Draft/test for ANTH326 Meeting 8

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Draft/test for ANTH326 Meeting 8

  1. 1. ANTH326 Peoples and Cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa Meeting 8, October 29, 2007
  2. 2. Business <ul><li>Media Critique (due next Monday) </li></ul><ul><li>Final Examination: Dec. 7, 14:00-17:00, H433 </li></ul><ul><li>Owusu and Diop Themes (teams) </li></ul><ul><li>Identity and Ethnography </li></ul><ul><li>Owusu and Diop Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Project Plans </li></ul>
  3. 3. Themes <ul><li>Team reporter </li></ul><ul><li>Explain theme </li></ul><ul><li>Active reading </li></ul><ul><li>Links with course </li></ul>
  4. 4. Identity
  5. 5. Social Identity <ul><li>Core of social sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Insiders/outsiders </li></ul><ul><li>Belonging/contrasting </li></ul><ul><li>“ We-ness” (Sch ü tz) / Distinction(Bourdieu) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nativeness <ul><li>Born on site </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous </li></ul><ul><li>Territory </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>Native-speakers </li></ul><ul><li>As ethnographers </li></ul>
  7. 7. “ Is African” / “Is Western” <ul><li>Origins? </li></ul><ul><li>Representative? </li></ul><ul><li>Typical? </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Otherness in ethnography <ul><li>Differences and similarities </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity and universality </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing wholes </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis of representation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Configuration <ul><li>Fit together </li></ul><ul><li>Fluidity </li></ul><ul><li>Other possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Appiah at Pop!Tech on “Golden Nugget” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ethnography
  11. 11. Ethnographic Disciplines <ul><li>Ethnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Folkloristics </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnomusicology </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnomethodology (sociology) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ethnographic Methods <ul><li>Review of literature </li></ul><ul><li>Language learning </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary fieldwork </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive field stay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant-observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended interviews </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Insight <ul><li>Understand </li></ul><ul><li>Grok </li></ul><ul><li>“ Got it” </li></ul><ul><li>Possible predictive value </li></ul><ul><li>Alexis de Tocqueville on America </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cultural Translation <ul><li>Get others to understand </li></ul><ul><li>“ Spirit/letter of the culture” </li></ul><ul><li>Implied otherness </li></ul>
  15. 15. Building Models <ul><li>Testing models </li></ul><ul><li>Empiricism </li></ul><ul><li>Forest, not trees </li></ul><ul><li>“ Two Crows denies it” (Dorsey's disclaimer) </li></ul><ul><li>All Grammars Leak (Sapir 1921:39) </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul>
  16. 16. Language in ethnography <ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>No use for interpreter </li></ul><ul><li>Could translate Proust? </li></ul><ul><li>Length of stay </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ngolo Diarra Enters the Field <ul><li>Ethnomusicology, linguistic anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in “griots” </li></ul><ul><li>Bamanan learning </li></ul><ul><li>Hunter-musician Madou Diarra </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis on proper names </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary field trip </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing rapport </li></ul>
  18. 18. Owusu
  19. 19. Early Ethnographers <ul><li>Foundation African studies </li></ul><ul><li>“ [H]ectic anthropological activity </li></ul><ul><li>Then-contemporary ethnography </li></ul><ul><li>European audience </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial context </li></ul><ul><li>Useless as useful </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sacred cows” ( ad hominem ) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Science <ul><li>Objectivity, bias </li></ul><ul><li>Informant bias </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling (opportunistic or random) </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy or significance </li></ul><ul><li>Briggs Learning How to Ask </li></ul>
  21. 21. Romanticism <ul><li>Assumed logic </li></ul><ul><li>(Real/Wise Africa?) </li></ul><ul><li>American and European anthropologies </li></ul><ul><li>Hunches as accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Vogues </li></ul><ul><li>“ [T]ribal Bible” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Segmentary societies” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Owusu on Language <ul><li>Language, dialects </li></ul><ul><li>Acculturation, contact languages </li></ul><ul><li>“ Translation of cultures” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Separate worlds” </li></ul><ul><li>Hale on linguistic anthropologists </li></ul>
  23. 23. Uses of Ethnography <ul><li>Insight (Tocqueville) </li></ul><ul><li>Generalisable science </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue between Africanists </li></ul><ul><li>(Native-speaking) African ethnographers </li></ul>
  24. 24. Post-Owusu Context <ul><li>Post-/Neo-Colonial </li></ul><ul><li>Post-/Neo-National </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in African interest (parallel Keim) </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis of representation ( Writing Culture ) </li></ul><ul><li>Journalists, audiences, responsibility </li></ul>
  25. 25. What Now? <ul><li>Self-assurance (“much better now”)? </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge bias </li></ul><ul><li>Privilege dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting discourse </li></ul><ul><li>“ Snowball” sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Data cheapness </li></ul><ul><li>Emic/etic </li></ul>
  26. 26. Project Plans
  27. 27. Project Plans <ul><li>Focus on improving work </li></ul><ul><li>Aim at insight </li></ul><ul><li>Connect with course </li></ul><ul><li>Learning experience </li></ul><ul><li>Strong suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Similarities between projects </li></ul>
  28. 28. Social Groups
  29. 29. Beyond Kinship <ul><li>Defining social groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solidarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communitas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity as super-kinship </li></ul><ul><li>Kindreds (selected kins) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sodalities” </li></ul><ul><li>Associations </li></ul>
  30. 30. Age Sets and Age Grades <ul><li>Age Set as Cohort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Oldboy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>«Promotionneur» </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age Grades as Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rites of passage (van Gennep) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Separate genders </li></ul>
  31. 31. Secret societies <ul><li>Initiation societies </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim brotherhoods (sufism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tijaniyya </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freemasons </li></ul>
  32. 32. Voluntary Associations <ul><li>Social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Urban life </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ethnic“ </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmopolitan networks </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties </li></ul>
  33. 33. Media <ul><li>Coming to America </li></ul><ul><li>Soul Man </li></ul><ul><li>Videoclips </li></ul>
  34. 34. Westernization <ul><li>Cultural Contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coerced or voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western-like but typically African </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other partners </li></ul>
  35. 35. Education <ul><li>School types (Koranic, Missionary, National) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal education </li></ul><ul><li>“ Western-style” </li></ul><ul><li>Obsession with literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power of orality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Generation gap </li></ul>

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