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Group 1 presentation

  1. 1. Presentation By: Safia Hurst Margaret Shabazz Nestor Afungchwi Emmanuel Ademuwagun English 002-28 Dr. Diaz Presentation Date: 10.06.10
  2. 2. TYPES OF PROCESS ANALYSES There are two types of Process Analyses essays 1. Instructional –gives directions and help 2. Informative – explains how something works/happens, shows how significant a process is Process Analyses can be used to explain why some things are hard to remedy.
  3. 3. When writing a process analysis, keep these things in mind • It is very important for the writer to understand the needs of the reader • Never assume what the reader does/does not know • Think like the reader. “if I was reading this would it make sense” • It may make sense to you, but is it understandable to others?
  4. 4. AUDIENCE ANALYSIS • Always think about how much you expect the audience to know. Doing so will help you plan the essay. • After writing the essay, pick someone who is part of your target audience and ask them if the essay makes sense to them. If it doesn’t then go back and rewrite the essay.
  5. 5. THE LANGUAGE LEVEL • Avoid using jargon-specialized language that only members of a specific group are able to understand • Do not write about a subject that requires you to use specialized words.
  6. 6. VOICE A student should use “you” in an instructional process analysis, but not while writing an informational process.
  7. 7. • The topic should not be too narrow or too broad. If the topic is narrow/broad the essay will be very likely to be broad or narrow. Always choose a topic that can be done within the time of your assignment. • The topic should interest you -don’t choose a topic just because you want to please the instructor - don’t be afraid to write on a subject because you think it is not pleasing to the instructor or reader. • Is the topic you are researching going to require research. If you include information from other sources be sure to cite.
  8. 8. PREWRITE • Use whatever method works for you – brainstorming , clustering , free writing, questioning, listing, etc. • Prewriting will help determine if the essay is instructional or informational. It will also help when writing the introduction. • If you are writing an instructional essay, think about how learning the process will help the reader • If you are writing an informative essay, think of the overall point you are trying to make. • Organize your essay into an outline -Informal outline -formal outline -sentence outline.
  9. 9. THE INTRODUCTION The introduction to a process essay MUST establish background and context. • Informational essay, the bigger picture is analyzed • Instructional essay, importance of learning the process you are writing about. Remember: You don’t always have to write the introduction first, you can write the body paragraphs and then write the Intro.
  10. 10. BODY • Topic sentences should not be implied, and should begin in a paragraph not conclude. • Always use transitions. It helps the essay flow easily and is easier to read. • Use rhetorical options – description, narration, exemplification, causal analysis, definition, compare and contrast.
  11. 11. CONCLUSION • Do not summarize you whole essay in you concluding paragraph • Do not start talking about new topics in your conclusion • Your conclusion should comment on the significance of your subject. Revise your essay – analyze it yourself or have others revise it for you.
  12. 12. GENERAL IDEA - Webster’s definition of “Process”: It is a usually fixed or ordered series of actions and events leading to a result - Definition of Process Writing : This is a writing strategy where the writer’s points are stated in a clear order so as to achieve his goal of explaining a particular process
  13. 13. AVOID!!! - Informal Languages - Use of wrong verb tenses (process essays are usually in one verb tense) - Avoid punctuation errors - Avoid spelling errors - Avoid grammar errors
  14. 14. MUSTS!!! - Know your audience - Have a good working title - Clearly explain the ordered steps in the process - Have a sound introduction, thesis statement and conclusion - Effectively use transition words - REMEMBER TO PROOFREAD!!!!
  15. 15. PROCESS ESSAY STRUCTURE - Choosing a topic - Brainstorming - Conducting Research - Thesis Statement - Outline - Introduction - Body - Conclusion - Editing/Proofreading
  16. 16. CHOOSING A TOPIC Imagination!!!…Passion!!! The choice of a topic should be the answer of either or both of these questions: - What do you know how to do? - What do you want to know how to do?
  17. 17. BRAINSTORMING - This is a very important part of pre-writing. It involves an effective and efficient activity to generate new ideas, thoughts that eventually lead to the solutions at the time. **Brainstorming is always done best with a refreshed mind - The next and most important step is to combine these ideas and thoughts into steps that can be reflected on the outline.
  18. 18. CONDUCTING RESEARCH - Find background information of your subject - Plan and search - Find books, periodicals, journals, internet, and other sources - Evaluate the information you have found - Identify and include convincing facts and evidences into your writing
  19. 19. THESIS STATEMENT & OUTLINE - The thesis statement is usually at the end of the first paragraph, and tells the reader the content of the essay. It gives the essay an idea of what the essay is about. - After brainstorming, setting up an outline should not be a problem. The outline gives the writer a sense of direction; it also saves him time as well
  20. 20. INTRODUCTION/BODY/CONCLUSION - The introduction should clearly state the purpose of the essay; The introduction contains the thesis, and therefore should provide background for the entire essay - Each body paragraph should have a topic sentence. **A topic sentence is usually the first or second sentence of a paragraph, and it should serve as the main point for the paragraph Give supporting points for the topic sentence, and write one or two sentences to conclude the paragraph. - Conclusion should effectively summarize the main ideas of the essay, and actively restate the thesis statement
  21. 21. CONCLUSION: EDITING AND PROOFREADING Basically, do not fall victim to any of the problems mentioned on the “AVOID!!!” slide.
  23. 23. GIKUYU INDUSTRIES: HUT BUILDING > JOMO KENYATTA A process essay describing the Gikuyu tradition of building the family hut The essay provides information about the social dynamics of the tribe as well the manner in which the huts are built
  24. 24. TYPE OF PROCESS ANALYSIS ESSAY Instructional OR Informative?  Gikuyu Industries: Hut Building is an Informative Process Essay  Process Analysis Essays that attempt to inform or comment have a broader focus that instructional writing. (this aim is usually made clear in the thesis)  What makes it Informative? The essay was NOT written with the intent for it’s readers to build a Gikuyu Hut. The essay simply informs the audience about the culture and traditions of the Gikuyu tribe and how the act of constructing these huts ties into their lifestyle and culture.
  25. 25. THESIS It is the desire of every Gikuyu man to work hard and accumulate property which will enable him to build a homestead of his own.
  26. 26. DETERMINING THE PURPOSE The Gikuyu hut building experience involves the entire community and mirrors the day to day life of the Gikuyu people. This is expressed in the essay and with the description of the hut building process.
  27. 27. ANALYZING WITH A WRITERS EYE  Who is the Intended Audience? General (those who are not familiar with Gikuyu traditions)  What features from the text support the thesis Role of males in the civilization “the quality of man is judged by his homestead” What is the Author’s tone? Informative Admiring Respectful
  28. 28. EXAMPLES OF TONE FROM THE TEXT “The woman’s hut is called nyomba. Here it is taboo for a mere stranger to enter, because nyomba is considered as the traditional sacred abode of the family and the proper place to hold communion with their ancestral spirits. All aspects of religious and magical ceremonies and sacrifices which concern the family are centered around the nyomba. It is for fear of defilement and ill-luck that strangers are not allowed to cross this sacred threshold.” (paragraph 2)
  29. 29. ANALYZING WITH A READER’S EYE  Audience Analysis (how much do you expect the audience to know about the subject) the audience is not expected to have extensive information about the subject, thus extensive details and background information are given throughout the text
  30. 30. ANALYZING WITH A READER’S EYE CONT’D  Voice In many process essays, the writer will use the term you, in addressing their audience. However, Jomo Kenyatta, refrains from using this tem because his essay is meant more for informing purposes than to instruct his audience.
  31. 31. ANALYZING WITH A READERS EYE CONT’D  Language Level Use of Jargon and lingo  “Wega uumaga namocie”– The quality of a man is judged by his homestead The jargon and its explanations are used provided additional support for the thesis
  32. 32. ESSAY STRUCTURE  Introduction Background and Contextual Information  The Gikuyu people and the goal of all males in the tribe. Establishing the purpose of the Essay Body of the Essay  Steps for building a hut – both specific and general Use of topic sentences to guide the reader (paragraph 4) Use of transitions to link ideas (paragraph 8, last sentence) Conclusion Significance of subject
  33. 33. ELEMENTS OF THE PROCESS ESSAY  Reference to Time “The actual building of a hut takes only one day” (paragraph 2, sentence 2)  Text about Preparation “ A few days before the erection of a hut or huts, the building materials are collected” (paragraph 4)  Transitional Words or Phrases “After the building materials have been collected…” (paragraph 7) “The next thing is to light the fire…” (paragraph 12)
  34. 34. Conclusion: Questions to consider when reviewing a process essay (WM p. 262) 1. Does the introduction sufficiently explain the background and context for the process? 2. Does the essay include a thesis statement that informs the reader about the analysis to follow, either stating why it is important to learn or making a point about it? Is the writer’s purpose clear? 3. Do the steps and the commentary make sense? Do you feel that you understand the process that is being described? 4. Point out any step or comment that doesn’t ring true. 5. Are topic sentences both clear and properly located? Where are the steps unclear for readers, and where does a step need more explanation? 6. Does the writer use enough transitions to guide the reader through the process? Where are transitional words and sentences needed? 7. Does the essay have an effective conclusion? How could it be improved.
  35. 35. Apply what you’ve learned: Exercise to test your knowledge. • Please turn to page 266 of your Writing Matters textbooks. • Exercise 8.2 will have you read a draft of a students process analysis essay. Use the steps to reviewing a process analysis essay to revise the paper in groups of 2 or 3. • Take about 4-5 minutes to do this. We will then discuss it as a group.
  36. 36. Conclusion • 2 main types of process analysis essays: self-help and product directions. • Process analysis essays inform and/or instruct. • When writing a process analysis essay remember to: 1. Consider your audience. Knowing who your audience is will effect how you write your analysis. 2. Consider the language you use when writing your essay. If you are writing about a mechanical or technical process, try to avoid jargon that is specific to only certain people. 3. Be aware of your writing voice. Because you are writing for a specific audience, the reader, using second person point of view (you), is okay.
  37. 37. Conclusion Continued • When choosing a topic, make sure that it is not too broad or too narrow. Consider your reader. • Choose a topic that interests you. • Consider whether you want to choose a topic that requires research. It may help broaden your essay. If you do choose to use outside information, be sure to cite it correctly. • Choose a prewriting strategy that works for you, (freewriting, web, outline), to help develop your thoughts on your chosen topic. It is also helpful to create a list of the steps for your analysis. • Organize your thoughts using an outline. • Create a first draft that includes an introduction, supporting paragraphs, and a conclusion. • Edit your work • Write your final draft.
  38. 38. WORKS CITED Redd, Tereasa, and Carolyn Shuttlesworth. Revelations: An Anthology of Expository Essays by and about Blacks. Fifth Edition. Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions, 2010. 404. Print.