2011 mar kalgoorlie_ieaust_

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2011 mar kalgoorlie_ieaust_

  1. 1. Integrated Water Management in theMining Sector:Overview and a case studyChris Hertle | Global Leader - WaterLeah Sertorio | Senior Process Engineer Image Image Image placeholder placeholder placeholder
  2. 2. Presentation Overview• Introduction to GHD• Threats and Opportunities in mining sector• Water consumption and Value• Water management optimisation• Integrate leading edge technology• A case study Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  3. 3. At a glance Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  4. 4. Where are we? Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  5. 5. GHD’s StrategyPurpose - harness the experience and capability of our global network of talented people - become the preferred partner of our clients. Client-centred culture: • Actively nurture & maintain industry networks • Develop comprehensive understanding of our clients’ businesses • Cultivate long-term partnerships and • Foster a collaborative environment for our people to work together to accomplish more for our clients. Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  6. 6. Market SectorsGHD serves clients in the global markets of:• Water• Energy and Resources• Environment• Property and Buildings• Transportation Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  7. 7. Water in Mining - a love-hate relationshipCan’t dig with it … …. can’t dig without it Burra, Copper Mine, SA Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  8. 8. Threats and LimitationsToo little water - Less mineral processed - No operation possible - No community survivalToo much water - Ore body is difficult to access - Environmental discharge Flooded coal mine near Dalby, Qld in Jan 2011 - Loss of production – recent examples are ERA and Qld AUD5-9Billion in lost production coal industry Qld Resource Council estimate Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  9. 9. Threats and LimitationsWater quality - Drinking - Processing - Environmental discharge Rio Tinto Mine, SpainCommunity concern - Impact on society’s water resources - Impact on the environment CSM field development Four Corners, ABC, Feb 2011 Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  10. 10. Opportunities – Water is MoneyFinancial savings - Efficient water use - Pumping & heating or cooling - Treatment - Monitoring/metering Water outletsGrowth potential - More ore extracted - More ore able to be processed Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  11. 11. Opportunities – Water is an assetWater business - Treat and sell excess water - Irrigate crops - Stock drinking waterCorporate citizenship - Relationship with Community RO Plant - Public image and approvalBusiness imperative Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  12. 12. Water Consumption in WA WA uses 10% of Australias water Water Consumption by State 7000 5922 6000 4993 5000 4562 4361Gigalitres (GL) 4000 3351 2004/05 2991 2008/09 3000 2000 1495 1365 1371 1168 1000 434 456 141 154 56 48 0 QLD NSW VIC NT SA TAS ACT WA State Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  13. 13. Water Consumption in WAWA Mining uses 19 % of WA water and 63 % of the water used in mining in Australia WA Industry Water Consumption in 2008/09 24% 24% Agriculture Forestry and Fishing Mining Manufacturing 6% Electricity and Gas Water Supply 13% Other Industries Household 19% 8% 2% 4% Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  14. 14. $ Generated by Water used by IndustryThe mining industry gets good value per L of Water used – and its improving! Industry Gross Value Added per GL of Water Consumed 800 709 672 700 600 500 2004/05 $mill 400 2008/09 300 226 200 166 164 97 100 55 49 2 4 2 3 0 Manufacturing sewerage and Mining Agriculture Electricity industries Water supply, and Gas all other drainage Industry Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  15. 15. Water Consumption by Industry…Australia used 14100GL in 2008/9 – 510 GL (3%) was used in mining Mineral industry Water Consumption (L/t) Coal 200 Aluminium 1200 - 1600 Bauxite 30 Alumina refining 3 160 Aluminium smelting 1 400 Copper 50,000 Gold 500 - 1000 Nickel 200,000 Zinc 7 900 Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  16. 16. So things are pretty good – how can we improve? Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  17. 17. Simple Steps for Water Use OptimisationIdentify water quality and quantity needs and water sourcesAssess and monitor water quality and meter water flowsDevelop a water balance modelLook at opportunities for water redistributionAssess the need for water treatmentSelect the best treatment strategy Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  18. 18. Extraction Identify Water UsageProcessingDust SuppressionCooling and heatingVehicle Wash downSlurry Conveyance Truck washing facility, Cannington Coal Mine, QldPeople : Drinking/Shower Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  19. 19. Identify Water SourcesGroundwaterRainwaterPublic water supplyDams, reservoirsPotable water Somewhere in Western AustraliaReclaimed water Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  20. 20. Map Water Movements on Site Recycling Supply Evaporation UsagePublic Water Supply Process water Tailing Mineral separation pondsGroundwater Rainwater Dewatering Retention River Run-off water ponds Treatment Processes Drinking Environmental Water SITE Acid Mine Drainage Discharge Irrigation Dams Equipment washingReservoirs Supply to other Industries Domestic wastewater Reclaimed Water Dust management Cooling and Drilling Slurry Conveyance Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  21. 21. Assess Water QualityWater origin Typical CharacteristicsGroundwater Variable salinity, pH and heavy metalsRunoff water High suspended solids, low metal contentMine dewatering High salinity, heavy metalAcid Mine Drainage Very low pH, high metal content, sulfatesProcess water High salinity, suspended solids, heavy metals, process chemicalsRainwater Slightly acidic pHSewage Pathogens, high ammonia, phosphorus and organics Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  22. 22. Assess Water Quality RequirementsWater Usage Quality requirementsProcess water Comply with process operational needsMineral separation Comply with process operational needsHuman consumption Drinking water qualityDust suppression Comply with health and safety requirementsEquipment washing Comply with health and safety requirementsDischarged water Comply with the environmental discharge licenseCooling Towers Limited by the scaling potential, low suspended solids Don’t forget the monitoring and metering program ! Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  23. 23. Develop Water and salt Balance Evaporation Process Cooling ??? Raw Water Category 1 Treatement 500 ML/yr 75 ML/yr Potable Water Category 2 240 ML/yr The SITE 140 ML/yr TreatmentRainfall/Groundwater Category 3 Wetlands ??? ??? Sewer Pit Waste ??? WWTP To do that , one needs data Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  24. 24. Water PinchingRedistribution of Water - from one area of the site to another - from one site to another - “fit-for-purpose” water qualityStormwater Collection - preserve rainwater qualityReuse of Domestic WastewaterReuse of industrial wastewater Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  25. 25. The Ultimate in Un-SustainabilityMammoth Water Condenser, Coolgardie, 132,000 gpd - 100 t/d fuel!In 1896 the worlds largest desalination plant was built in Western Australia atCoolgardie Image placeholder Water Reuse The Way Forward!! Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  26. 26. Water Treatment Technologies Pretreatment - Physical / ChemicalThickening, clarification and filtration - gravity, centrifugal, belt thickening - floatation - media filtrationAntiscalentsCoagulation/Flocculation - alum and iron salts - synthetic polymersPrecipitation/crystallisation - alkaline processes, - sulfide Underground flocculation system at CMT, Tas Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  27. 27. Water Treatment Technologies Biological Systems Aerobic systemsAnaerobic systems - Removal of organics - Removal of organics - Sulfide oxidation - Sulfate reduction and removal - Sulfur production - Sulfide production & ppt of metals - Removal of N & P High Rate Anaerobic Treatment Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  28. 28. Water Treatment Technologies Post treatment - PhysicalMembrane technologies - Micro-filtration - Ultra-filtration - Nano-filtration - Reverse Osmosis - Electro Dialysis Reversal (EDR)Ion exchange - Resins - Natural and modified zeolite clays Microfiltration at Fosters, QldFiltration Sand Multimedia Granular activated carbon Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  29. 29. Slurry ManagementMaximise slurry density to allow tighter water recyclingDense phase stacking where possibleRecovery of slurries from runoff pondsBiological systems for minerals recovery Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  30. 30. Tailings ManagementAll treatment technologies produce a WASTEVolume of waste produced variesTailings dam disposalWater and waste recycling ? Caustic recovery Water recovery Minerals recovery Red Mud Dam at QAL, Qld Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  31. 31. Case Study – use of Recycled Water Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  32. 32. Regulations and Guidelines Vary Dependingon Type of ReuseIndirect potable reuse More Stringent RegulationsAgricultural Reuse on Food CropsUnrestricted Recreational ReuseUnrestricted Urban Irrigation ReuseRestricted Urban Irrigation ReuseRestricted Recreational ReuseIndustrial ReuseEnvironmental ReuseAgricultural Reuse on Non-food Crops Less Stringent Regulations Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  33. 33. Remote Mining CommunitiesOlympic Dam, South Australia Olympic Dam Mine & Processing Plant Roxby Downs Mine 9% 2% Refinery 1% Smelter Concentrator 21% 49% The Desalination Plant Olympic Way to Roxby Township Hydromet 18%Leinster, Western Australia Evap Ponds WWTP 2 500 EP WWTP Domestic Sewage Leinster Township Effluent Reuse for irrigation in township – ovals, parks Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  34. 34. National Water Reuse Guidelines Guidelines for Sewerage Systems –Use of Reclaimed Water(ARMCANZ/ANZECC/NHMRC)January 2000 National Guidelines for WaterRecycling – Managing Health &Environmental Risks (NRMMC, EPHC &AHMC)November 2006 Australian Guidelines for WaterRecycling – Augmentation of DrinkingWater Supplies (NRMMC & EPHC),Draft, release for public commentJuly 2007 Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  35. 35. State Reuse Guidelines Western Australia:—Draft Guidelines for the Use of Recycled Water in Western Australia (April 2009) Queensland:—Queensland Guidelines for the Safe Use of Recycled Water (EPA 2004)—Queensland Water Recycling Guidelines (December 2005) South Australia:—South Australian Reclaimed Water Guidelines (Treated Effluent), (EPA/DHS 1999) New South Wales:—NSW Guidelines for urban and residential use of reclaimed water (NSWRWCC 1993) Victoria:—Victorian Guidelines for Environmental Management: Use of Reclaimed Water (EPAVictoria 2002)—Guidelines for Environmental Management: Dual Pipe water Recycling Schemes –Health and Environmental Risk Management (Victorian EPA Publication No. 1015, October2005). Tasmania:—Environmental Guidelines for the Use of Recycled Water in Tasmania (DPIWE 2002) ACT:—Defer to National Guidelines Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  36. 36. Water for What? Treatment Costs Fit for Purpose Water QualityClass UsesA Urban Irrigation with unrestricted access -HIGH ovals, parks & gardens Urban non-potable eg. Toilet flushing Agriculture – human food crops.B Urban Irrigation with restricted accessMEDIUM during irrigation-ovals, parks & gardens Dairy cattle Industrial washdown waterC Urban recreational with controlled access &LOW preventative measures, eg. Golf courses. Agriculture – processed foodsD Non-human food crops eg.EXTRA woodlots, flowers, instant turfLOW Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  37. 37. “Class A” Applications- HIGH Exposure RiskHigh Probability of Public Contact or exposure –unrestricted public access & application Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  38. 38. Risk – Management preferred to Avoidance A Risk Management approach to water recycling, based on quantitative riskassessment and “Hazard And Critical Control Point Analysis (HACCP), ispreferred to a Risk Avoidance approach. Both the updated/revised National & State: Western Australian Guidelinessupport this concept Clear water reuse guidelines and risk management frameworks are essentialto provide project certainty for system operators and public confidence thatpublic health and environmental protection are adequate. Guidelines not binding at present but will help to remove institutional,regulatory and financing constraints, resolve insurance issues and minimiselitigation risks. Health Department of W.A. will require compliance of all recycling schemesto guidelines within 5 years of acceptance of treatment system Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  39. 39. Risk Management ApproachTwelve element framework for the management of recycled water qualityand useApplication of preventative measures (barriers) commensurate with the levelof riskBased on risk management STEP 1: Define tolerable risk STEP 2: Assess risk STEP 3: Calculation of health based targets (log reductions) STEP 4: Preventative measures (achieve log reductions)Performance subject to monitoring at a frequency that enables timelyinterventionEnd product monitoring to verify that the management system as a whole isoperational Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  40. 40. Risk Assessment ModelCOMMUNICATION, CONSULTATION, ENGAGEMENT, REVIEW 1. Issue Identification 2. Exposure 3. Hazard Assessment Assessment Review 4. Risk Review Characterisation 5. Risk Management Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  41. 41. Log Reductions for Specified Uses Water use Exposure Log Reduction Required (L/year) Virus Bacteria Protozoa Urban 0.66 6 5 4.9 Irrigation Irrigation of 0.5 5.9 4.9 4.8 Food cropsToilet flushing 0.05 4.8 3.8 3.7 Drinking 700 9.0 8.0 7.9 Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  42. 42. Log Reductions in Process Barriers Log ReductionsProcess Barriers Virus Bacteria ProtozoaPrimary Treatment 0 – 0.1 0 – 0.5 0 – 1.0Secondary Treatment 0 - 2.0 1.0 – 3.0 0.5 – 1.5Tertiary Treatment – Media Filtration + 0.5 – 3.0 0 – 1.0 0.5 – 3.0coagulationTertiary Treatment - Membrane filtration 2.0 – 4.0 2.5 - >6 >6Chlorination 1.0 – 3.0 2-6 0 – 1.5UV Irradiation 2.0 – 4.0 2 - >4 >4 Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  43. 43. Examples and Performance of PreventativeMeasures Preventative Measure Log Reductions Cooking or Processing 5-6 Drip Irrigation 2 Subsurface Irrigation 4 Impoundment/with holding 0.5 log per day Spray drift control 1 No public access when irrigating 2 Buffer Zone 1 Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  44. 44. Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  45. 45. Putting Recycled Water Risk in Perspective Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  46. 46. Waste Water Treatment System Mentioned ABOVEPreliminary - Screening RemovalPrimary - Solids Removal Gravity Sedimentation Flotation Cyclonic Systems Secondary - Biological Removal Lagoon Systems Trickling Filters Activated Sludge (Oxidation Ditches & MBBRs) SBRs MBRs Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  47. 47. Waste Water Treatment System Tertiary - Water Reuse Media Filtration Membrane Filtration i.e. MF/UF & NF/RO Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) Electrolysis, Electro-dialysis and Evaporation Ammonia Removal (Air Stripping) Chemical Phosphorus Removal Carbon Adsorption Ion Exchange Advanced Oxidation Disinfection - Water Reuse Chlorination Chloramine UV Wastewater, MBR and RO effluent Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  48. 48. Case Study – Leinster, W.A.WWTP system:– 2,500 EP Capacity– Domestic SewageCurrent WWTP:– Pasveer Channel System incorporates solids removal; extended aeration; decanting; sludge disposal; disinfection– Decant Water disposal via Evaporation PondsWWTP Upgrade to achieve bettereffluent quality for water reuseirrigation in Leinster township &improve system reliability Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  49. 49. Leinster, W.A – Building CommunityCorporate citizenship - Relationship with Community - Public image and approvalWater is an asset - Treat and sell excess water - Water Reuse Irrigation – town ovals, golf courseBusiness imperative Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  50. 50. ConclusionWater issues vary from one site to the otherWater management can be improved by: - Identifying water usages and water sources - Monitoring water quality and metering key water flows - Constructing and maintaining a water/salt balance - Looking at opportunities for water redistribution - Assessing the need for water treatment - Selecting the best treatment strategy and technology Goro Nickel, New Caledonia Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector
  51. 51. www.ghd.com Integrated Water Management for the Mining Sector

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