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  1. 1. Assignment # 1 Production & Operation Management ALI RAZA Reg. ID: CIIT/BEC-FA10-014/LHR Submitted To: Mahammad Fahad Javaid COMSATS Institute of Information and Technology
  2. 2. 1. What is Management?    Management is an individual or a group of individuals that accept responsibilities to run an organization. The process of Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling to achieve organizational goals. Management in business and organizations means to coordinate the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives using available resources (Resources include people, skills, know-how and experience, machinery, raw materials, computers and IT, financial capital, and loyal customers and employees) During production, Production managers are involved with the planning, coordination and control of manufacturing processes. They ensure that goods and services are produced efficiently and that the correct amount is produced at the right cost and level of quality. Production manager responsibilities include:     Setting up and implementing financial monitoring systems Controlling production expenditure Monitoring and controlling the progress of productions Overseeing production paperwork, such as releases, call sheets, and daily progress reports Management also includes recording and storing facts and information for later use or for others within the organization. Management functions are not limited to managers and supervisors. Every member of the organization has some management and reporting functions as part of their job. A good Manager should have following qualities Leadership Problem solving Sound decision making Organizing activities Planning activities Team player Critical thinking Cross-cultural skills Oral & written communication Computer literacy Flexibility Directing activities and staff 2. What is the Definition of Management? According to Henri Fayol (a mining engineer) "To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control." Management defined as the organization and coordination of the activities of an enterprise (project) in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined objectives. Management is a set of activities directed at an organization’s resources with the aim of achieving organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner.
  3. 3. 3. What are the functions of Management? Henri Fayol was the first to describe the four managerial functions when he was the CEO of a large mining company in the later 1800’s. 1. Planning: Planning is the process used by managers to identify and select appropriate goals and courses of action for an organization. 3 steps to good planning:  Which goals should be pursued?  How should the goal be attained?  How should resources be allocated? The planning function determines how effective (completing activities so that organizational goals are attained OR doing the right things) and efficient (getting the most output from the least amount of inputs OR doing things right) the organization is and determines the strategy of the organization. 2. Organizing: Organizing is the process of assigning tasks, allocating resources, and coordinating work activities OR Organizing is the process of allocating and arranging work, authority and resources, to the members of the organization so that they can successfully execute the plans 3. Leading: Leading involves directing, influencing and motivating employees to perform essential tasks. This function involves display of leadership qualities, different leadership styles, different influencing powers, with excellent abilities of communication and motivation. 4. Controlling: Controlling is the process of measuring performance and taking action to ensure desired results OR Controlling is the process of devising various checks to ensure that planned performance is actually achieved. It involves ensuring that actual activities conform to the planned activities. Monitoring the financial statements, checking the cash registers to avoid overdraft etc., and form part of this process. 4. What are the components of Management? Components of Management      Organizational activity: Management is a group activity. Management is to coordinate the actions and reactions of individuals. Goal formation: Management has some definite goals before it to achieve. Goals are set considering the actions and reactions of individuals. Goal accomplishment and evaluation: Management also evaluates the effectiveness of goal accomplishment. Organizational Survival: In the short run, managers use the resources available to them as efficiently as possible and practice the art of implementing their decisions. The ability to forecast and adopt to change is also important for organizational survival. Implementation: Policies and programs are implemented by management.
  4. 4. 5. What is the introduction of Management? Most organizations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level managers. These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different tasks. In many organizations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid. Each level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job titles.    First-line Managers: Individuals who manage the work of non-managerial employees. Consist of supervisors, section leaders, foremen, etc. They focus on controlling and directing. They usually have the responsibility of assigning employees tasks, guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring quality and quantity production, making recommendations, suggestions, and up channeling employee problems, etc Middle Managers: Individuals who manage the work of first-line managers. Consist of general managers, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions Top Managers: Individuals who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization. The top consists of the board of directors (including non-executive directors and executive directors), president, vice-president, CEOs and other members of the C-level executives. They are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. 6. What are the management practices and policies? Practices are a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the manager’s decision-making.      It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees. All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff so that practice of these policies can be done. Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly. A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.
  5. 5. 7. What is an organization? Organization is defined as the group of people, with ideas and resources, working toward common goals OR a systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose is called organization. Characteristics of Organization:    Have a distinct purpose (goal) Composed of people Have a deliberate structure 8. What is the Management Role in an organization? In any type of organization Management has 3 main roles: 1. Inter-personal Role  Figurehead: Represents the company on social occasions. Attending the flag hosting ceremony, receiving visitors or taking visitors for dinner etc.  Leader: In the role of a leader, the manager motivates, encourages, and builds interest among the employees. Training subordinates to work under pressure, forms part of the responsibilities of a manager.  Liaison: Consists of relating to others outside the group or organization. Serves as a link between people, groups or organization. The negotiation of prices with the suppliers regarding raw materials is an example for the role of liaison. 2. Decisional Role  Entrepreneur: Act as an initiator and designer and encourage changes and innovation, identify new ideas, delegate idea and responsibility to others.  Disturbance handler: Take corrective action during disputes or crises; resolves conflicts among subordinates; adapt to environmental crisis.  Resource allocator: Decides distribution of resources among various individuals and groups in the organization.  Negotiator: Negotiates with subordinates, groups or organizations both internal and external. Represents department during negotiation of union contracts, sales, purchases, budgets; represent departmental interests 3. Informational role  Monitor: Emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about Information.  Disseminator: Transmits information received from other employees to members of the organization.  Spokesperson: Transmits information to the people who are external to the organization, i.e., government, media etc. For instance, a manager addresses a press conference announcing a new product launch or other major deal.
  6. 6. 9. What are the management responsibilities? Management is primarily responsible for:      Ensuring the development, performance, and conduct of each employee working in the organizations they direct. Defining clear goals and courses of action to subordinates, and following up to ensure that these are carried out Ensuring the well-being and progress of the personnel in their groups Fostering good working relationships. Displaying proper attitude and behavior, job knowledge, and effective communication to build good working relationships thereby motivating people to accomplish programs and meet objectives. 10. What is an Organizational Structure? An organizational structure may be defined as the relationship among the individuals in the organization and the functions they are performing according to the stated goals of a firm. It can be defined as the planned coordination of the activities of number of people for the achievement of some common, explicit purpose or goal, through division of labor and function, and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility. Every Organization is configured in terms of four basic elements of Organizational Structure 1. Span of Control: The number of people directly reporting to the next level in the Organizational hierarchy i.e., the number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and effectively direct. 2. Centralization: the degree to which formal decision authority is held by a small group of people, typically those at the top of the Organizational hierarchy. Most Organizational begin with centralized structures, as the founder makes most of the decisions and tries to direct the business toward his or her vision. 3. Formalization: It is the degree to which organization standardize behavior through rules, procedures, formal training, and related mechanisms. Companies tend to become formalized as they get older and larger. 4. Departmentalization: It is a fundamental strategy for coordinating org.l activities becz it influences Organizational behavior.  It establishes the chain of command  Focuses people around common mental models or ways of thinking, such as serving clients, developing products, or supporting a particular skill set, etc.  Encourages coordination through informal communication among people and subunits