Dr. Wen-Ling Hong Director, Center for Science, Technology and Society (STS) Research  Assistant Professor, Department of ...
Kaohsiung Location Taipe i Kaohsiung
<ul><li>Baseline of Taiwan  </li></ul><ul><li>Research Setup </li></ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Futu...
Under Students by Discipline  Total of 1.3 million, (2010) 90% of high school grad. Go to college
Female Under Students by Discipline  Total of 662,549 (2010) 1 of out 14 female college students is in engineering.
Figure of Female Students in Eng. <ul><li>1 out of 7 students in engineering school is female. </li></ul>
Female Faculty Percentage in Engineering  In primary and secondary schools, there are consistently 20% female principles. ...
Big Questions: <ul><li>Caught in double segregation as women and engineer, received male-centered  engineering education ,...
Research <ul><li>Inspired by  </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, G. E. (2003) Frontier Masculinity in the Oil Industry: The Experie...
Research Design <ul><li>Female Interviewees (total of 9, so far): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipbuilding: 3 / Civil: 3 / Mecha...
Interview Questions <ul><li>Reason to choose engineering when entering college </li></ul><ul><li>Family attitude </li></ul...
Experience with male colleagues <ul><li>College: </li></ul><ul><li>“ It took a while to get used to the all-male environme...
<ul><li>“  I think there is a section not suitable for women, but others are good. Research, review, and design are very s...
Adjustment at worksite <ul><li>“ the worker didn’t know I was the fore(wo)man, he walked by and told me I have nice butts....
<ul><li>“  When I was pregnant, I got very sick and vomited. One time on a field trip, they had to stop the car and let me...
Maternity Leave(cont.) <ul><li>“  My manager told me he would find replacement if I apply for maternity leave. If I insist...
<ul><li>8 wks childbirth leave w/ pay. </li></ul><ul><li>3 days for spouse  </li></ul><ul><li>After 1 yr of employment, ca...
Summery and Future Work <ul><li>Female engineers felt very natural about going into the engineering industry at graduation...
<ul><li>Female engineers are often seen with the master status as woman. Family responsibility is the most impacting event...
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ICWES15 - Barely Surviving or Trailblazing? Professional Life of Women Engineers in Shipbuilding, Mechanical and Construction Industries in Taiwan. Presented by Dr Wen-Ling Hong, Taiwan

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  • 20% of girls who study math and science will enter engineering school
  • There are different attitude toward field work, heavy duty, harsh env. Work with guys….. Some from self believe, some was constructed from the expirence.
  • Male at work site has to adjust, in all aspects of human relations.
  • Female are not necessary more friendly. Need education and policy.
  • Communication can not be overrated. And time, process.
  • ICWES15 - Barely Surviving or Trailblazing? Professional Life of Women Engineers in Shipbuilding, Mechanical and Construction Industries in Taiwan. Presented by Dr Wen-Ling Hong, Taiwan

    1. 1. Dr. Wen-Ling Hong Director, Center for Science, Technology and Society (STS) Research Assistant Professor, Department of Naval Architecture College of Ocean Engineering, National Kaohsiung Marine University Kaohsiung , Taiwan
    2. 2. Kaohsiung Location Taipe i Kaohsiung
    3. 3. <ul><li>Baseline of Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>Research Setup </li></ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Future Work </li></ul>
    4. 4. Under Students by Discipline Total of 1.3 million, (2010) 90% of high school grad. Go to college
    5. 5. Female Under Students by Discipline Total of 662,549 (2010) 1 of out 14 female college students is in engineering.
    6. 6. Figure of Female Students in Eng. <ul><li>1 out of 7 students in engineering school is female. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Female Faculty Percentage in Engineering In primary and secondary schools, there are consistently 20% female principles. In college level, only 4 %. Year Grand Total Female % overall Female % in Prof. Female % in Asso. Female % in Assis. 2005 10296 8% 4% 6% 7% 2006 10433 9% 4% 6% 9% 2007 10587 8% 4% 6% 9% 2008 10563 8% 4% 7% 10% 2009 10442 8% 4% 7% 11% 2010 10296 8% 4% 8% 11%
    8. 8. Big Questions: <ul><li>Caught in double segregation as women and engineer, received male-centered engineering education , </li></ul><ul><li>what will happen to female engineering graduates’ professional and personal development? </li></ul><ul><li>Do female students go on to have a career in engineering? </li></ul><ul><li>Can they thrive? How do they thrive? advance? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we as educators do better? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it really like out there? </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Stat. and research! </li></ul>
    9. 9. Research <ul><li>Inspired by </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, G. E. (2003) Frontier Masculinity in the Oil Industry: The Experience of Women Engineers . Gender, Work & Organization, </li></ul><ul><li>1 Yr Grant from National Science Council, </li></ul><ul><li>Division of Humanity and Literature - Gender study , </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>understand the working experiences of female engineers by investigating the courses of their educational and professional development. </li></ul><ul><li>Are their courses different from their male colleague’s? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of challenges and difficulties they faced? What resources they use to advance professionally? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they get rewarded from their work? What networks do they established professionally and personally ? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Research Design <ul><li>Female Interviewees (total of 9, so far): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipbuilding: 3 / Civil: 3 / Mechanical: 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field (practical) work: 4 / Office (design, consulting, PM): 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Junior/Senior/Executive : 2 / 6 / 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B.S.E: 1 / M.S.E.: 8 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single: 1 / Married with Children: 8 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Male Interviewees: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipbuilding / Field work / Senior / B.S.E. / Married with Children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We used in-depth semi-structured interview, for 90-120 min.each. The interviews were transcribed, coded and analyzed. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Interview Questions <ul><li>Reason to choose engineering when entering college </li></ul><ul><li>Family attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Experience in college working with M/F students </li></ul><ul><li>Reason to enter engineering profession </li></ul><ul><li>Experience working with M/F colleagues in the industry, technical and non-technical (events) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-image as engineer and other identities </li></ul><ul><li>Resources, networks </li></ul>
    12. 12. Experience with male colleagues <ul><li>College: </li></ul><ul><li>“ It took a while to get used to the all-male environment. I felt lonely. You have to support yourself. ” (executive) </li></ul><ul><li>“ I grew up with boys, I don’t do well with girls. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have never felt the gender difference, other than hard, labor intensive work, like tightening the screw. ” </li></ul><ul><li>Work: </li></ul><ul><li>“ He was very difficult to communicate. Because I am a woman. He discriminated me, because I am a woman. ” </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>“ I think there is a section not suitable for women, but others are good. Research, review, and design are very suitable. ” (executive) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Many senior friends would talked about the situation in the construction site, the interaction and languages. You would star thinking, Can I do it? Am I suitable for the job? ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ In general, if you are a girl, he would not send you to the shop, you would do drawing ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The manager wanted to transfer me to an office job, saying because I am a woman, I would get married and pregnant eventually, office work will be good for me. I was very upset. ” </li></ul>Attitude towards field/office work
    14. 14. Adjustment at worksite <ul><li>“ the worker didn’t know I was the fore(wo)man, he walked by and told me I have nice butts. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ They (the workers) would address me like ‘that girlie’, but my supervisor kept telling them that I am engineer Hsu, it went on for 6 months. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ He (manager) felt as a good manager, he should do the same thing as the previous one, grant me the maternity leave . ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The worksite is different after she joined. She would share her life with us, like what happen during engagement, wedding. ” (male) </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>“ When I was pregnant, I got very sick and vomited. One time on a field trip, they had to stop the car and let me vomited at the road side. I felt awful. Because I felt this is very unprofessional. ” (took 6 yrs off and returned to work now) </li></ul><ul><li>“ There is a female colleague, she would pump milk at work and asked for part-time work with cut pay. I kept hearing people (female, non-tech) complaining that how can this be a norm now? Why can she do this but no one else can? ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Since I know my shop so well, I don’t anticipate any problem if I am pregnant. ” </li></ul>Attitude toward childbirth
    16. 16. Maternity Leave(cont.) <ul><li>“ My manager told me he would find replacement if I apply for maternity leave. If I insist, I can take 3 mo. off without pay, and not as the maternity leave. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ He (the CEO) was furious when I brought out in a meeting that I am taking half-year maternity leave. Which HR told me there is not any problem because our company comply with the law. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ When I told him (manager) that I am taking maternity leave in 7 months, he was relived that I wasn’t taking about leaving. ” </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>8 wks childbirth leave w/ pay. </li></ul><ul><li>3 days for spouse </li></ul><ul><li>After 1 yr of employment, can apply for 2 yrs of maternity leave w/o pay. </li></ul><ul><li>Employer can refuse resumption of employment, when: organization changed, Business decline, lack of proper position, </li></ul>Work Policy and Law - Gender Equality Work Act
    18. 18. Summery and Future Work <ul><li>Female engineers felt very natural about going into the engineering industry at graduation. Their past experience had not sprout much awareness of gender issues. (especially for younger generation) </li></ul><ul><li>While there is clearly the “men engineering, women others” segregation in the industry, the entrances of female engineers challenge/ change the situation/atmosphere. And that bring the necessity of change for the management. </li></ul><ul><li>The male-dominated workplace can be (surprisingly) open to female colleagues’ needs and styles, as the society changes. with process. </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Female engineers are often seen with the master status as woman. Family responsibility is the most impacting event to their work, which may lead to serious jeopardy of their career. </li></ul><ul><li>Work, interpersonal interactions and life-changing events like marriage, childbirth and promotion change their viewpoints and self-images. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude towards dealing with field practical work is one of the key factors about “ women in engineering ”. </li></ul><ul><li>The result can be used to design a greater scale study of the engineering community, statistics, survey etc. </li></ul>Summery and Future Work Thank you Dr. Lisa Frehill for recommending ICWES15.

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