Green Gasoline and U.S. Energy Independence

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In the first installment of our second Year of the SmartState series, Dr. Regalbuto, of the University of South Carolina & the new Energy Leadership Institute (ELI), talks Green Gasoline and U.S Energy Independence in conjunction with Energy Action Month.

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Green Gasoline and U.S. Energy Independence

  1. 1. Hydrocarbon Biofuels and US Energy Independence Science Cafe Prof. John R. (JR) Regalbuto Smartstate Chair of Catalysis for Renewable Fuels Dept. of Chemical Engineering U. South Carolina October 8, 2013
  2. 2. Outline  Why hydrocarbon biofuels  How to convert biomass into hydrocarbon biofuels  Where hydrocarbon biofuels fit into US energy independence
  3. 3. United States Government U.S. President Office of Management and Budget Science Advisor Office of Science and Technology Policy Other boards, councils, etc. Science Advisor Major Departments Agriculture Health and Human Services Interior Homeland Security Transportation Defense Energy Nuclear Regulatory Commission Other agencies Independent Agencies National Aeronautic and Space Administration Environmental Protection Agency Smithsonian Institution Commerce
  4. 4. Recent Sea Change in Biofuels Funding
  5. 5. Fuel economy Ethanol vs. Gasoline  76,000 Btu/gal  115,000 Btu/gal  RON = 109  RON = 91 - 99 Can the higher octane of ethanol compensate its lower energy density?
  6. 6. Higher octane means higher compression ratios  Thermal efficiency increases 17% from cr = 10 to cr = 20
  7. 7. But thermal efficiency is not fuel economy  Fuel economy is thermal efficiency times energy density  If fuel economy of ethanol is to equal gasoline, the efficiency of ethanol engines must be 115/76 (51%) higher than gasoline engines
  8. 8. Cycle Thermodynamics 2T Otto cycle  (C. Regalbuto, Stanford) Reactive Otto cycle Higher compression ratios of ethanol engines don’t nearly compensate for energy density difference
  9. 9. Road tests on ethanol-optimized engines [9];  With highest compression ratios and engine downspeeding/downsizing, the gap of ethanol fuel economy can be closed to about 20%, from about 30%.
  10. 10. Challenge for Ethanol  Energy density is the main factor for fuel economy  Produce for 70 – 80% of the cost of gasoline with no subsidies (as in Brazil)  How pay for change in infrastructure?
  11. 11. Outline  Why hydrocarbon biofuels  How to convert biomass into hydrocarbon biofuels  Where hydrocarbon biofuels fit into US energy independence
  12. 12. Current Situation in Biofuels  U.S. oil consumption = 7 billion barrels of oil a year  2005 DOE Billion Ton Study  1.3 billion tons of biomass sustainably available  Forest waste  Agricultural residue  Energy crops (switch grass, short rotation poplar trees)  Energy equivalent = 4 billion barrels of oil  Converted at 50% efficiency: 2 billion barrels = about half of imported oil
  13. 13. 1st Generation Biofuels in US circa 2000 Sugar/Starch corn grain starch saccharification sugarcane fermentation Ethanol sugar Lipids soy beans transesterfication Biodiesel catalytic routes biological routes
  14. 14. forest waste Biofuels Production in 2006 lignocellulose gasification to “syngas” (CO + H2) Fischer-Tropsch gases corn stover pyrolysis, fast or slow Diesel bio-oil switchgrass dissolution Sugar/Starch corn grain Jet Fuel starch Gasoline saccharification lignin Heat/Power Butanol sugarcane fermentation sugar Ethanol thermal routes Lipids catalytic routes alga hydrotreating soy beans biological routes transesterfication Biodiesel
  15. 15. Roadmap for Hydrocarbon Production 2007 NSF/ENG and DOE/EERE Cosponsored Workshop in June, 2007  Workshop participants:  – – – – –  71 27 19 13 10 invited participants academics from 24 universities companies, small and large representatives from 5 national labs program managers (NSF, DOE, USDA) Workshops Goals: – Articulate the role of chemistry and catalysis in the mass production of green gasoline, diesel and jet fuel from lignocellulose. – Understand the key chemical and engineering challenges. – Develop a roadmap for the mass production of next generation hydrocarbon biofuels.  Final Report Released April 1, 2008 – www.ecs.umass.edu/biofuels/roadmap.htm  Input for Interagency Working Group on Biomass Conversion
  16. 16. forest waste Biofuel Production Alternatives lignocellulose gasification to “syngas” (CO + H2) gases corn stover Fisher-Tropsch Jet Fuel methanol pyrolysis, fast or slow Diesel bio-oil switchgrass dissolution liquid phase processing Sugar/Starch corn grain starch Gasoline saccharification lignin Heat/Power Ethanol sugarcane fermentation butanol sugar thermal routes Lipids catalytic routes alga hydrotreating soy beans biological routes transesterfication Biodiesel synthetic biology
  17. 17. forest waste Biofuel Production Alternatives lignocellulose gasification to “syngas” (CO + H2) gases corn stover Fisher-Tropsch Jet Fuel methanol pyrolysis, fast or slow Diesel bio-oil switchgrass dissolution liquid phase processing Sugar/Starch corn grain starch Gasoline saccharification lignin Heat/Power Ethanol sugarcane fermentation butanol sugar thermal routes Lipids catalytic routes alga hydrotreating soy beans biological routes transesterfication Biodiesel synthetic biology
  18. 18. Gasoline from Cellulose by Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis in a Single Reactor Cellulose Pyrolysis to Sugars, Adsorption into catalyst Glucose in ZSM-5 Catalytic Conversion Gasoline, CO2, Water
  19. 19. BCC = Biomass Catalytic Cracking CA-Biomass
  20. 20. KiOR connects the Biomass and Oil Industry Crude oil Bio Crude  Bio-Crude compatible with refining streams (but no Sulfur, metals etc)  Technology based on existing refining technology  Compatibility with existing infra-structure  lower entry barrier  fast Time-To-Market!  KiOR creates feedstock diversity for oil refiners !
  21. 21. Courtesy of Laurel Harmon, UOP
  22. 22. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Fuels Via Pyrolysis Refinery P P Biomass Pyrolysis Mixed Woods P P Corn Stover Stabilization P Deoxygenate P Biocrude Other Refinery Processes Collaboration with DOE, NREL, PNNL JV with Ensyn Gasoline Diesel Jet Chemicals 28 4962-10 UOP
  23. 23. Envergent’s Commercialization Plan Pyrolysis Unit ‘Green’ Electricity Biomass Corn Stover Fuel Oil Mixed Woods Timeline Available Now Heating Oil Marine Fuels Stage 1 Upgrader Stage 2 Upgrader 2008 Transport Fuels 2009 2011 Rolling Deployment 29
  24. 24. forest waste Biofuel Production Alternatives lignocellulose gasification to “syngas” (CO + H2) gases corn stover Fisher-Tropsch Jet Fuel methanol pyrolysis, fast or slow Diesel bio-oil switchgrass dissolution liquid phase processing Sugar/Starch corn grain starch Gasoline saccharification lignin Heat/Power Ethanol sugarcane fermentation butanol sugar thermal routes Lipids catalytic routes alga hydrotreating soy beans biological routes transesterfication Biodiesel synthetic biology
  25. 25. Oxygenated Fuels Ethers Ethanol/ Butanol Alkane Fuels Jim Dumesic: C Carbohydrates to Fuels methane DMF 1 aqueous phase reforming dehydration/ hydrodeoxygenation fermentation C5-C6 C5-C12 gasoline reforming+FT synthesis Carbohydrates gasification Synthesis Gas (H2:CO) carbonyl formation aqueous phase reforming dehydration H2:CO2 (process-H2) ketones/ aldehydes furfural compounds C2-C4 LPG Fischer-Tropsch synthesis targeted alkane synthesis 1. C-C coupling 2. hydrogenation 3. dehydration/ hydrogenation Oxygenated Intermediates C9-C16 jet fuel C10-C20 diesel fuel >C20 wax
  26. 26. Jim Dumesic: Science March 2008
  27. 27. Processing advantage  Self-separation from water no distillation required. Less energy input: – lowers processing cost – improves the C balance
  28. 28. Virent Energy Systems Overview  Founded in 2002 by Dr. Randy Cortright and Professor Jim Dumesic from the Department of Chemical Engineering of the University of Wisconsin
  29. 29. forest waste Biofuel Production Alternatives lignocellulose gasification to “syngas” (CO + H2) gases corn stover Fisher-Tropsch Jet Fuel methanol pyrolysis, fast or slow Diesel bio-oil switchgrass dissolution liquid phase processing Sugar/Starch corn grain starch Gasoline saccharification lignin Heat/Power Ethanol sugarcane fermentation butanol sugar thermal routes Lipids catalytic routes alga hydrotreating soy beans biological routes transesterfication Biodiesel synthetic biology
  30. 30. forest waste Biofuel Production Alternatives lignocellulose gasification to “syngas” (CO + H2) gases corn stover Fisher-Tropsch Jet Fuel methanol pyrolysis, fast or slow Diesel bio-oil switchgrass dissolution liquid phase processing Sugar/Starch corn grain starch Gasoline saccharification lignin Heat/Power Ethanol sugarcane fermentation butanol sugar thermal routes Lipids catalytic routes alga hydrotreating soy beans biological routes transesterfication Biodiesel synthetic biology
  31. 31. Outline  Why hydrocarbon biofuels  How to convert biomass into hydrocarbon biofuels  Where hydrocarbon biofuels fit into US energy independence
  32. 32. http://www.bartlett.house.gov/uploadedfiles/PeakOilGapDiscoveryConsumption.pdf
  33. 33. Time left: Current reserves, shale gas and oil, growing usage: ~ 70 yrs Shale Oil Shale Gas Current Reserves 2070 2080 2090
  34. 34. 60% 50%
  35. 35. http://www.bartlett.house.gov/uploadedfiles/PeakChartWhoHastheOil.pdf 45
  36. 36. What’s been done? 47
  37. 37. Energy Flow in US, 2005 (in Quads: 1 Quad = 1 quadrillion BTU) https://eed.llnl.gov/flow/images/LLNL_Energy_Chart300.jpg
  38. 38. How to Eliminate Imported Oil New biomass CO2 free elec New nuclear CO2 free diesel, jet
  39. 39. Summary Thoughts  Use lignocellulose for energy dense, infrastructure compatible biohydrocarbons  Utilize existing corn EtOH plants for blending at E10 (15 billion gal/yr)  With lignocellulose, make green gasoline, diesel, jet  No need to break down the “ethanol blend wall”  Hydrocarbon biofuels from algae also possible  Feedstock production costs still too high; conversion is cheap  Long range vision:  Light vehicles: electric or plug in hybrid (much less demand for gasoline)  Still need diesel and jet fuel for planes, trains, trucks, and boats  Use biomass for 100% of liquid transportation fuels
  40. 40. 51
  41. 41. USC-Initiated National Workshop/Conference: The Path to Sustainable Energy Independence Panel of national energy experts and practitioners will produce 30 year roadmap to: - - end oil imports with sustainable, GHG neutral power
  42. 42. Three Political Drivers: Energy independence - Reduction in GHG emissions - Jobs for rural America - Workshop Vision: Bring together national expertise in energy research, policy, economics, and health and environment, to produce a roadmap for replacing imported oil with sustainable alternate energy within a few decades.  a roadmap produced by the country’s leading experts and practitioners cannot be ignored 53

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