Birmingham, AL - Please mark these dates on your calendar - 2009 Convention – Cincinnati, OH September 29 – October 3
The Association for the Study of African American Life and History, established on September 9, 1915 by Dr. Carter G. Woodson Father of Black History Established Black History Week which later became Black History Month pioneer of multiculturalism goal to educate Americans about cultural diversity and democracy Most famous book The Mis-Education of the Negro - a must reading for anyone involved in the education of African Americans In the book Woodson strongly points out the importance of black history and culture, and its absence in mainstream educational systems.
Theme was chosen because America has been a landscape peopled by diverse ethnic and racial groups. Today virtually all peoples are represented; however, the nation's self-image has not always recognized its multicultural history. Until the last decades of the twentieth century, America has seen itself largely as the flowering of Anglo-Saxon culture and prided itself on allowing immigrants to adopt the American way. Carter G. Woodson believed that modern America should embrace the cultural differences that newcomers brought with them to America. He believed that democracy required tolerance of difference and could sustain those differences in harmony. Therefore the 2008 theme is devoted to Carter G. Woodson and the origins of multiculturalism.
In harmony with its mission ASALH is a rich resource of educational materials. The Freedom’s Song package is free to educators and includes a DVD copy of the film, lesson plans and an interactive web site that is continually updated with audio and video content. (Freedom’s Song - a documentary of 10 key but often overlooked developments in the African American struggle for equality during the 20th.) All school districts in Maryland are members of ASALH Individual School Membership costs $250 a year Some Benefits: Free subscriptions to the Journal of African American History and the Black History Bulletin Discounts on Conference Registration Fees and Black History Month Luncheon Tickets Black History Month Kits (Posters, Learning Resources CD, and Magazine) Ability to post books to the ASALH Bookshelf and news, events and announcements to the ASALH Community Board
There were many concurrent sessions and tours going on all day – every day. I tried to narrow this presentation down to the four most important sessions that I attended.
The objective of this plenary session was to explore units of the National Park System that commemorate African American history To hear from people who shape the way the Park Service engages a more diverse constituency To discuss policies, programs, and issues that have the greatest impact on our national parks Panelist Audrey Peterman President, Earthwise Productions, Inc. and her husband decided to take some time off and visit the national parks in the United States a few years ago As they traveled, she said that she rarely saw anyone one that looked like her in these parks. Audrey asked herself, “Where are all of the African Americans? They need to v isit these places where we made a difference.” When she said that, I thought “ We have may young scholars in our building black and white who have never been out of Allegany County. Even if they cannot afford to travel to these places, we as educators should to make them aware of their existence.” Audrey felt that more needed to be done to attract people of color to the national parks. As a result, she and her husband founded Earthwide Productions . Here are some of the places that are featured in their journal “Pickup and Go”.
Augustus Saint-Gaudens was one of America’s greatest sculptors. Over 100 of his artworks can be seen in the galleries in Cornish, NH Saint-Gaudens’ Shaw Memorial , an extraordinary relief monument, is considered by many to be among the best sculptural works of the nineteenth century. This bronze relief is of the Fifth African-American Regiment, the first of its kind organized in the North during the Civil War.
African Burial Ground National Monument, located in Manhattan, NY marks the spot where more than 15,000 enslaved Africans have lain for approximately 300 years In 1991 skeletons were revealed at the groundbreaking of a federal building at Broadway, Duane, Elk and Read Streets. Archaeologists were called in and discovered a seven-acre burial ground. Residents determined that their ancestors would be respected in death as they had not been in live. The monument includes an Ancestral Libation Chamber and a trail that leads to a sheltered grove of trees where seven burial mounds honor the remains of the excavated Africans.
On the morning of September 23, 1957 nine African-American teenagers stood up to an angry crowd protesting integration in front of Little Rock's Central High as they entered the school for the first time. This event, broadcast around the world, made Little Rock, Arkansas the site of the first important test of the U.S. Supreme Court’s historic Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision.
An exceptional man from Dayton, Ohio, poet Paul Laurence Dunbar, found his creative outlet here. I added this site because of a conversation that I overheard the year we went to the state championships. Some of our young scholars were talking about the game and one student remarked, “Dunbar, what kind of a name is that for a school?” Talking about mis-education! Every scholar in our building should know who Paul Laurence Dunbar was. We discussed this poem “We Wear the Mask”. In part it says: WE wear the mask that grins and lies, It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes,— With torn and bleeding hearts we smile, Why should the world be over wise…? Nay, let them only see us, while … we wear the mask. These are powerful words and many of our young scholars do identify with them.
The capture of Fort Donelson in Dover, Tennessee, provided a welcomed victory for thousands of enslaved African-Americans who came to the fort seeking protection and work. It became part of the Underground Railroad. Many civilians including soldiers’ wives and local women assisted slaves to gain their freedom.
The Buffalo Soldiers, of the U.S. Army, comprised of former slaves, freemen and Black Civil War soldiers, were the first African Americans to serve during peacetime. They were charged with and responsible for escorting settlers, cattle herds, and railroad crews. The 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments also conducted campaigns against American Indian tribes. The combat prowess, bravery, tenaciousness, and looks on the battlefield, inspired the Indians to call them &quot;Buffalo Soldiers”. As a result of this opening forum, I thought of some ways that we can engage our scholars in diversity and multiculturalism.
We have in our back yard a part of the Underground Railroad, a historic quest for freedom. More than 100,000 enslaved people sought freedom through the Underground Railroad. Local free Blacks, Whites, Native Americans and other slaves acted as conductors by aiding fugitive slaves to their freedom. We also have the Sumner Cemetary and the Carver Center These are resources that can engage our scholars in critical thinking with intensity; the site is a worthy objective upon which to concentrate; they can engage in scholarly research to verity what really happened; The tunnels are actually a museum waiting to be rediscovered and preserved with artifacts and stories; perhaps a quiet place to contemplate, for dialogue, or to process thoughts and feelings. It is a way to reach back and examine our past so that we may insure our future. There are many meaningful Service Learning Projects that we can initiate—by becoming partners with the Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Program At Frostburg State University there are professors who can come here and give presentations We can get our young scholars involved in cultural programming to keep history alive; as seasonal park guides, giving tours, as interns, designing brochures, writing PSAs, putting together a repository of photographs, writing newspaper articles; raising funds to preserve our site as a place of inspiration and enjoyment unimpaired for future generations
The workshop focused on presenting culturally responsive teaching ideas and other instructional information to middle and high school teachers. It was presented using a reality-based presentation that included demonstration teaching. High school and middle school students from Birmingham Public Schools participated. The presenters were astonishing! We left with strategies that we can immediately implement in general and special education environments. The first strategy that I implementd when I returned was to call my students “Scholars”. They love it.
In the 1940’s psychologist Kenneth Clark conducted the &quot;doll experiment&quot; He asked black children to tell him which doll—a white one or a black one—they thought looked most like them, and which was good and which was bad. He found that black children identified with and preferred white dolls to black ones. Dr. Clark concluded this was proof of internalized racism. The research later became cornerstone evidence in the landmark Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education decision of Topeka, Kansas, which ended American school segregation. More than 50 years later in 2005, 16-year-old filmmaker Kiri Davis recreated the Clarks' experiment with 21 young black children at a daycare center in New York. She recorded the results in her seven-minute documentary, A Girl Like Me . During the workshop we watched and discussed Kiri’s work. You can see her here discussing the experiment on “Oprah”. Kiri’s documentary demonstrates the need for culturally responsive teaching. Let’s take a look at the results of her experiment.
Kiri Davis – A Girl Like Me
If one of our young scholars reconducted this study today, what do you think the results would be? How many of the children do you think identify with us as teachers? Would that identification be based on similarities or differences?
As educators, we must present our young scholars with information in meaningful ways, give them the support and encouragement to foster the growth of their developing minds, present information that is culturally responsive and empower them to make a difference in the world with that knowledge.
These are two of the issues of the Black History Bulletin that we received. Volume 70, Number 1 – Differentiating Instruction Voices of Special Educators and Volume 70, Number 2 Carter G. Woodson and the History of Multiculturalism
Notice the titles of some of the articles in these issues. (Pause) In harmony with the last title, we learned how the online library for the National Humanities Center in Research can assist us with culturally responsive teaching whether we teach art, music, business education, social studies, English, health, mathematics or science
Lunsford Lane was a successful entrepreneur. Charlotte Forten Grimke was a well respected journalist. Curtis Mayfield and the Impressions shared a powerful message through music that is still being echoed by various artists today including Bruce Springsteen and Alicia Keys. Dr. Daniel Hale Williams was an African American physician who made history by performing the first successful open heart surgery operation. And Arthur Ashe was a top ranked tennis player in the 1960s and 70s. Raised in the segregated South, he was the first African-American male tennis player to win a Grand Slam tournament. Arthur was much more than an athlete though. I know that I’m partial because he was my cousin, but his commitment to social justice, health and humanitarian issues left a mark on the world as indelible as his tennis was on the court. http://arthurashe.org/home/
On the left is a painting by William H. Johnson entitled Moon over Harlem, which is his version of the 1943 New York riot in Harlem. On the right we see Augusta Savage’s plaster sculpture, “The Harp”, created for the 1939 New York World’s Fair.
This is the Kiamsha Logo: The top portion including the ridged, semi-circle is the Ghanaian symbol, which means &quot;to resist oppression.&quot; The bottom portions symbolizes &quot;an awakening.“ When put together the logo means &quot;that which awakens me to resist oppression.&quot; Kiamsha exists to re-ignite a spark in the community by motivating our youth to empower themselves in their communication, presentation, leadership and workshop development skills.
KIAMSHA features positive young people who positively love each other. With music, dance, and drama the Kiamsha Youth Empowerment Organization presents a musical drama about a real-life youth organization that uses history to teach teenagers to abstain from our modern-day slave masters premarital sex, drugs, violence, and racial disharmony.
KIAMSHA’s program serves to validate that the quality of people's lives can improve through both intellectually and artistically creative forms of self-expression through &quot;edutainment&quot;. Before they visit a school, a representative gives a presentation to the faculty. One way to pay for the program is for the school to purchase KIAMSHA’s theme magazine for all of its youths. The profit from this sale is their fee. This year’s theme is “Carter G. Woodson and the Origins of Multiculturism.” The magazine provides youth with a unique understanding of the converging paths of Carter G. Woodson’s work, Black Studies, the Civil Rights Movement and its current relevance. KIAMSHA sends a production guide with assignments for each participating high school. All high schools in the district are included. The host school opens the program with a drum line featuring its band, color guards, and cheer leaders welcoming all visitors. In addition, the host schools student body designs posters for all guest schools and the program brochures. Representatives from each school participate in the program. Also each school reads its mission statement that connects to the Youth Day Theme.
These are pictures that I took on Youth Day at Wenona High School in Birmingham. This is the principal, Regina Carr-Hunter. The cheerleaders, color guards and band welcomed all visitors and opened the program in the form of a motivating drumline. Notice one of the host school’s designed banners. Banners were hung throughout the auditorium for each invited school, created by the host school using the guest schools’ colors along with a message regarding Youth Day. These are some of the KIAMSHA performers along with their coach.
These two resources are aids that will assist us in properly educating our scholars. Because of mis-education, there are many important gaps that that need to be filled. When I see a young scholar walking down the hallway with a confederate flag stamped on her chest along with the message “If this offends you, then you don’t know your history”, it makes me cringe. We as educators have a responsibility to make sure that by the time she graduates from Fort Hill, she is no longer mis-educated, and that she fully understands the full meaning of that symbol. We can do this through culturally responsive teaching. Along with these publications the Holt, Rinehart and Winston program has a unique interactive format that encourages scholars to connect with the content. Using the program’s online resources, students explore important people, places, and events in African American that give them a complete picture of American history.
The jigsaw classroom is a cooperative learning technique that successfully reduces racial conflict and increases positive educational outcomes. Just as in a jigsaw puzzle, each piece--each student's part--is essential for the completion and full understanding of the final product. If each student's part is essential, then each student is essential; and that is what makes this strategy so effective. It is a remarkably efficient way to learn the material. The jigsaw process encourages listening, engagement, and empathy by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in the academic activity. Group members must work together as a team to accomplish a common goal; each person depends on all the others. No student can succeed completely unless everyone works well together as a team. This &quot;cooperation by design&quot; facilitates interaction among all students in the class, leading them to value each other as contributors to their common task.
Divide students into diverse jigsaw groups. Appoint a mature leader. Divide the day's lesson into segments. Each student must learn and have access to only one segment. Allow time to read and become familiar with it their segments. Form temporary &quot;expert groups&quot; to discuss the main points of their segment and to rehearse the presentations. Bring the students back into their jigsaw groups. Allow students to present their segments to the group. Float, observe and intervene from group to group as needed. Give a quiz on the material so that students realize that these sessions really count.
So, what does culturally responsive teaching produce? Since August 23, 2008 thousands of Dallas teachers are talking about the little boy with the big voice who wowed them at a big Dallas, Texas Independent School District beginning-of-school pep rally at the American Airlines Center before an audience of 20,000 people. Who is this young scholar? It is 10 year old, Dalton Sherman, a fifth grader at Charles Rice Learning Center.
Dalton Sherman http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAMLOnSNwzA This 10 year old, fifth grader, Dalton Sherman, is a result of culturally responsive teaching. He’s self aware, articulate, self confident and well educated. How would you like to have him in your classroom? In conclusion, As influential educators, we must believe in our young scholars. We can make a difference and help them to reach their highest potential by using culturally responsive teaching.
Thank you for your attention. Are there any questions?
Convention Birmingham, Alabama Debbie Jackson Fort Hill High School
<ul><li>The Association for the </li></ul><ul><li>Study of African </li></ul><ul><li>American Life </li></ul><ul><li>and History – </li></ul><ul><li>Established by </li></ul><ul><li>Carter G. Woodson </li></ul>http://www.asalh.org/
ASALH: Mission <ul><li>Mission: To promote, research, preserve, interpret and disseminate information about Black life, history and culture to the global community ( www.asalh.org ) </li></ul>
Opening Forum Teachers’ Workshop KIAMSHA Teachers’ Workshop Wednesday, October 1 Thursday, October 2 Friday, October 3 Saturday, October 4 Hidden Treasures of the National Park Service Culturally Responsive Teaching Youth Day 2008 Multiculturalism and Differentiating Instruction – Voices of Special Educators
Opening Workshop <ul><li>“ Hidden Treasures of the </li></ul><ul><li>National Park Service: </li></ul><ul><li>Discovering </li></ul><ul><li>African </li></ul><ul><li>American </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>in our </li></ul><ul><li>National </li></ul><ul><li>Parks” </li></ul>http://www.nps.gov/history/aahistory / Our Shared History
Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site http://www.nps.gov/saga
African Burial Ground National Monument http:// www.pickupandgo.net/articles.html
Historic Home of Paul Laurence Dunbar http://www.dunbarsite.org/sites.asp We Wear the Mask WE wear the mask that grins and lies, It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes,— This debt we pay to human guile; With torn and bleeding hearts we smile, And mouth with myriad subtleties. Why should the world be over-wise, In counting all our tears and sighs? Nay, let them only see us, while We wear the mask. We smile, but, O great Christ, our cries To thee from tortured souls arise. We sing, but oh the clay is vile Beneath our feet, and long the mile; But let the world dream otherwise, We wear the mask!
Fort Donelson http://www.nps.gov/fodo/forteachers/africanamericansat-donelson.htm
Guadalupe Mountains National Park http://www.buffalosoldiers.com/
The Underground Railroad http://www.nationalgeographic.com/railroad/ partnerships - scholarly research - cultural programming - seasonal park guides - tour guides - interns - design brochures - write PSAs - compile a repository of photographs - compose newspaper articles - raise funds
Teachers’ Workshop Presenter : Alicia L. Moore, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Education, Southwestern University , Georgetown, Texas, and co-editor of the Black History Bulletin . Facilitator : Dr. LaVonne I. Neal , Dean of the College of Education and Professor of Special Education at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, and co-editor of the Black History Bulletin . Other Presenters : Richard R. Schramm , Ph. D, Vice President for Education Programs at the National Humanitites Center, Research Triangle Park, NC; Gwendolyn Webb-Johnson , Ed.D, Associate Professor of Educational Administration, Texas A&M University; Regina Lewis , M.A., Assistant Dean & Assistant Professor of Communication, Pikes Peak Community College, Colorado Springs, CO
Teachers’ Workshop http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rjy9q8VekmE 12255773249449528.wmv Kiri Davis
Teachers’ Workshop 12255251317485406.mp4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rjy9q8VekmE Kiri Davis
Teachers’ Workshop <ul><li>Culturally Responsive Teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using community resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respecting cultural and linguistic differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing lesson plans that validate young scholars as treasured entities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding and teaching multiple truths and perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving accurate portraits of the contributions of all people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instilling a sense of the inherent worth </li></ul></ul>http://www.asalh.org/bhb.html
Teachers’ Workshop <ul><li>Respecting the Traditions of Our Families: Cultural Reference as Academic Motivation for Diverse Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural Insights: The Importance of Culturally Responsive Curriculum and Teaching for Culturally Diverse Students Who Have Special Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural Education: Sparking the Genius of All Students </li></ul><ul><li>Contributions of African Americans: Teachers Can’t Teach What They Don’t Know </li></ul>
KIAMSHA <ul><li>Youth Empowerment Organization - “That Which Awakens Me” </li></ul><ul><li>MISSION: Use history to empower youth to abstain from sex, drugs, violence, and prejudice through peer and intergenerational interaction. </li></ul>
KIAMSHA <ul><li>LAUGH </li></ul><ul><li>at the hilarious changes people go through for love. ENJOY </li></ul><ul><li>the unique, sometimes bizarre, antics of a dynamic comedy team. </li></ul><ul><li>DON¹T WORRY </li></ul><ul><li>about a thing because you will be tastefully tickled. HAVE FUN </li></ul><ul><li>looking at life¹s lessons in </li></ul><ul><li>" KIAMSHA ." </li></ul>
Teachers’ Workshop 6 - Form temporary "expert groups" by having one student from each jigsaw group join other students assigned to the same segment. Give students in these expert groups time to discuss the main points of their segment and to rehearse the presentations they will make to their jigsaw group. 5 - Give students time to read over their segment at least twice and become familiar with it. There is no need for them to memorize it. 4 - Assign each student to learn one segment, making sure students have direct access only to their own segment. 3 - Divide the day's lesson into 5-6 segments. For example, if you want history students to learn about Eleanor Roosevelt, you might divide a short biography of her into stand-alone segments on: (1) Her childhood, (2) Her family life with Franklin and their children, (3) Her life after Franklin contracted polio, (4) Her work in the White House as First Lady, and (5) Her life and work after Franklin's death. 2 - Appoint one student from each group as the leader. Initially, this person should be the most mature student in the group. 1 - Divide students into 5- or 6-person jigsaw groups. The groups should be diverse in terms of gender, ethnicity, race, and ability. The Jigsaw Classroom – Ten Easy Steps 7 - Bring the students back into their jigsaw groups. 8 - Ask each student to present her or his segment to the group. Encourage others in the group to ask questions for clarification. 9 - Float from group to group, observing the process. If any group is having trouble (e.g., a member is dominating or disruptive), make an appropriate intervention. Eventually, it's best for the group leader to handle this task. Leaders can be trained by whispering an instruction on how to intervene, until the leader gets the hang of it. 10 - At the end of the session, give a quiz on the material so that students quickly come to realize that these sessions are not just fun and games but really count.
Teachers’ Workshop 12255272184077413.wmv http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAMLOnSNwzA Dalton Sherman “ I Believe in Me; Do You Believe in Me?”
Teachers’ Workshop <ul><li>Dalton Sherman: </li></ul><ul><li>“ I Believe in Me; </li></ul><ul><li>Do You </li></ul><ul><li>Believe in Me?” </li></ul>12255259927295251.mp4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAMLOnSNwzA
Resources <ul><li>ASALH www.asalh.org </li></ul><ul><li>Black History Bulletin http://www.asalh.org/bhb.html </li></ul><ul><li>Buffalo Soldiers http://www.buffalosoldiers.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Dalton Sherman – “Do You Believe in Me?” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAMLOnSNwzA </li></ul><ul><li>Holt, Rinehart and Winston http://www.hrw.com/c/product.web?record@2337+s@Of3yAazCMV646 </li></ul><ul><li>Jigsaw Classroom http://www.jigsaw.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>KIAMSHA http://www.proinc.net/kiamsha/ </li></ul><ul><li>Kiri Davis – “A Girl Like Me” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rjy9q8VekmE </li></ul><ul><li>National Geographic http://www.nationalgeographic.com/railroad </li></ul><ul><li>National Humanities Center http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>National Park Service http://www.nps.gov/history/aahistory / </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Laurence Dunbar http://www.dunbarsite.org/sites.asp </li></ul><ul><li>Pickup and Go http://www.pickupandgo.net/articles.html </li></ul><ul><li>Wenona High School http://birmingham.schoolinsites.com/ </li></ul>