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Anth326mtg3

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Anth326mtg3

  1. 1. ANTH326 Peoples and Cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa Meeting 3, September 24, 2007
  2. 2. <ul><li>Toward critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus opinion from African studies </li></ul>Factoids again
  3. 3. <ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OLPC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portal </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Bantu Languages </li></ul>Wikipedia of Africa
  4. 4. <ul><li>More Than 1000 Articles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>77. Afrikaans : af (8281) (IE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>89. Swahili : sw (5982) (Bantu) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>101. Yoruba : yo (4072) (Benue Congo) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>113. Amharic : am (2989) (Semitic) </li></ul></ul>In African languages
  5. 5. <ul><li>147. Lingala : ln (808) (Bantu) </li></ul><ul><li>152. Wolof : wo (444) (Atlantic) </li></ul><ul><li>154. Igbo: ig (418) (Benue Congo) </li></ul><ul><li>170. Malagasy: mg (291) (Malayo Polynesian) </li></ul><ul><li>172. Somali: so (288) (Cushitic) </li></ul><ul><li>176. Kongo: kg (270) (Bantu) </li></ul>Less than 1000 articles
  6. 6. Less Than 200 Articles <ul><li>188. Oromo: om (184) (Cushitic) </li></ul><ul><li>189. Tigrinya: ti (177) (Semitic) </li></ul><ul><li>191. Ewe: ee (175) (Kwa/Gbe) </li></ul><ul><li>198. Bambara : bm (138) (Mande) </li></ul><ul><li>203. Zulu: zu (107) (Bantu) </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Particularism/Universalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluidity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack fixed boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate identity </li></ul></ul>African Specificity
  8. 8. <ul><li>Alternative to votes </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Argument </li></ul><ul><li>Debate </li></ul><ul><li>«Arbre à palabres» (“Talking Tree”) </li></ul>“Consensus culture”
  9. 9. <ul><li>Ecological concept </li></ul><ul><li>Central/Eastern/Southern (more than North/West) </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful influence more than invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Intermarriage </li></ul>Symbiosis
  10. 10. <ul><li>Agriculturalists/foragers </li></ul><ul><li>State/bands </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread religions, local belief systems </li></ul>Coexistence
  11. 11. <ul><li>Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>City </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul>Intensification
  12. 12. <ul><li>Similar to archeology </li></ul><ul><li>Dark Continent </li></ul><ul><li>Remnants </li></ul>Older African studies
  13. 13. <ul><li>Sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Languages </li></ul><ul><li>Social structure </li></ul>Identifiable &quot;cultures&quot;
  14. 14. <ul><li>Iron age as if stage </li></ul><ul><li>Civilization (Game) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear evolution ( Tech Tree ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prerequisites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compete </li></ul></ul>Technological Evolutionism
  15. 15. Lamphear/Falola
  16. 16. <ul><li>Kingdoms/empires </li></ul><ul><li>Forced confederacies </li></ul><ul><li>Loose organisation </li></ul>History of states
  17. 17. <ul><li>Small groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessarily connected identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nomadic groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pastoralists (herders) </li></ul></ul>Non-State
  18. 18. <ul><li>Nilotes (Nilo-Saharan) </li></ul><ul><li>Cushitic-speaking (Nilo-Saharan) </li></ul><ul><li>Bantu-speakers (Niger-Congo) </li></ul><ul><li>Mande speakers (Niger-Congo) </li></ul><ul><li>San/Khoisan (&quot;click&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Sudanic languages (outdated classification) </li></ul>Large cultural groups
  19. 19. <ul><li>Afro-Asiatic (including Semitic languages) </li></ul><ul><li>Khoisan (including “click” languages) </li></ul><ul><li>Niger-Congo (including Bantu languages) </li></ul><ul><li>Nilo-Saharan (including Songhay, Maasai, Kanuri) </li></ul>Language families
  20. 20. <ul><li>Ease borrow language </li></ul><ul><li>Trade languages </li></ul><ul><li>Speech communities </li></ul><ul><li>Not inter-communication </li></ul>Language families as cultures?
  21. 21. <ul><li>Next two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Age-Sets </li></ul><ul><li>Age-Grades </li></ul><ul><li>Lineages </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Mother </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans </li></ul>Social Structure
  22. 22. <ul><li>Cosmopolitan networks </li></ul><ul><li>Urban life </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ethnic&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Schools (Koranic, Missionary, National) </li></ul>Associations
  23. 23. <ul><li>Initiation societies </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim brotherhoods (sufism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tijaniyya </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freemasons </li></ul>Secret societies
  24. 24. <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food crops (subsistence farming) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intercontinental contacts </li></ul>Geography
  25. 25. Gellar
  26. 26. <ul><li>Industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion </li></ul>Scramble
  27. 27. <ul><li>Amadou Hampaté Bâ </li></ul><ul><li>Colonials not seeing power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even recent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experience abroad </li></ul>Colonial Experience
  28. 28. <ul><li>Colonial past </li></ul><ul><li>Fanon's critique </li></ul><ul><li>Hegemony </li></ul><ul><li>Egalitarian because Post-Colonial structures? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solway and Lee </li></ul></ul>Anthropology's Critique of Colonialism
  29. 29. <ul><li>Created or reinforced by colonials </li></ul><ul><li>Region </li></ul><ul><li>Trade language </li></ul><ul><li>Community of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Spurious? </li></ul>Defining groups

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