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ANTH326 Meeting 9 (Final)

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ANTH326 Meeting 9 (Final)

  1. 1. ANTH326 Peoples and Cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa Meeting 9, November 5, 2007
  2. 2. Business <ul><li>Media Critique </li></ul><ul><li>Critical reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Journal </li></ul><ul><li>Blog entries </li></ul><ul><li>FIFEQ.ca (FFEM), November 15 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Last stretch <ul><li>Reached important point </li></ul><ul><li>Making links </li></ul><ul><li>Bring everything together </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure understand </li></ul><ul><li>Dangling issues </li></ul>
  4. 4. Southall and Ranger
  5. 5. Team 1 <ul><li>Self-definition based on outsider </li></ul><ul><li>False categories in anthro </li></ul><ul><li>Tribes don’t exist, isolated pre-colonial </li></ul><ul><li>Different terms </li></ul><ul><li>European imposition tradition on Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Problems caused </li></ul><ul><li>Applied by Africans the4mselves </li></ul>
  6. 6. Team 2 <ul><li>Dangers of categorisation </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism/tribalism </li></ul><ul><li>What can do? Should/shouldn’t categorise </li></ul>
  7. 7. Team 3 <ul><li>Different definitions of tribe, can’t adhere </li></ul><ul><li>Identify own or outside name </li></ul><ul><li>Away from stereotypical of tribe, behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Results of colonialism in history of tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation by colonials </li></ul>
  8. 8. Team 4 <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Blurring boundaries, Features </li></ul><ul><li>Tribe in larger </li></ul><ul><li>Divide to rule, creating difference </li></ul><ul><li>“ Real” Africa/Africans </li></ul><ul><li>Outdated concept in contemporary world (state) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender bias in recording tradition </li></ul>
  9. 9. British Social Anthropology <ul><li>Emeriti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LSE (then Madison), Oxford </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nationalism, ethnicity, tribalism </li></ul><ul><li>Southeastern Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southall on Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranger in Zimbabwe, Tanzania </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ranger’s Invention of Tradition with Hobsbawm, 1983 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Social Groups
  11. 11. Beyond Kinship <ul><li>Defining social groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solidarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communitas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity as super-kinship </li></ul><ul><li>Kindreds (selected kins) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sodalities” (age sets) </li></ul><ul><li>Associations </li></ul>
  12. 12. Secret societies <ul><li>Initiation societies </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim brotherhoods (sufism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tijaniyya </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freemasons </li></ul>
  13. 13. Voluntary Associations <ul><li>Social networks </li></ul><ul><li>Urban life </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ethnic“ </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmopolitan networks </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties </li></ul>
  14. 14. Group Identity <ul><li>Identity as us/them </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed/created/invented </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiated/fluid/flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Leading to conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Schisms and mergers </li></ul>
  15. 15. War and Peace <ul><li>War as “violent resolution to conflict” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between groups (however defined) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peace as “normal state of system” </li></ul><ul><li>Pacifist tendency among anthropologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic and personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatic and principled </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. States
  17. 17. Defining States? <ul><li>Centralised control </li></ul><ul><li>Nation-state with trade </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Internationally recognised political entity </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty as legal rights, rule over citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnically diverse </li></ul>
  18. 18. Characteristics of States <ul><li>Pre-/Post-Industrial </li></ul><ul><li>Centralisation </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Currency </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Formality </li></ul>
  19. 19. Colonialism <ul><li>“ Real” Africa/Africans </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation by colonials </li></ul><ul><li>Gender bias in recording tradition </li></ul><ul><li>European imposition tradition on Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Results of colonialism in history of tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Problems caused </li></ul><ul><li>Divide to rule, creating difference </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism/tribalism </li></ul>
  20. 20. Anthropological Categorisation <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Dangers of categorisation </li></ul><ul><li>False categories in anthro </li></ul><ul><li>Different terms </li></ul><ul><li>Different definitions of tribe, can’t adhere </li></ul><ul><li>What can do? Should/shouldn’t categorise </li></ul>
  21. 21. Define Self/Other (Esoteric/Exoteric) <ul><li>Self-definition based on outsider </li></ul><ul><li>Identify own or outside name </li></ul><ul><li>Applied by Africans themselves </li></ul>
  22. 22. Tribe in larger <ul><li>Tribes don’t exist, isolated pre-colonial </li></ul><ul><li>Outdated concept in contemporary world (state) </li></ul><ul><li>Away from stereotypical of tribe, behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Blurring boundaries, Features </li></ul>

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