ICWES15 - Engineering Career for Women: An Examination of Orissan Women's Less Access to and Retention in Engineering Careers. Presented by Dilip Pattanaik, India
Engineering Career for Women:AN EXAMINATION OF ORISSAN WOMEN’S LESS ACCESS TO AND RETENTION IN ENGINEERING CAREERS Dillip Pattanaik WISE-India ICWES15th, 19-22 July, 2011, Adelaide, Australia
Millennium Development GoalsGoal – 1 : Eradicate Extreme Poverty & hungerGoal – 2: Achieve Universal Primary EducationGoal – 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower WomenGoal – 4: Reduce child mortalityGoal – 5: Improve maternal healthGoal – 6: Combat HIV, Malaria and other diseasesGoal – 7: Ensure Environment al SustainabilityGoal – 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development
GOAL – 3 TARGETPromote Eliminate genderGender disparity in primary and secondaryEquality and education, preferablyEmpower by 2005, and in all level of education noWomen later than 2015
Facts about India India at a Glance• Area : 3.29 million sq.kms• 7th largest country• Population: 1,210,193,422 (1.21 billion) as per 2011 Census• 2.4 per cent of world’s surface area• 16.7 percent of world’s population• 75 percent of population live in rural areas• 6,60,000 villages• Literacy rate : 75.96% (Male) & 54.28% (Female)• 27 percent of rural population below poverty-line (less than 1 dollar per day)• Percentage of Tribal (ST) population : 8.08
Faculty-wise enrollment of students The rate ofparticipation of womenin engineering coursesfrom 1969-79 was verylow. The situationimproved slightly from1980-87, reaching 9.0 ofthe population Further improvementseen between 1988-93 The enrollment ofwomen reached its peakof 14.05% in 1996 andthe current percentageis 23% by 2011
Engineering: Current position in India• Engineering traditionally looked upon as a profession only for men• From 1 per cent or so in the 1970s, the enrollment of women for the country as a whole is now more than 25% per cent in India.
Status of women engineers• Gender factors typical to women restrict higher education and job opportunities for women engineers• Difficulty in being accepted as equals in a male-dominated profession and difficulty in rising to the top• There is discrimination against women that sometimes operates in subtle ways
A quick glance of Women Engineers in IndiaWomen enrolment of total enrolment 22.2%Graduates 15.43Largest presence in Electronics Engineering 37.1Technical educational institutions 29.8Teaching 31.8
A quick glance of Women Engineers in India• Mostly in teaching jobs• Very low presence in other capacities• Upper Level Managerial positions are too less• Women engineers hardly at the head of professional bodies or recognized with any prestigious awards.
Prospects of Engineering for Rural Women• Even this limited picture of engineering and technology education and profession primarily an urban phenomena in India• So what are the prospects for rural women in the engineering and technology sphere in India?• 70% Indian population resides in rural areas. A majority of Indian women live in the rural areas.
Orissa State at a Glance• Area: 1,55,000 Sq. kms.• Population : 41,947,358 (41 million) 2011 census• No. of villages – 47,000• Rural population : 85 percent• Poverty Rate : 47% (63 percent in rural areas)• Literacy Rate: Male-72.4% Female-54.4%
Engineering Education & Career in Brief in Orissa• Education and research are the major forefronts of Orissa.• The investment for higher education is mainly done by the state government and private sector.• The learning system in Orissa has provided a base to various engineering colleges and professional institutes.• There is a plethora of top engineering colleges in Orissa providing modern and qualitative educational facilities.• The top engineering colleges in Orissa offers highly qualified a faculty with top placement records for the engineering aspirants.
No. of engineering colleges in Orissa Year wise no. of colleges7060504030 61 56 51 52 482010 0 2006 2006 2008 2009 2010
Engineering Education & Career in Brief• No of engineering colleges : 48 (in 2006) and increased upto 61 by 2010• Nos. of intake per year – 15033 and increased upto 15331 by 2010
Nos. of enrollment in engineering (year-wise) 18000 16000 15033 15117 15147 15181 15331 14000 13380 13151 12875 12608 12112 12000 10000 Total 8000 Male 6000 Female 4000 3219 2272 2580 1653 1966 2000 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Enrolment and retention In spite of all these efforts by government and private sector….• Participation of rural girls in higher education continues to be low and negligible in engineering and technology sphere.• The drop out rate is higher among girls in primary, secondary and higher education• Gender gap is less at primary level and higher in higher levels.
The Barriers : Economic Social• High admission fees • Family Background•Difficulty in getting job • Results in early marriages, early• Reluctance of employers to give motherhood engaging girls in child jobs to women bearing and rearing roles rather than• Less promotions in education• Less salaries as compared to men • Family takes a priority over career• Less professional recognition ambitions Other Factors •Less awareness •Less willing to travel • Less willing to relocate or shift base •Mutual Career Priorities Competition between Wives & Husbands
Rural women/girls largely excluded • Many schemes and programs for enhancing women’s presence and participation in engineering education and profession from time to time • But benefits have been restricted to the urban areas and have not been very effective for rural women. • Rural women remain largely excluded from engineering and technology education and employment in Orissa / India.
WISE - INDIA To create awareness and to encourage women engineers and scientists to and promote women scientists and engineers them reach the top --- WISE – India has been created – to become the voice of women engineers and scientists. WISE – INDIA is supported by International Network of Women Engineers and Scientists and looks forward to its guidance and cooperation for its future activities
VISIONTo build better prospects for women in science and engineering through their active participation and involvement
MissionWISE - India aims to create career opportunities for women by increasing awareness, providing support, enhancing capacity building and by influencing policies for promoting women in the field of science and engineering.WISE – India also provides a platform for dissemination and sharing of knowledge, mentoring, professional development and networking opportunities to facilitate the success of women in the science and engineering related fields.