WOMEN IN ENGINEERINGThe present study is divided in three maincomponents:1. Statistics pertaining to female students   pur...
Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studies•     Table 1:       University of Johannesburg stude...
Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studiesTable 2:      University of Johannesburg student popu...
Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studiesTable 3:      University of Johannesburg student popu...
Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studiesTable 4:      University of Johannesburg student popu...
Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studies     A survey, involving a total number of 419 studen...
Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studies                     Table 5: Graduation rates for Me...
Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studies     Table 6: Graduation rates for Mining and 15 othe...
Statistics regarding female engineers employed in industry   Table 7:           Baccalaureus Technologiae (B – Tech) gradu...
Statistics regarding female engineers employed in industry                             Table 8: Female engineers employed ...
Conclusions and recommendations       The present survey shows the following:       1.   The engineering companies are rel...
Conclusions and recommendations       4.   A company whose main business is civil engineering and plant commissioning is  ...
Conclusions and recommendations       The current legislation requires businesses to report the number of       Women empl...
Conclusions and recommendations       5. Educate the male staff about the positive contribution that female          engin...
ICWES15 - The Promotion of Women Engineers in Management Positions, Problems and Solutions. Presented by Ms Dorina Ionescu...
ICWES15 - The Promotion of Women Engineers in Management Positions, Problems and Solutions. Presented by Ms Dorina Ionescu...
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ICWES15 - The Promotion of Women Engineers in Management Positions, Problems and Solutions. Presented by Ms Dorina Ionescu, Johannesburg, SAfrica

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ICWES15 - The Promotion of Women Engineers in Management Positions, Problems and Solutions. Presented by Ms Dorina Ionescu, Johannesburg, SAfrica

  1. 1. WOMEN IN ENGINEERINGThe present study is divided in three maincomponents:1. Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studies,2. Statistics regarding female engineers employed in industry,3. Conclusions and recommendations.15th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
  2. 2. Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studies• Table 1: University of Johannesburg student population in Mechanical and Electrical engineering, National Diploma qualification Number of students Mechanical Engineering Technology; Electrical Engineering Technology; per year of study National Diploma qualification National Diploma qualification Female Male % Female Female Male % Female 2003 122 743 14 258 811 24 2004 169 834 20 243 824 23 2005 168 870 14 220 766 22 2006 225 921 20 226 728 24 2007 264 1033 20 231 686 25 2008 291 1099 21 203 676 23 2009 325 1052 24 204 643 24 2010 310 877 26 176 571 24 Total female students overall average % 19,8 23,6• The Faculty of Engineering has 19 departments. In the present study detailed statistics were provided for only three departments: Mechanical, Electrical and Mining respectively.• Chemical Engineering Technology department was not included in the “all other engineering departments” due to approximately 50 % of female students , which would have generate unrealistic overall statistics15th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
  3. 3. Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studiesTable 2: University of Johannesburg student population in Mining engineering and 15 other engineering departments National Diploma qualification Number of students Mining Engineering Technology; 15 other engineering departments; per year of study National Diploma qualification National Diploma qualification Female Male % Female Female Male % Female 2003 31 209 13 654 2454 21 2004 51 281 15 785 2817 22 2005 70 299 19 829 2836 23 2006 62 266 19 925 2800 25 2007 61 265 19 1006 2935 26 2008 69 302 19 1019 2985 25 2009 75 293 20 1103 2924 27 2010 97 289 25 1117 2655 30 Total female students overall average % 18,6 24,915th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
  4. 4. Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studiesTable 3: University of Johannesburg student population in Mechanical and Electrical engineering, Baccalaureus Technologiae (B – Tech) degree qualification Number of students per Mechanical Engineering Technology; National Electrical Engineering Technology; National year of study Diploma qualification Diploma qualification Female Male % Female Female Male % Female 2003 7 102 6 21 146 13 2004 11 116 9 26 128 17 2005 19 112 15 31 124 20 2006 24 139 15 31 129 19 2007 27 158 15 34 139 20 2008 17 188 8 39 155 20 2009 42 255 21 56 166 25 2010 47 215 18 60 178 25 Total female students overall average % 13,4 19,915th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
  5. 5. Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studiesTable 4: University of Johannesburg student population in Mining and 15 other engineering departments, Baccalaureus Technologiae (B – Tech) degree qualification Number of students Mining Engineering Technology; 15 other engineering departments; per year of study National Diploma qualification National Diploma qualification Female Male % Female Female Male % Female 2003 3 44 6 77 442 15 2004 2 44 4 89 468 16 2005 1 62 1,6 116 527 18 2006 5 84 5,6 154 618 20 2007 10 75 12 164 638 20 2008 15 104 13 176 728 20 2009 14 57 20 245 758 24 2010 5 54 8,5 249 695 26 Total female students overall average % 8,8 19,915th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
  6. 6. Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studies A survey, involving a total number of 419 students from Mechanical, Electrical and Mining Engineering Departments shows:1. The majority of rural area children have no access to schools delivering a quality teaching2. Students who attend quality high schools, for lack of proper advice, do not enrol for subjects relevant for further engineering studies.3. Only 31 % female and 41 % male students received proper career choice advice.4. A comparison between a similar study carried out in 2005 and the present shows no improvement regarding the high school teaching. Contrary, there is a sharp drop from 14 % to only 5 % of other engineering subjects offered at high school level.15th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
  7. 7. Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studies Table 5: Graduation rates for Mechanical and Electrical engineering Mechanical Engineering 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 National Diploma Head count 122 169 168 225 264 291 325 310 Female Graduate 9 8 7 16 21 36 55 24 Grad. Rate % 7,4 4,7 4,2 7,1 8 12,4 17 7,7 Head count 743 837 870 921 1033 1099 1052 877 Graduate 45 53 60 80 92 132 164 119 Male Grad. Rate % 6 6 7 8,7 9 12 15,6 13,6 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Electrical Engineering National Diploma Head count 258 243 220 226 231 203 204 176 Female Graduate 19 22 24 22 38 58 34 29 Grad. Rate % 7,4 9 11 9,7 16,5 28,6 16,7 16,5 Head count 811 824 766 728 686 676 643 571 Graduate 61 81 94 84 86 125 134 96 Male Grad. Rate % 7,5 9,8 12,3 11,5 12,5 18,5 20,8 16,815th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
  8. 8. Statistics pertaining to female students pursuing engineering studies Table 6: Graduation rates for Mining and 15 other engineering departments 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Mining Engineering National Diploma Female Head count 31 51 70 62 61 69 75 97 Graduate 3 1 6 16 15 15 9 14 Grad. Rate % 9,7 2 8,6 25,8 26 21,7 12 14,4 Head count 209 281 299 266 265 302 293 289 Graduate 34 29 37 70 53 55 46 36 Male Grad. Rate % 16,3 10,3 12,4 26,3 20 18,2 15,7 12,5 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 15 other Engineering National Diploma Head count 258 243 220 226 231 203 204 176 Departments Female Graduate 19 22 24 22 38 58 34 29 Grad. Rate % 7,4 9 11 9,7 16,5 28,6 16,7 16,5 Head count 811 824 766 728 686 676 643 571 Graduate 61 81 94 84 86 125 134 96 Male Grad. Rate % 7,5 9,8 12,3 11,5 12,5 18,5 20,8 16,815th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
  9. 9. Statistics regarding female engineers employed in industry Table 7: Baccalaureus Technologiae (B – Tech) graduate rates for Mechanical, Electrical, Mining and 15 other engineering department 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 15 other Engineering National Diploma Head count 258 243 220 226 231 203 204 176 Departments Female Graduate 19 22 24 22 38 58 34 29 Grad. Rate % 7,4 9 11 9,7 16,5 28,6 16,7 16,5 Head count 811 824 766 728 686 676 643 571 Graduate 61 81 94 84 86 125 134 96 Male Grad. Rate % 7,5 9,8 12,3 11,5 12,5 18,5 20,8 16,8 Total of graduates 172 162 220 286 309 400 407 364 % Female graduates 19,2 15,4 16,8 18,4 23 21,5 28,3 29,41. After graduation the young engineers do not struggle to find employment as there is a shortage of engineers worldwide and especially in South Africa.2. Based on a survey conducted among engineering companies an inexplicable picture emerges. Looks like our female engineers just “disappear”.3. Considering the B-Tech graduates numbers, the female engineers represent about 21,5 % of the total number of graduates and should represent about the same percentage of employed engineers.4. However in the working place, an engineering company with 420 employees and not one female engineer employed, is common occurrence.15th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
  10. 10. Statistics regarding female engineers employed in industry Table 8: Female engineers employed in industry The size of the company Large Large Medium Medium R31,9 billion NA* NA* NA* Annual turnover of the company ± 20 000** 23 657** 420** 430** Total number of employees Women (17,4 %)** Women (24,5%)** Number of women employed by 3480 *** 5088*** 8*** 46*** the company (1,9%)** (10,7%)** NA* 14 (0,27%)*** None None Female engineers employed (0,059)** (0%)*** (0%)*** Female engineers in medium level NA* NA* None None management positions Female engineers in top level 1 NA* None None management positions Female employees regardless of 38 (0,19%)** NA* 1 (0,23%)** 5 (1,16%)** profession employed in top level management positions Female employees working as NA* NA* NA* 10 machine operators or labourers in the workshop Female employees working as NA* NA* 7 36 admin staffNA* = Not Available15th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
  11. 11. Conclusions and recommendations The present survey shows the following: 1. The engineering companies are reluctant to disclose certain statistics in writing. • Only to 3 companies provided written data. • The rest of 18 engineering companies approached, were reluctant to provide written statistics but freely provided verbal information relating to female engineers in their companies. 2. The majority of small and medium sized companies do not have any female engineers in their staff complement. 3. Except for one very large international company, none of the surveyed companies have any formal policies aimed at female engineers promotion and retention. • According to the person in charge with training, “all effort is being made to bring in female graduates and bursars into the system”. In 2010 the company recruited 34 engineering bursars out of which only 9 were female (26,5 %).15th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
  12. 12. Conclusions and recommendations 4. A company whose main business is civil engineering and plant commissioning is reluctant to employ female engineers due to the following reasons: • The company’s work is contractor work, therefore the engineers have to go where the work is. • This is difficult for working mums as they need to move and travel, and nearly impossible for single working mums without the extended family support. • Many of the male engineers do not move their families but go home in weekends. • As the women engineers do not want to be treated differently from their male colleagues, the company encourage the trend of not moving the families. • This trend is in conflict with the women role as home maker, wife and mother.15th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
  13. 13. Conclusions and recommendations The current legislation requires businesses to report the number of Women employed without specifying the job description. For a real progress in women empowerment, the companies must focus on several major points: 1. Aggressively target the employment of female engineers; 2. Introduce a “quota” of female engineers out of the total engineers needed to be employed by the company; 3. Report the number of women employed with a qualification relevant to the business to avoid skewed statistics; 4. Prioritise in house training for new employees grooming them for management positions;15th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists
  14. 14. Conclusions and recommendations 5. Educate the male staff about the positive contribution that female engineers bring in the working place; 6. For equal work there should be equal pay. Some companies behind the confidentiality of the pay slip, discriminate against women considering the male the household head and sole provider. Many women are single parents and the bread winner of their household. In the current legislation framework this practice is illegal but still used under the cover of confidentiality. 7. Promote a balance between work and family life. • Provide accommodation suitable for a family where the contract work take place; • Provide child care facilities in the contract work place15th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists

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