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Will Postgres Live Forever?

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Will Postgres Live Forever?

  1. 1. THE MOST COMPLETE OPEN SOURCE DATABASE PLATFORM © Copyright EnterpriseDB Corporation, 2018. All rights reserved. WILL POSTGRES LIVE FOREVER? Bruce Momjian Co-founder of the PostgreSQL Global Development Group Senior Database Architect at EnterpriseDB
  2. 2. © Copyright EnterpriseDB Corporation, 2018. All rights reserved.2 TODAY’S PRESENTER Bruce Momjian Bruce Momjian is co-founder and core team member of the PostgreSQL Global Development Group, and has worked on PostgreSQL since 1996. He has been employed by EnterpriseDB since 2006. He has spoken at many international open-source conferences and is the author of PostgreSQL: Introduction and Concepts, published by Addison-Wesley.
  3. 3. Will Postgres Live Forever? BRUCE MOMJIAN This presentation explains the long life of open source software, and the life cycle differences between proprietary and open source software. Title concept from Renee Deger Creative Commons Attribution License http://momjian.us/presentations Last updated: August, 2018 1 / 55
  4. 4. PostgreSQL the database… ◮ Open Source Object Relational DBMS since 1996 ◮ Distributed under the PostgreSQL License ◮ Similar technical heritage as Oracle, SQL Server & DB2 ◮ However, a strong adherence to standards (ANSI-SQL 2008) ◮ Highly extensible and adaptable design ◮ Languages, indexing, data types, etc. ◮ E.g. PostGIS, JSONB, SQL/MED ◮ Extensive use throughout the world for applications and organizations of all types ◮ Bundled into Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Ubuntu, CentOS, and most cloud providers 2 / 55
  5. 5. PostgreSQL the community… ◮ Independent community led by a Core Team of five ◮ Large, active and vibrant community ◮ www.postgresql.org ◮ Downloads, Mailing lists, Documentation ◮ Sponsors sampler: ◮ Red Hat, VMWare, NTT, Fujitsu, Amazon, and EnterpriseDB ◮ http://www.postgresql.org/community/ 3 / 55
  6. 6. EnterpriseDB the company… ◮ Leading worldwide provider of Postgres software and services ◮ More than 4,000 enterprises, governments, and other organizations worldwide ◮ EDB Postgres Platform with: ◮ PostgreSQL and EDB Postgres Advanced Server including additional enterprise functionaility ◮ Tool Suites for Management, Integration, and Migration, including High Availability and Disaster Recovery ◮ Professional Services, 24/7 global support, and Remote DBA ◮ Training and Certification ◮ Citizenship ◮ Contributor of key features: Materialized Views, JSON, & more ◮ Sixteen community members on staff 4 / 55
  7. 7. EnterpriseDB the company… 5 / 55
  8. 8. EDB Recognized 5 Years In a Row in Gartner’s Magic Quadrant 6 / 55
  9. 9. Outline 1. Forever 2. Software life cycle 3. Open source adoption 4. Postgres innovation 5. Community structure 6. Conclusion 7 / 55
  10. 10. 1. Forever https://www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/ 8 / 55
  11. 11. Forever Is a Long Time ◮ Age of the Universe: 13.7 billion years ◮ Age of the Earth: 4.5 billion years ◮ Age of civilization: 6,000 years ◮ Civilized era vs. Earth years: 0.00001% ◮ Digital era vs. Earth years: ~0% 9 / 55
  12. 12. Brief Digital History 1804: Jacquard loom 1945: ENIAC 1970: E. F. Codd Relational Theory 1974: System R 1977: Ingres 1986: University-based Postgres 1994: Postgres95 1996: Internet-based Postgres 10 / 55
  13. 13. 2. Software Life Cycle https://www.flickr.com/photos/tarynmarie 11 / 55
  14. 14. Proprietary Software Life Cycle 1. Innovation 2. Market growth 3. Market saturation 4. Maximize profit, minimize costs (development, support) 5. End-of-life 12 / 55
  15. 15. Open Source Software Life Cycle 1. Parity with proprietary software, low cost 2. Market growth 3. Continue innovation or decline 4. Source code is always available to continue 13 / 55
  16. 16. Proprietary Development Flow Developers Users Sales Testing/Retesting Release Fix Bugs Project Meetings Design Meetings Work in Isolation Receive Software Acceptance Tests Resolve Problems Install Production Resolve Issues 14 / 55
  17. 17. Open Source Development Flow Users Internet Developers Production Discuss Feature Release Beta Testing Fix Bugs Patch Review Apply / Testing Resolve Issues Propose Feature Testing Patch Review Beta Testing 15 / 55
  18. 18. Rise of Open Source Time Open Source Closed Source Features Performance Reliability 16 / 55
  19. 19. Linux Linux attained feature parity with: ◮ HP-UX ◮ AIX ◮ Solaris and then went on to innovate beyond them. 17 / 55
  20. 20. Postgres Postgres nearing feature parity with: ◮ Oracle ◮ DB2 ◮ MS-SQL ◮ Sybase, Informix, Ingres Corp. and then going on to innovate beyond them. 18 / 55
  21. 21. Many Focuses Keith Alsheimer, EnterpriseDB 19 / 55
  22. 22. When Does Software Die? ◮ Proprietary software dies when the owner of the source code can no longer profit from it. ◮ It declines long before death due to profit maximization. ◮ Open source cannot die in the same way. ◮ Open source remains active while it serves a purpose. ◮ It can always be resurrected if useful. ◮ Postgres was given new life in 1996. 20 / 55
  23. 23. Ideas Don’t Die 1. Ideas don’t die, as long as they are shared. 2. Ideas are shared, as long as they are useful. 3. Postgres will live, as long as it is useful. 21 / 55
  24. 24. 3. Open Source Adoption https://www.flickr.com/photos/99438314@N02/ 22 / 55
  25. 25. Open Source Survey, 2016 When the first survey launched 10 years ago, hardly anyone would have predicted that open source use would be ubiquitous worldwide just a decade later, but for many good reasons that’s what happened. Its value in reducing development costs, in freeing internal developers to work on higher-order tasks, and in accelerating time to market is undeniable. Simply put, open source is the way applications are developed today. Lou Shipley President And CEO Black Duck Software https://www.slideshare.net/blackducksoftware/ 2016-future-of-open-source-survey-results 23 / 55
  26. 26. Advantages of Open Source 1. Competitive features, innovation 2. Freedom from vendor lock-in 3. Quality of solutions 4. Ability to customize and fix 5. Cost 6. Speed application development 7. Reduce development costs 8. Interoperability 9. Breadth of solutions https://www.slideshare.net/blackducksoftware/ 2016-future-of-open-source-survey-results 24 / 55
  27. 27. Open Source Today Open source today is unequivocally the engine of innovation; whether that’s powering technology like operating systems, cloud, big data or IoT, or powering a new generation of open source companies delivering compelling solutions to the market. Paul Santinelli General Partner North Bridge https://www.slideshare.net/blackducksoftware/ 2016-future-of-open-source-survey-results 25 / 55
  28. 28. Open Source Usage, 2016 1. Operating Systems 2. Database 3. Development tools Database didn’t appear in the top three the previous year’s survey (2015). https://www.slideshare.net/blackducksoftware/ 2016-future-of-open-source-survey-results 26 / 55
  29. 29. 4. Postgres Innovation https://www.flickr.com/photos/tomas_vondra/ 27 / 55
  30. 30. Relational Innovation ◮ E. F. Codd introduces relational theory ◮ Row, column, table ◮ Constraints ◮ Normalization, joins ◮ Replaces key/value data storage systems ◮ Pre-Postgres https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_F._Codd 28 / 55
  31. 31. University Postgres Innovation ◮ Michael Stonebraker creates university Postgres ◮ Allows extendability via system table contents: ◮ Data types ◮ Indexing methods ◮ Server-side languages https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Stonebraker 29 / 55
  32. 32. Postgres Extendability starelid staattnum staop pg_statistic oprleft oprright oprresult oprcom oprnegate oprlsortop oprrsortop oprcode oprrest oprjoin pg_operator typrelid typelem typinput typoutput typbasetype pg_type prolang prorettype pg_proc pg_rewrite ev_class datlastsysoid pg_database tgfoid tgrelid pg_trigger inhrelid pg_inherits inhparent pg_language pg_namespacepg_depend pg_shadow pg_aggregate aggfinalfn aggtransfn aggfnoid aggtranstype castsource casttarget pg_cast castfunc pg_description pg_constraint contypid pg_conversion conproc amopopr amopclaid pg_attribute indexrelid attnum amopclaid atttypid indrelid pg_attrdef pg_group adrelid pg_index adnum pg_am pg_amop amgettuple reltoastidxid aminsert reltoastrelid amcostestimate amproc ambeginscan pg_amproc amrescan relfilenode amendscan relam ammarkpos reltype amrestrpos pg_class ambuild opcdeftype ambulkdelete pg_opclass attrelid 30 / 55
  33. 33. Postgres Extension Data Type CREATE EXTENSION isn; dT List of data types Schema | Name | Description --------+--------+-------------------------------------------------- public | ean13 | International European Article Number (EAN13) public | isbn | International Standard Book Number (ISBN) public | isbn13 | International Standard Book Number 13 (ISBN13) public | ismn | International Standard Music Number (ISMN) public | ismn13 | International Standard Music Number 13 (ISMN13) public | issn | International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) public | issn13 | International Standard Serial Number 13 (ISSN13) public | upc | Universal Product Code (UPC) http://momjian.us/main/writings/pgsql/central.pdf 31 / 55
  34. 34. Postgres Server-Side Languages ◮ PL/Java ◮ PL/Perl ◮ PL/pgSQL (like PL/SQL) ◮ PL/PHP ◮ PL/Python ◮ PL/R (like SPSS) ◮ PL/Ruby ◮ PL/Scheme ◮ PL/sh ◮ PL/Tcl ◮ PL/v8 (JavaScript) ◮ SPI (C) http://momjian.us/main/writings/pgsql/central.pdf 32 / 55
  35. 35. Postgres Index Types ◮ BRIN ◮ BTREE ◮ Hash ◮ GIN (generalized inverted index) ◮ GiST (generalized search tree) ◮ SP-GiST (space-partitioned GiST) http://momjian.us/main/writings/pgsql/indexing.pdf 33 / 55
  36. 36. Postgres Innovation: Full Text Search ◮ Supports full text search capabilities in a relational database ◮ Whole-word, word prefix, and, or, and not searches ◮ Stemming for 15 languages ◮ Pg_trgm extension allows search of letter combinations and similarity ◮ Specialized indexing, operators, and functions ◮ Full transaction semantics http://momjian.us/main/writings/pgsql/non-relational.pdf 34 / 55
  37. 37. Postgres Innovation: Full Text Search EXPLAIN SELECT line FROM fortune WHERE to_tsvector(’english’, line) @@ to_tsquery(’pandas’); QUERY PLAN ------------------------------------------------------------------… Bitmap Heap Scan on fortune (cost=12.41..94.25 rows=21 width=36) Recheck Cond: (to_tsvector(’english’::regconfig, line) @@ to_ts… -> Bitmap Index Scan on fortune_idx_ts (cost=0.00..12.40 rows… Index Cond: (to_tsvector(’english’::regconfig, line) @@ t… 35 / 55
  38. 38. Postgres Innovation: NoSQL ◮ Supports NoSQL capabilities in a relational database ◮ Mix structured and unstructured data in the same row and query; the best of both worlds ◮ Specialized indexing, operators, and functions ◮ Full transaction semantics http://momjian.us/main/writings/pgsql/yesql.pdf 36 / 55
  39. 39. Postgres Innovation: NoSQL EXPLAIN SELECT data->>’last_name’ FROM friend2 WHERE data::jsonb @> ’{"first_name" : "Jane"}’ ORDER BY 1; QUERY PLAN ----------------------------------------------------------------… Sort (cost=24.03..24.04 rows=1 width=139) Sort Key: ((data ->> ’last_name’::text)) -> Bitmap Heap Scan on friend2 (cost=20.01..24.02 rows=1 … Recheck Cond: (data @> ’{"first_name": "Jane"}’::jsonb) -> Bitmap Index Scan on friend2_idx (cost=0.00..20.01 …… Index Cond: (data @> ’{"first_name": "Jane"}’::js… 37 / 55
  40. 40. Postgres Innovation: Range Types ◮ Combines start and stop times into a single field ◮ Allows sophisticated indexing and comparisons ◮ Allows automatic range overlap prevention http://momjian.us/main/writings/pgsql/non-relational.pdf 38 / 55
  41. 41. Postgres Innovation: Range Types EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM car_rental WHERE time_span @> ’2007-08-01 00:00:00’::timestamptz; QUERY PLAN ----------------------------------------------------------------… Index Scan using car_rental_idx on car_rental (cost=0.15..8.17… Index Cond: (time_span @> ’2007-08-01 00:00:00-04’::timestamp… 39 / 55
  42. 42. Postgres Innovation: Geometric Types ◮ Handle multi-dimensional data ◮ Points ◮ Lines ◮ Circles ◮ Polygons ◮ Multi-dimensional indexing and operators ◮ Allows efficient nearest neighbor searches ◮ Avoids using a separate geometric data store http://momjian.us/main/writings/pgsql/non-relational.pdf 40 / 55
  43. 43. Postgres Innovation: Geometric Types EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM dart ORDER BY location <-> ’(50, 50)’::point LIMIT 2; QUERY PLAN -------------------------------------------------------------… Limit (cost=0.14..0.33 rows=2 width=20) -> Index Scan using dart_idx on dart (cost=0.14..92.14… Order By: (location <-> ’(50,50)’::point) 41 / 55
  44. 44. Postgres Innovation: GIS ◮ PostGIS is a full-featured Geographical Information System (GIS) ◮ Implemented as a extension ◮ Independent development team and community https://postgis.net/ 42 / 55
  45. 45. Postgres Innovation: GIS SELECT ST_Area(the_geom)/10000 AS hectares FROM bc_municipality WHERE name = ’PRINCE GEORGE’; hectares ------------------ 32657.9103824927 43 / 55
  46. 46. Postgres Innovation: Foreign Data Wrappers ◮ 100+ interfaces to foreign data ◮ Read/write ◮ Sophisticated push down of joins, sorts, and aggregates http://momjian.us/main/writings/pgsql/central.pdf 44 / 55
  47. 47. Postgres Innovation: Foreign Data Wrappers Postgres ora_tab tw_tab mon_tab MongoDB Twitter Oracle 45 / 55
  48. 48. Postgres Innovation: Data Analytics ◮ Aggregates ◮ Optimizer ◮ Server-side languages, e.g. PL/R ◮ Window functions ◮ Bitmap heap scans ◮ Tablespaces ◮ Data partitioning ◮ Materialized views ◮ Common table expressions (CTE) ◮ BRIN indexes ◮ GROUPING SETS, ROLLUP, CUBE ◮ Parallelism ◮ Sharding (in progress) http://momjian.us/main/writings/pgsql/central.pdf 46 / 55
  49. 49. Postgres Innovation: Data Analytics Network Data WarehousePrimary /pg_wal/pg_wal 47 / 55
  50. 50. Postgres Innovation: Sharding ◮ Allows multi-host databases ◮ Uses existing functionality ◮ Partitioning ◮ Parallelism ◮ Foreign data wrappers ◮ Logical replication ◮ Needs new functionality ◮ Global transaction manager ◮ Global snapshot manager http://momjian.us/main/writings/pgsql/sharding.pdf 48 / 55
  51. 51. Postgres Innovation: Sharding 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 111111111111111111111111 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 SQL Queries SQL Queries PG FDW Foreign Server Foreign Server Foreign Server 49 / 55
  52. 52. 5. Community Structure https://www.flickr.com/photos/tomas_vondra/ 50 / 55
  53. 53. Community Structure ◮ BSD license guarantees software will be available forever, including for proprietary use. ◮ Development and leadership is diversified geographically, culturally, and is multi-company. 51 / 55
  54. 54. Still Going Strong ◮ 32 years of development ◮ 22 years of annual major releases ◮ ~180 features per major release ◮ Quarterly minor releases ◮ Most-loved relational database ◮ https://insights.stackoverflow.com/survey/2018/# technology-most-loved-dreaded-and-wanted-databases 52 / 55
  55. 55. PgLife http://pglife.momjian.us 53 / 55
  56. 56. Additional Resources… ◮ Postgres Downloads: ◮ www.enterprisedb.com/downloads ◮ Product and Services information: ◮ info@enterprisedb.com 54 / 55
  57. 57. 6. Conclusion http://momjian.us/presentations https://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/ 55 / 55
  58. 58. © Copyright EnterpriseDB Corporation, 2018. All rights reserved.3 EDB POSTGRES COMPARED TO SELF-SUPPORTED PostgreSQL EDB Postgres™ Platform adds additional features, capabilities and support around the PostgreSQL database including: The key differences : • Increased security • Enterprise-ready tools • Oracle® compatibility features • More deployment options • Enhanced integration • Enhanced DBA and Developer productivity • PostgreSQL community leadership • 24x7 “Follow-the-Sun” support
  59. 59. © Copyright EnterpriseDB Corporation, 2018. All rights reserved.4 www.EnterpriseDB.com/DOWNLOADS
  60. 60. © Copyright EnterpriseDB Corporation, 2018. All rights reserved. EDB Migration Portal combines First online portal for Oracle to Postgres Native Oracle compatibility • Schemas • DB Code • CDC-based replication • Application interfaces Rich knowledge base from 10+ years of migrations Augmented by crowd-sourcing Machine learning of new code translations EDB MIGRATION PORTAL: The Fastest Way Off of Oracle in the Cloud
  61. 61. © Copyright EnterpriseDB Corporation, 2018. All rights reserved.6
  62. 62. © Copyright EnterpriseDB Corporation, 2018. All rights reserved. QUESTIONS info@edbpostgres.com 7
  63. 63. © Copyright EnterpriseDB Corporation, 2018. All rights reserved. THANK YOU

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