991-2000. In the year 2000, the State of Bihar was portioned and as aconsequent a new State of Jharkhand was established. This leads to a great economic loss,because the entire mineral resources and resource based industries have shifted to theState of Jharkhand. Forest resources as well as some techno-based educational instituteshave also shifted to the sister state. The region which could be utilized after the advent ofthe economic reforms has also been separated as a separate State. Establishment ofJharkhand was not only a great loss to the state of Bihar, but it mutually affects the peopleof there also. Economic reforms changes could not change the mind set up of the politicalmakers, and even the people of this State could not feel the wind of economic shift of thiscountry of this country. It is not a hidden fact that how much investment from the privatesectors has been recorded in the State of Bihar. This is a dreadful reality that the State haslost her control in terms of economic dominance. The condition of education, health,hygiene and sanitation etc might predict the quality of life in this State. Agro-basedindustries particularly the sugar mills experienced significant collapse during the period ofeconomic reforms. Even this era could not bring a better solution to survive against thevulnerability of natural disaster. Still 80% people of this State are vulnerable to naturaldisaster. The vicious cycle of consequent flood and drought makes our agriculture as anoccupation of endless crisis. Significant yield of per capita productions have been recordedfrom Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, West Bengal, Utter Pradesh,Madhya Pradesh etc. The farmers of there are the employment giver, and the Farmers ofthe State of Bihar are supposed to be employment seeker. The collapse of agriculture sectoris not only due to the adversity of natural climate, but also due to the plan expenditure ofthe Government. Floods and Droughts are relevant the Northern Bihar area, but the fertilezone of Middle Bihar is still unaffected. The State could not apply according to theacceptability of the applied economic reforms. The State could not create an environmentof corporate culture in this State. Poor administration and governance is no environment inBihar for Private investors. Within the period of post economic era up to 2005, Bihar faced asingle Government, supposedly under the guidance of a very charismatic leader Mr. Lalu
  24. 24. I am not criticizing the very functioning of the Government. But unfortunately there have been a large scalemigration recorded during his period. Drastic decline in employment opportunity had been recorded.There has not been any significant development Education Sector. Primary, Middle and High schooleducation recorded rapid decline in quality of education. There have been instances of a single teacheradministering the entire business of the school. Two or three teachers are running a High school.Incapability of teachers in terms of quality and their incompetence made our education system worst thanworsen. There have been significant decline in the quality of higher education in Bihar. During the periodof economic reforms, various States of India were experiencing great revolutionary changes in themethods of education. Other parts of the country particularly the Southern States are developingthemselves into a hub of professional education. They established modern and highly equipped educationinstitutions which are attracting the students outside. They maintained the very quality of education. Theyevolved a model education according to the corporate demands. Because the post economic reforms erautilizes the academic culture as an important tool of economic development. The Economic Globalizationbrings the education system more pronounced than before. It breaks the orthodox pattern of traditionalacademic occupation, viz Doctor, Engineers, and Government services. Privatization of economy opens thedoor for the academic professionals. Huge numbers of management institutions of excellence have beenset up in our country. Various management courses are being provided there. Development of InformationTechnology, large scale demands of IT Experts develop a vibrant stream in engineering courses. Hotel andTourism develop a new carrier option in Hotel and Tourism Management. Privatization leads to theadoption of a well disciplined outlook to attract the consumers by and large. This leads to development ofa new carrier in Design Technologies, like Hair Designing, Fashion Designing and Shoe Designing.Therefore the economic reforms in India break the orthodox concept profession. It brings academician insuch profession where this could not be thought that the class of intelligent mind would accept thistransformation. This is a transformation of a simple illiterate Barber into a technically equipped “HairDesigner”, an uneducated Tailor into a “Fashion Designer” and an uneducated footpath based untouchableshoe maker into a “Shoe Designer”. Therefore the concept of education has completely been transformed.New carrier options like B.P.O., Pharmaceutical sells and marketing etc. are being generated on the vergeof new economic reforms. But unfortunately the State of Bihar could not develop itself to adopt suchacademic professionalism. We could not attract the private investors to establish colleges in this regard.However there are so many students are adopting various options at the various centers of India fromBihar.
  25. 25. This can not be forgotten that the people of Bihar contributed in all sectors ofdevelopment during this phase of economic reforms. But when they are contributingin the process of development of other parts of the country, our political system hascompletely been failed to utilize the policy of economic reforms in this State. TheGovernment failed to attract the private investors to support the agro-basedindustries, in other words the Government of this State was not interested to providean environment of good governance, good administration, good infrastructure, goodacademic institutions, good health and all together a good quality of life.Our political planners were more serious in drawing a line of partition amongst thepeople on the basis of cast and religion. They are utilizing the uneducated and poorbrain as an agricultural baseline for their political crops; and some how despite ofthe fact that the people of this State are being migrated on large scale to other partsof the country. Due to lack of employment opportunity, they are divided on the lineof political ideologies.The Godfather of introducing the concept of “Social Justice” in this Statemistranslated the basic definition of social state. In the back stage of dividing thepeople on the line of cast and religion, the Government applied the mechanism ofsocial engineering to regain the power. The Government of the State draws adiscriminatory line between the casts and introducing the concept of Social Justicethrough uniting against the so called General Categories people, snapped by thetheir own elected Government as the “Fascist” people. The Government of the Statepresented the upper cast people as the driving force of fascism. They stareddispersing this poisonous sting of political enmity and hatred in our society. In thebackdrop of economic reforms, the State of Bihar was heading towards a politicalnaxalism as well as a social naxalism in Bihar.
  26. 26. In this project work, I would give my attention over the practical reasonof migration. Nevertheless I tried to gain a response of over 5000migrants from the various nature and occupations. I talked to get aresponse of a poor laborer to a well educated professional. In this wayI tried to know the reason of migration. I did not do it to complete myproject work. I have been writing on this aspect since last five years ormore. I traveled all across the country, but the hotspot migrant‟scenters for the people of Bihar are: Delhi, Surat, Mumbai, Kolkatta,Daman, Jalandhar, Chandigarh, Bangluru, Guwahati, Kanpur etc.Migrant categories are from all occupation but the migrants from laborclass and academic professional class are in majority. On the basis ofmy observations:
  27. 27. Chart 1
  28. 28. Unemployment in both organized and unorganized sector pushed a large number ofmigrants to move at various places for their livelihood options. Collapse of agriculturalsector and agro-based industries affected the farmer class as well as the labor classequally. Low and middle landholders could not compensate themselves in front of lossesthey do observe in farming. Agriculture is an expansive occupation, and the agriculture inthis particular State is facing serious power crisis. More than 75% of the rural villages arenot properly electrified. If there is electrification, there is no continuous supply of power.Even hike in Diesel oil prices as well as enhancing prices of hybrid and pioneered varietiesof seeds made the poor farmer to leave this occupation. Even after proper production ofcrops, there is very least adoptive means of crop management, lack of cold storage andpoor skilled marketing management; the farmers could not achieve maximum profit.Therefore, they turned to irrigate on minimum land for their individual necessaryrequirement, and most of the land are unirrigated. This was, they capitalize their foodrequirement of their family members, and the farmers moved to other places foremployment. This is a huge loss of economy to this State. Because the States of Punjab andHaryana are providing employment to our migrant labor forces through the occupation ofagriculture. Collapse in agriculture sector disintegrated our rural economy. Thisconsequently affected the labor class to move away from this State. Dismantled agro-basedindustries equally affected our farmer class, because most of the sugar mills, rice mills, jutemills etc are listed in sick industries, therefore there is a very best demand of sugar andjute in the market. Farmers have left behind the sugar and jute production. Presently mostof the Agro-based industrial corporations are on the verge of losses. The employees arenot getting continuous monthly payment. This pushes two-third of rural inhabitants turnedinto migrants.
  29. 29. Another sector that lists huge number of migration is our education sector. Within 15-20 years the Stateof Bihar has lost the culture of education. Public sector primary schools, Middle schools and High Schoolsare not so much infrastructural developed to even stand right behind the private schools. Due to lack ofteaching members as well as deficient infrastructure, the public sector schools are not propelling a goodquality of education. Lack of modern teaching skills as well as least accessibility of modern technologiesdeteriorated our basic education. The Government is crying on providing “Social Justice”. But they are verymuch playing with the poor brain. Poor quality of basic education in public schools is very much alarmingfor our rural students. In place of providing better quality of education, the education executives arepassing through a phase of communicable contamination of corruption. Large scale corruption in ourbasic education stands this State into a hub of cheaters and fake degree providers. Most of the times theGovernment fails to organize free and fair High school examination. This is the reason why the poor ruralstudents do not achieve the proper qualifications, so that they are compelled to adopt the occupation ofmigrant labors. The condition of higher education is equally suffering. This is why a record number ofstudents are moving outside to get the advanced form of modern technologically based education.Recently up to 2005 there has not been any establishment of new colleges or institution of excellence inthis State. Patna University, Magadha University, Bihar University, Bhagalpur University etc have lost theircredentials. Irregular sessions, lack of faculty teachers, cast based political groups, criminalization ofcollege campus, lack of discipline among teachers and students, corruption amongst the University staffsand officers, deficient University budget, irregular payment of teachers and University executives, lack ofresponsibility and accountability of faculty members lead to great disaster of education culture. Howevercurrent education system and social responses to academicians are also responsible for the degradation ofculture of education in this State students are least interested in accessing qualitative higher educationand their parents also desire the same. In place of quantitative education they are adopting quantitativemeans of education to deal with the approach of accessing employment. For this purpose large numbersof students are studying those materials that could push him towards the employment accessibility. This ishighly alarming for our education system, where a mindset up is developing with a society where anacademician who desires to get qualitative education, might turn to adopt the quantitative means ofeducation. This is happening because of the failure of the Government to develop a culture of education. Itis very necessary to the planners of the State that we could not generate an institution of excellence in themore than fifty years of Independence. This is an obvious region of migration of students.
  30. 30. Disaster vulnerability is also a major reason of migration. This is very unfortunate for a State of such fertilenatural resources could not develop a mechanism of flood mitigation. Flood management could not beprecisely adopted after over 60 years of independence. Water management can resolve the poverty of thisState and the State will be the most developed. Consequent floods and droughts in North Bihar region withan ultimate low quality of life pushed a huge number of migrants outside. Poor health and hygieneconditions, lack of pure drinking water also adds up pronounced vulnerability to the inhabitants to thedisaster of life.After 1990, with the advent of New Economic Reforms there had been the phase of renunciation of naxalideologies in the region of middle Bihar. Bhojpur, Buxar, Jahanabad, Gaya, Nalanda, Nawada, Sasaram etcdistricts were the main centers of evolving naxal ideologies. What was different from the orthodox conceptof naxalism {one against the Government‟s machinery} was that this is a cast based alignment. This wasdeveloped due to non implementation of proper Land Reforms Act. Various Naxal organizations startedrunning parallel to the State administration. These Naxal outfits started accessing political support. Thestate politicians started dragging the support of Naxalite organization for their political interest. This wasthe time when a land lord based Naxal outfit “Ranvir Sena” was established in 1994. The veryestablishment of sena was mainly to protest against Maoist Communist Center and the People‟s WarGroups. Large scale massacres occurred, killing innocent poor people of this State. This developedtremendous amount of fear among the farmers and poor laborers. What happened latter on, such naxaloutfits are puppet in the hand of political parties. They became completely politicized. Their parallelconquest to general administration hampered the process of development during the beginning ofeconomic reforms. This parallel encounter between the State administration and the naxal outfits sentcomplete wrong massages among the masses. The people of this State started developing a sense ofinsecurity that widely disseminated through out the region. This was against of the environment neededfor a private investor. In this phase the general administration was badly hurt, lost its control. This was thetime when criminalization of politics at its deepest roots. There also started a nexus between police andcriminals, resulted into a cast based criminalization. Kidnapping, cases of violence against women, loot,dacoity, demand of money etc. were the part and parcel pf great changes of terror in the society. Thiscreated havoc in the business classes. Large scale migration of business men started during 1995 to 2000.This was the period when the country‟s economy was shifting towards a liberalized set of privatization.This was the strongest reason of economic backwardness of this State because it worked as a barrierbetween economic reforms and private investment. Even there is still no change in the mind set up of theinvestors. Naxalism completely ruined our agricultural sector in the fertile land of Middle Bihar. This was acomplete deterioration of rural economy. Now onwards large scale migration of farmers and laborersrecorded.Poor infrastructural development, least industrialization created large scale unemployment in our ruralsocial sector, produced into a large scale migration of rural inhabitants.
  31. 31. Recent acts of violence against migrants of Bihar at various centers of India raise billion dolor questions ontheir contribution in the process of development of the city where they reside. In this project work I will tryto explain the ground reality of the laborers and the farmer migrants. When I talked to the farmer classmigrants in the State of Punjab and Haryana, I was very much surprised. Most of the migrants of this classmoved to the States of Punjab and Haryana for their livelihoods. They left the occupation of agriculture inthe State of Bihar and started farming on monthly income of on average Rs 3000 to 4000. This was theperiod of 1995-2005; both theses States recorded a large number of cheap migrant laborers. Farmerturned migrants actively adapted to the work of farmers. They were given food and lodgingaccommodations. Cheap laborers availability made agriculture least expansive in both the States. Recordhigh productions of wheat, rice, vegetables etc. have been observed during this phase. Large scale agrobased industries were set up. Land lords of Punjab and Haryana adopted a very skilled approach towardsthe crop management in terms of marketing and sells. Even they developed an advanced storage policies.Chain of public and private cold storages has been set up. Easy and cheap accessibility of migrant laborershelped them in the rearing, cutting and storage of crops as well as make it available to market on time.Development in agriculture sector started large scale development of infrastructure processes. This hasbrought the two States as a hotspot center of large scale private investment. Large scale mechanization inagriculture has been introduced in the State of Punjab and Haryana. Greater use of technologies inagriculture again created a livelihood crisis among the various migrants. They lost their employment.Again they are enforced to adopt an occupation of private guards and laborers in NCR and its fringe areas.I talked to almost over one thousand of such migrant classes in the States of Punjab and Haryana. Howevertheir role in the development of the State of Punjab and Haryana can not be denied, but when they shouldbe rewarded of their honest effort they were left off to adopt other occupations. Now the agriculture ofboth these States is being operated by the use of heavy machines. What is the worst than changing asettled occupation into a guard? Major problems arose during this transformation. Migrants are facingserious crisis of safe drinking water. Even on an average there are four to five migrants living in a singleroom. There are very poor conditions of health, hygiene and sanitation. This is the reason why themigrants are suffering from jaundice, typhoid, kalazar, malaria, respiratory ailments, tuberculosis, dengueetc.
  32. 32. This can not be denied of the fact that such migrant laborers are going through a phase ofendless problems. They are enforced to live under critical level of quality of life. Suchunorganized laborers are facing serious problems of hygiene, sanitation, water etc. Butthey do not have any option to live other than else where. They are thousand of kilometersaway from their family members. Many of them are married; they even make no contacts totheir counterpart and their children. I could read the frustration of mind of the migrantlaborers, who have been away from their wives since last a long period. The frustration ofnot having sexual contacts for longer duration, they are enforced to make sexual relationsto the prostitutes of the red areas. High amount of prevalence of sexually transmitteddiseases is being reported in them. But the major causes of concern are the ongoing dataanalysis of the prevalence of AIDS. This is a serious threat to the migrant laborers, becausethey are enforced to have a sexual contact to other women. Such innocent migrant laborersare unaware of the impact of this sexually transmitted disease. Even poor Rickshaw pullersare enforced to donate blood, which also increases the prevalence of diseases. Most of thetime there are no significant means for the Government‟s Health Department to diagnosethe AIDS patients. This is a serious threat to the health and hygiene of this country.Laborers those are HIV positive, might contaminate the virus into his wife and there havebeen instances of HIV contaminated wife, birth to HIV contaminated children. This is thegreatest challenge to our National AIDS Control Programme to trace out the HIV positivemigrant laborers.
  33. 33. Recent report of violence against the migrant laborers is a threat totheir lives and Wealth. When I tried to find out the reasons behind suchrecent attacks are very much political. Such migrant laborers work on acheap cost, and this was not acceptable to local traditional workersand laborers. They raised voices against the intrusion of such migrantforces and deliberately targeted such migrant laborers on the groundof language and regionalism. Many of them have lost their lives andenforced to return back to home. Major issues for such migrantunorganized forces are their security. The respective StateGovernments could not provide the proper means of security to suchlaborers, failed to accommodate a plan to dislodge such violence. Suchviolence Acts against laborers raised a great voice on the socialistic setup of democracy; and the implications on forms of belief in ourconstitution. If such acts can not be prevented, this will divide ournation on the ground of regionalism and linguistic discrimination. Thisis against of the sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic structureof the country. This is against of the justice listed in terms of social,economic and political in our constitution.
  34. 34. Another major migrants of the students categories are facing some howsimilar migratory problems. They are also facing health, hygiene, water andsanitary problems. Even after a payment of lakhs of rupees, the collegeauthority can not able to provide hostel having cross ventilated rooms.There are serious cases of water borne diseases have been reported in thestudents. I have talked to almost five hundred students, studying in DelhiUniversity, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Hotel Management and othermanagement institutions. Indian Institutes of technologies and otherstudents who are preparing for civil services and other competitions.
  35. 35. The students, who are studying at the various centers of India, aregiving tough competitions to the students of outsides and locals. Suchstudents are widely recognized and contributing their best as well asdischarging their duties with great amount of responsibility andaccountability however recent reports of violence against such migrantstudents are sending wrong messages to the outside. Such act ofviolence must be stopped and regretted.
  36. 36. Deterioration of economy begins with the movements of labor forces to the various cities ofthe country. Lack of infrastructural development and industrial development has declinedthe employment opportunity in this State. Parallel struggle of power between naxal outfitsand general administration created an environment of fear and danger among the largermasses. Naxal movements in Bihar push the farmers to leave the occupation of agriculturein the middle Bihar. Whosoever did not consider the threats of naxal outfits; they either lefttheir houses or massacred to loose their lives. Large scale migration of farmers occurred.This was the greatest loss to the economy of the State of Bihar. This was the phase duringwhich large scale migration of farmers and laborers occurred at the various places of thecountry. This was the phase economic deterioration of economy 0f rural Bihar. North Bihar is facing serious natural disaster of consequents flood and drought. Suchregions are heavily deteriorated on the scale of economy by the impact of consequentdrought and flood. Such regions are facing serious crisis of employment opportunity. Largescale rural inhabitants turned into migrants. Heavy losses to agriculture sector affected theagro based industries and allied sectors. Agro based industries are listed under sickindustries. This is a huge and incomparable loss to our economy. Major sugar mills andjute mills were closed due to deficient supply of raw materials. Heavy losses were recorded,resulted into complete closure of the industrial production unit. This reduced the chancesof employment opportunity in this State. The rural economy in particular experienced aheavy deterioration, because this was the period of agricultural meltdown. It was a period of incubation in the rural economy. Large scale migration of farmers andlaborers started moving to Delhi, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Karnal, Surat, Ahmedabad, Damanetc.
  37. 37. After the establishment of a new State of Jharkhand, the State of Bihar lost her control overthe rich mineral resources as well as the mineral based industries. This generated a hugecrisis of livelihoods among the poor rural laborers. The establishment of the State ofJharkhand has left the State of Bihar into a fertile land of regular floods and droughts.Poor infrastructural process of development and lack of administration planning are notable to utilize and mobilize the available natural resources. The Government of the Statecould not employ the Central Government‟s plan on poverty alleviation National RuralEmployment Guarantee Scheme has completely been failed in the State of Bihar to presentthe large scale migration of laborers.Labor forces are contributing their role into the development of the major cities of thecountry. They are available at the cheapest cost, and are being exploited by the majorconstruction houses. They heir them on cheap on cheap cost and took ten to twelve hoursof work. Large scale development projects are possible due to availability of large scalemigrant laborers. The Master plan of Delhi could be possible because of the presence ofcheap laborers. Large dam construction, heavy bridge construction, flyover construction,huge multiplexes and hotel construction, construction of apartments and molls in cities arealso possible because of the cheap availability of migrant labor forces. This is a widelyaccepted reality that the process of development on such a large scale in major metros andcities could be possible because of the availability of large scale labor migrants. Suchmigrant labor forces are playing a very significant role in strengthening the economicstructure of that State where such migrant labor forces reside. But they are not beingprovided a healthy income. Such migrant labor forces do not earn so much money to carryforward the burden of their family members, left behind their respective ancestral places.They are being exploited by the local contractors. The contractors do not pay their laboringcost on time. Any how, they adjust to send money to their family members; this money isnot too much so that the State might capitalize the economic losses of revenue bycompensating the return of money to the State.
  38. 38. Even after so much of hard labor, their high level of literacy again stands as a barrierin advancing their quality of life. Every where such migrant laborers are not utilizedin terms of their potential. Whatsoever they earn, they hardly save their income on anaverage 20% to 25% of the migrant labor forces, suffer from serious water bornediseases. There are the circumstances when such aforementioned labor migrantscarry heavy burden of debt that pushes them to adopt some illegal occupations.There are so many instances of arrest of migrant laborers due to their involvement incriminal activities. This has continuously been alarming for the migrants. Howevertheir role in the process of economic reforms in Delhi, Mumbai, Surat, Ahmedabad,Noida, Gaziabad, Chandigarh etc. can not be denied.Due to disaster in culture of education the State of Bihar experienced a large scalemigration of students. Major percentages of rural economy have been drained inallocating the income of parents to the educational institutions of outside. The Stateof Bihar could not develop an institution of excellence in the streams ofmanagement, engineering, law, medicines etc. This resulted into a large scalemigration of students to the various cities of the country, viz Delhi, Pune,Chandigarh, Dehradun, Agra, Bangaluru, Chennai, Hyderabad, Varanasi, Allahabad,Kolkatta, etc.Two third incomes of the parents are being drained to accommodate the expenditureon the study to such outside institution. The State of Bihar could not develop theeducation as a revenue resource; the State shall have to develop a culture ofeducation. Whenever the State will not develop a culture of education, this hugedeterioration of economy will still continue.
  39. 39. This is a very vital part of my project work; because when the master starts leaving off theschools the student will suffer at most. The serious effect of migration can be observed bystudying the mentality of the family members. In 80% cases the migrant‟s family iscomposed of the wife and children and the parents (if they alive). Therefore the family isrunning without the control of the earning member. When the wife is uneducated theirchildren do not access the proper means of education. In labor class family the wife worksin the field therefore she is not able to look after her children. When the wife is little bitliterate, she knows the importance of education. She admits her children into a school ofsuch standard where the income will allow. The husband sends money as par the amountof money saved after the expanse. In most of the family members the sent money does notfull-fill the demand of the essential daily necessary requirement but any how theycompensate the deficit through either work into the agricultural land or taking land on“Bataiya, Tihaiya, or Nagadi” for the purpose of agriculture. Any how they adjust to live insuch worst conditions of life. The wives of such migrant‟s pass through a phase of rigorousmental and physical depression. In most of the cases a poor labor family has an average offour children. The wife looks after the children but she herself left behind. In 5%-10% casesin villages, I observe that the wife of such migrant‟s laborer who does not overcome thephysical barrier decides to settle her life to other partner. In 2% to 3% cases I observe thatthe wife of a migrant left her children as well as home; she married to others and settledthere. This is a kind of frustration developing among the women whose husbands arethousands of miles away from home. Even the migrant‟s families are suffering from seriouswater, hygiene and sanitary disorders.
  40. 40. There are the instances when a child below 15 years of age is enforced towork as a migrant. What would be the state of mind of the family memberswhose children below 15 years of age migrate thousand of miles awayfrom their parents. They suffer through an extreme mental pressure whichcan not be measured or experienced through words.In recent years some reports disclose prevalence of HIV positive virus inthe migrant‟s wife and their children after birth. Extreme physicalpressures of being departed of their wives the migrants‟ males in big citiesestablish sexual relation to prostitutes or call girls. Through this way theystart suffering from deadly HIV-AIDS. When they return back to home afterduration their sexual relation to their wives might contaminate them withsuch deadly HIV positive virus. Such wives shall also suffer from HIV AIDSand even new born child might carry the HIV positive virus. This is one ofthe scaring realities of the aftermath scenario of the migrant‟s era. This is avery serious social issue which should countered through bringingawareness among such target groups of high prevalence of HIV virus. Thishas been highly alarming for the migrants‟ as well as their family. NationalAIDS Control Society would develop a combat Programme to address withthe issues of growing prevalence of HIV AIDS among the migrant‟s as wellas their families.
  41. 41. Mr. Nitish Kumar lead national Democratic Alliance Government came into power in the year 2005 and inthe Common Minimum Programme, major priorities have been set up. The first major challenge was tobring back the administration well on track. Second major objective was to attract investors of both foreignand Indian investors to set up industrial unit in the State of Bihar. The Government starts the process ofattracting the investors through calling directly the major Industrial houses of the country to invest in theState of Bihar. Third major objective was to recall the migrants‟ those have left the State of Bihar due tolack of employment opportunity. Another serious objective was to fulfill the basic infrastructuralrequirements, roads, power, safe drinking water, concrete homes and employment generation ofunorganized sector. The State of Bihar was in the state of migrants in terms of process of development.The New Government tried to regenerate the process of infrastructural development. There has beenstarted to a “Government to people contact” Programme. The Government tried to establish a societybased on no fear of danger and ill-will. One of the major challenges is to make the police administration,“people‟s friendly”. The State vigilance department has been made more pronounced to mitigate thecorruption in public life, District Magistrate to a Block Development Officer, top police officials to a generalpolice jaw an, other secretariat staffs and Government‟s service holders have been arrested by the StateVigilance police in the wake of encouraging environment of corruption in general public life. With theconstitution of the State Information Commission, the maintenance of transparency and accountability inpublic offices has been tried to establish through providing information regarding the functions of thevarious departments to general people of this State. The establishment of the State InformationCommission is very important in disseminating current information responsibility of vital posts to ageneral citizen of this State. S.I.C. is very instrumental in retrieving and collecting data and information forpublic importance. The Government established “Speedy Trial Court” and sent a strong massage to thegeneral people of this State that no one is higher in front of the eyes of judiciary and constitution of thecountry. Accelerated disposal of cases against MPs, M.L.As, M.L.Cs, naxalites, criminals and Governmentofficials revived the faith and confidence in system. Such efforts of the Government are widely recognizedby the Academicians and others responsible people of this country. The Government started to reconstructthe roads; and supervised the functioning of the company whosoever collected tenders of construction.Major emphasis has been given on the quality of material and engineering works; and will never evercompromise with the quality of construction. Large scale rural electrification Programme is being
  42. 42. There has been a drastic change in the Health sector. The State Government implied theNational Rural Health Mission Programme and Rajeev Gandhi National Drinking WaterMission, Total Sanitation Campaign together in collaboration of The State Public Health andEngineering Department and UNICEF. Such accumulated action of the Government helpedto enhance the quality of life of rural inhabitants. Implication of rural health Programmehas been widely recognized by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government ofIndia and other major International Health Organizations like World Health Organization,Red Cross Society etc. This Government is trying to regain the Structure of the RuralEconomy.What is important here in the State of Bihar is to create a work culture; and in developing awork culture environment, there would be a very strict policing administration that couldprovide a fearless environment. One of the major challenges in front of the Government isto bring dynamic changes in the policing of this State. It has not been a hidden fact that theState of Bihar could not attract the investors and big business houses to establish industrialunits. Instant police reforms are an immensely needed priority of This State. The worstpolice administration could not be a place of heaven for investors. The slow pace ofeconomic development retarded the growth of infrastructural development in the State ofBihar.What I have been experiencing since last three years of this N.D.A. Government thereoccurred some significant changes in the education sector. Lakhs of teachers wererecruited at the primary, high school as well as undergraduate courses; still the secondphase of the recruitment is in operation. This shows the intention of the Government tocreate a culture of education of education in the rural areas. The Decision of theGovernment to recruit teachers could be seen in this prospective of the policy requirementto the management of rural brains. Implementation of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, a 100%centrally aided Programme at the primary level has been firmly adopted. This Programme isvital in utilizing the rural resources in terms of Brain Management. Education is such a vitalsector of our economy in terms of developing human resources through the generation ofcreative innovation of mind at the rural level. This sector is capable of providingtremendous amount of employment opportunity.
  43. 43. The Government intention is to develop this State into an EducationHub seems to be highly appreciable. Recently The State Governmenttried to revive the “ancient concept of Global Education” through theestablishment of Global Nalanda University. While inaugurating thefoundation of the aforementioned University our former President(Hon‟ble) Dr. A.P.J. quoted“There is need to develop education as a resource to generateeconomy in this State”.Current Government of Bihar has established “Chanakya LawUniversity” and “Chandragupta Institute of Management”, which wouldbe a land mark step in developing a culture of education.But I am very much disappointed by the way The Government handledthe strikes of the University Staffs. The University staffs have beenstriking since last August to October. Entire business of the colleges ofall Universities disrupted and the Government was sleeping inbetween. I did not find that the Government was taking the policy ofhigher education seriously. Establishing new Universities can not solvethe problem areas of education. The Government should take stringentaction against the irregularities of college sessions.
  44. 44. Recent pace of infrastructural development is vital in providing greater amount ofemployment opportunity in organized as well as non-organized sector of economy.Implication of National Rural Employment Guarantee scheme is generating employment forlaborers. This might diminish the pace of migration. But whatsoever reports of the CentralGovernment, this Programme has not been so much successful because the State of Biharhas been black listed by the Ministry of Rural Development in the implementation ofNational Rural Employment Guarantee Programme.Present Government of the State of Bihar was elected after the 15 years rule of RashtriyaJanta Dal. Previous Government had completely been failed in establishing a welfare State.The State lost her historical glories. The culture of education was completely destroyed, thepeace and harmony between people was transformed into an applied Vote Bank Theory ofSocial Engineering. The people were divided on the line of cast and creed to establish SocialJustice. But the previous Government forgot the very concept of Social Justice that Socialjustice could be employed through a pattern of uniform economic development. SocialJustice does not mean to segregate the people of this State on the name of cast religion.Social Justice does not mean that the people of the State do not believe in the policeadministration. Establishment of Social Justice in a State depends on the opportunity ofemployment being provided to the listed categories under the Constitution of India. It wasvery unfortunate that the State of Bihar had been run by machinery that almost lost thecontrol over the State. This is not a hidden fact that Development process had completelybeen derailed during the era of the previous regime. There are huge expectations with thepresent National Democratic Alliance Government. But the pace of development is still veryslow and despite of a very conscious effort this Government is unable to create investmentfriendly environment. Whenever the process of infrastructural development will not get atuning with the development of industry, the migration will not be reduced.However the Present Government has made her presence through creating an environmentof work in all sector of the economy. Even the Government is successfully generating the
  45. 45. The Development of a State depends upon the better accessibility and potential to harness the naturalresources. This requires an advanced well-equipped scientific tools as well as a better adaptable brain.Value addition has been a significant aspect of rural development. Department of Rural Development isengaged in bringing about a rapid and sustainable development and socio-economic transformation inrural Bihar. During the last three years, foremost priority has been accorded to development in rural areas.Number of initiatives have been taken by this Ministry in the form of launch of new programmes,restructuring to earlier programme to make them more effective and promotion of participation of peoplein development process have been affected.To watch with economic liberalization and structural adjustments and to provide for safety net, especiallyfor rural poor, top priority has been accorded to Rural Development in terms of progressively increasingthe allocation of resources for the implementation of poverty alleviation programmes.For the development to be in consonance with the people‟s wishes and aspirations, the emphasis has alsobeen shifted towards participation of people in development process through Self-Help Groups andPanchayati Raj Institutions. Gram Sabha has been assigned important responsibilities to make it a vibrantforum of self-governance. Two main schemes one providing wage employment and the other for providingself-employment to rural inhabitants are under implementation to face the biggest challenge ofunemployment in the rural areas of the country.With the objectives to provide additional gainful employment in the rural areas as food security, alongsidecreation of durable community, social and economic infrastructure in the rural areas, the SampoornaGrameen Rozgar Yojna was launched. Such programmes are self targeting in nature with special emphasisto provide wage employment to women, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and parents of childrenwithdrawn from hazardous occupations.
  46. 46. The State Disaster Management Authority in Collaboration with the NationalDisaster Management Authority and other Non Governmental Organizations aswell as International Organizations, like United Nations DevelopmentProgramme, Catholic Relief Services, Red Cross Society, World HealthOrganization etc. should focus on water conservation, drought proofing, andland development and flood management and control.Ensuring rural connectivity is an important and integral part of overalldevelopment strategy of the Development of villages. Pradhan Mantri GramSadak Yojna, a 100% centrally sponsored scheme was launched on Dec 2000.The main aim of this project is to provide connectivity to all unconnectedhabitations in rural areas having population of more than 500 persons, throughgood all weather roads by the end of the 10th plan period. The State of Bihar isalso constructing large network of roads under the Mukhya Mantri Gram SadakYojna.Housing is one of the basic needs of mankind in terms of safety, security, selfesteem, social status, cultural identity, satisfaction and achievement. To providehouses to the poor shelter less and quickly cover and rural housing shortage,the Ministry has its flagship programme Indira Awas Yojna.One of the major problems in this State of Bihar is the non implication of properLand Reforms Act. The Government is also committed to have greater access oflandless rural poor to land through various initiatives pertaining to landreforms. In order to play an effective coordinating and advisory role for theimplementation of land reforms, the Government of the State of Bihar has setup Bandhopadhayai Committee for the better implementation of Land ReformsAct.
  47. 47. For the development of Bihar, special emphasis would be given to a better co-ordination and co-operationbetween the Centre and the State Government. The State should be given wider recognition in the subjectregarding natural disaster. The process of decentralization should be implemented with greateraccountability and transparency.There would be given prior attention to implicate the plan regarding the infrastructural development sothat there could be wider scope of employment generation. This will lead to reduction in the level ofmigration.My very objective is to promote Environmental Education amongst the rural and remote rural habitations ofthe State of Bihar. Environmental Education is a vital instrument to ignite the rural minds of the massesliving under extreme adverse physical conditions. They are facing severe problems of Water, Sanitation andHygiene. Eighty percent of the diseases probably occurred due to intake of impure water. However,Government of India is very conscious to provide pure and safe drinking water to our rural people throughRajeev Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission. The State Government‟s Public Health EngineeringDepartment in collaboration with UNICEF started to analyze the quality of water. Reports were highlyalarming. There have been reports of Arsenic contamination in water. Severe amount of Arsenic is found inthe underground water particularly in the Gangetic Belt of Bihar. There were reports of acute Arsenicpoisoning in the ten districts of the State of Bihar residing on the Gangetic plain. In those regions, theState Government adopted large scale sampling and analyzing the quality of water of the hand pumps. TheGovernment adopted some indicatory measures to prevent the people from acute arsinocosis. The handpump with arsenic contamination in water is colored “Red plus Marked” and without having contaminationis colored “Green plus Marked”. The “Green plus Marked” indicator is widely opened for drinking purpose.Even Iron contamination in water has been reported from various places of this State. The major questionis whether the people within those rural habitations are in a position to respond the Government‟sapproach? Are they aware of the impact of arsenic and iron contamination in the water? Is it sufficient toadopt coloring indicator technique to prohibit the intake of arsenic contaminated water? Whosoever theauthority would provide a resource based knowledge to the affected rural people? Does the plan of theGovernment transform completely into its implementation? What will be the long term objective toeliminate arsenic from the water? These all questions can easily be handled by accommodating anaccessible quality environmental education at formal as well as non-formal level. The broad transcriptionof all treatment measures needs an accountable and responsible of the implementation of the plan.Modern techniques of Education should be adopted into actions in terms of video films of the impact ofarsenic and iron poisoning on the health of life. Hundred percent transformations of such programmes aredependent on the community cooperation. There should be more and more community push up isrequired. The Government should invest maximum expanse to analyze the quality of water by enhancingthe coverage areas. More and more water samples should be taken for the quality treatment.
  48. 48. Sanitation is another major issue of our rural habitations. However the Government of India hasalready launched a very ambitious programme of “Total Sanitation Campaign” comprising the ruralsanitation as well as school sanitation. Sanitation is a state subject. Sanitation is linked with thedignity and secrecy of women as well as the quality of life. UNICEF is launching a “Nirmal GramPuraskar” to promote the efforts of Gram Panchayat and Non Governmental Organizations inproviding better sanitation. This is strictly a people‟s subject. Here the major factor is bringingmore and more people with such programmes. Social involvement through bringing properawareness about the hygiene and immunity by adopting better sanitation would be able to helpthe Government in implementing the programme on the ground.The problem of “Hygiene and Malnutrition” very much exists in our rural heartlands. Peopleresiding Below Poverty Line as well as Above Poverty Line are all suffering from malnutrition andhygiene problems. This is very unfortunate and disturbing for the largest democratic country ofthe world that the people are still dyeing due to extreme hunger. Unemployment is a majorproblem among the masses. Low land holdings and increasing prices on seeds, fertilizers, andirrigations have pushed the farmers of the State of Bihar towards the worst conditions of life. Theyare unable to provide even the minimum energy requirements to themselves. Consequently,extreme malnutrition is reported among the women of the family. This results into a poor growthof their children. Iron deficiency among the women and children are very common. Even thechildren after birth are found „anemic‟ in most of the cases. Vulnerability to consequent flood anddroughts pushes their lives towards extreme depression. Large scale labor migration to majorcities of the country is an unsound story of this state. Lack of industrial unit, poor infrastructuraldevelopment, lesser employment opportunity, and extreme cast based society, the Government‟sinefficiency to utilize and mobilize the existing resources also accelerate the process of migration.Recent cases of violence and killings of the laborers of Bihar in the different parts of the countryraise the question of safety and security of the poor laborers of this state. This is highly alarmingto the sovereignty of this country. The State Government should work on employment generationthat could generate economic resources. River water management should be the prime objectiveof the state. This would reduce the vulnerability of regular droughts and floods. Consequently theper capita out-put of agriculture would be enhanced and a time will come, when more and moreinvestment would be occurred that could resolve the problem of unemployment on large scale.
  49. 49. I completed my education in the shadow of the rural culture. I believe that the properEnvironmental education is the strongest tool to deliver maximum out-put in a veryminimum expanse. I could not get a proper platform where I could prove myself. Start frombeginning, I devoted myself on education, later on understanding the scope ofEnvironmental education; I put my maximum on promoting this subject. Man andEnvironment relation is an inborn connection that develops even within the mother‟s bodyas well as after birth. Once in a seminar, I asked a question to a four years old child, “Whatcould you get from a plant?” some of my friends told me, “What are you asking to thischild?” The child said “I get fruit, I get flower, and I get shadow.” I told my friends, “look andsee here the tree of Environmental education starts growing. Who says that these childrenare aware of the Environmental education? My dear friend this four years child is a masterin Environmental education. No one needs to teach Environmental education. We expertshould only upgrade the knowledge of environment relation to man.“Water, Sanitation and Hygiene” are the central theme to our Environmental education. Evenyour subject of research fellowship is related to the aforementioned issues. These resourcebased research would explore new ways to our rural developments. Research on “Sanitationand Hygiene” should be based on the efforts to ignite the brains of the masses and to bringsocial responsibilities through community participation. There should create a cordialenvironment so that the people could understand that these efforts of the Government aremeant for their uprising of the quality of life. Aforementioned approach is essential to dealwith the issues related to Mass Migration. To mitigate the problem of migration, specialfocus would be given on utilization and mobilization of natural resources of the State.----------------------------------*******-------------------------------

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