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And Greenhouse Gases CO 2 CH 4 N 2 O Organic Waste  Management
 
Compost Pile 1 ton Carbon => 3.6 Tons CO 2 Carbon-rich organics Soil-enriching compost
Incineration CO 2 H 2 O CO C N 2 O
Anaerobic Decomposition Carbon/Water to CO 2 Carbon/Water to CH 4 Sequestered Carbon
Palo Alto Composting & CO 2 <ul><li>21,000 tons/yr (60% water) </li></ul><ul><li>8,400 tons dry, 50% Carbon </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Carbon Credit prices vary, but center around $20 / metric ton </li></ul><ul><li>Added to costs of trucks, fuel, dr...
1,100 tons = + 0.15%
Landfilled Compostables tons tons tons Compostables are 29% of Palo Alto’s  “black bin” waste. 22,737 Tons of
Modern Landfill Design
Palo Alto Food and Green Waste in Landfill <ul><ul><li>15,934 tons wet  (60% water)   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,692 ton...
Palo Alto Landfilled Compostables, after Cap <ul><li>1,346 tons Carbon from food/green waste carryforward </li></ul><ul><l...
Total GHG Emissions from Landfilled Compostables <ul><li>For one year’s waste:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>79,262 tons CO 2  Eq...
Single Family vs MF/C <ul><li>Greenwaste Palo Alto Target: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9000 tons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(com...
Organics GHG Reduction  <ul><li>Part of the Zero Waste Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Execution of plan is what matters </li></ul>...
Organics GHG Reduction <ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>Move Aggressively on MF/Commercial Food Waste Collection!  </li></ul><...
Organics GHG Reduction <ul><li>#2 </li></ul><ul><li>Implement Residential Food Waste Collection!  </li></ul><ul><li>(‘000s...
Organics GHG Reduction <ul><li>#3 </li></ul><ul><li>Transform to BioChar/Bioenergy!  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All green bin c...
Organics Management  <ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>lowest cost disposal </li></ul><ul><li>...
Organics Management  Passive Active Palo Alto Operation Multi-city Partnership Contracted Location & Technology
Organics Management Control Economies of Scale City-Owned Multi-City Contracted
Multi-tech Organics Approach Composting Digestion Soils  Restoration Sequestration Green Energy Green Bins Wastewater Blac...
Location Possibilities <ul><li>Expansion of WWTF </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial sites in Palo Alto </li></ul><ul><li>Industr...
GHGs in Perspective <ul><li>Compost just a small piece of the opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>What  more important than  whe...
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GHG Impact of Organic Waste

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Palo Alto generates yard waste, food and compostable waste, and biosolids. The City is concerned with managing these waste streams in order to minimize GHG emissions and return organics to the biosphere.

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GHG Impact of Organic Waste

  1. 1. And Greenhouse Gases CO 2 CH 4 N 2 O Organic Waste Management
  2. 3. Compost Pile 1 ton Carbon => 3.6 Tons CO 2 Carbon-rich organics Soil-enriching compost
  3. 4. Incineration CO 2 H 2 O CO C N 2 O
  4. 5. Anaerobic Decomposition Carbon/Water to CO 2 Carbon/Water to CH 4 Sequestered Carbon
  5. 6. Palo Alto Composting & CO 2 <ul><li>21,000 tons/yr (60% water) </li></ul><ul><li>8,400 tons dry, 50% Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>Methane production is negligible </li></ul><ul><li>15,120 tons of CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Biogenic CO 2 , not counted in “footprint” </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation Concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,100 tons additional if trucked to Sunnyvale then Gilroy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropogenic, counted in “footprint” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic impact; Roadway maintenance </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Carbon Credit prices vary, but center around $20 / metric ton </li></ul><ul><li>Added to costs of trucks, fuel, drivers, & acceptance fees. </li></ul>What’s 1,100 Tons Worth? $22,000 / year
  7. 8. 1,100 tons = + 0.15%
  8. 9. Landfilled Compostables tons tons tons Compostables are 29% of Palo Alto’s “black bin” waste. 22,737 Tons of
  9. 10. Modern Landfill Design
  10. 11. Palo Alto Food and Green Waste in Landfill <ul><ul><li>15,934 tons wet (60% water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2,692 tons of Carbon (40% of dry is carbon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,346 tons Carbon released in 1st year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50% into CO 2 : 2,424 tons CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50% into CH 4 : 50,880 tons CO 2 Equivalent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,346 tons Carbon remaining </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Palo Alto Landfilled Compostables, after Cap <ul><li>1,346 tons Carbon from food/green waste carryforward </li></ul><ul><li>2,457 tons Carbon from other compostables (based on 45% carbon in dry weight) </li></ul><ul><li>Total: 3,803 tons carbon </li></ul><ul><li>70% decomposes (2662 tons carbon) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85% captured and combusted to CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8,146 tons of CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15% escapes capture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>719 tons CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15,099 tons CO 2 Equivalent (methane) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Total GHG Emissions from Landfilled Compostables <ul><li>For one year’s waste: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>79,262 tons CO 2 Equivalent ! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If diverted and composted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18,534 tons CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full diversion would reduce PA Carbon Footprint by 60,728 tons of CO 2 e! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.7 tons CO 2 e per ton food/yard waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(carbon credit value $54) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Single Family vs MF/C <ul><li>Greenwaste Palo Alto Target: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9000 tons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(comm/mf) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$70/ton +/- </li></ul></ul><ul><li>13,700 tons still going to landfill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>37,000 tons CO 2 e </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Organics GHG Reduction <ul><li>Part of the Zero Waste Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Execution of plan is what matters </li></ul><ul><li>What we do matters more than where </li></ul><ul><li>Attention, Measurement, Reporting, Evaluation, & Improvement </li></ul>
  15. 16. Organics GHG Reduction <ul><li>#1 </li></ul><ul><li>Move Aggressively on MF/Commercial Food Waste Collection! </li></ul><ul><li>(& 3500 tons of leaves & grass) </li></ul><ul><li>(‘000s tons CO 2 e reduction) </li></ul>
  16. 17. Organics GHG Reduction <ul><li>#2 </li></ul><ul><li>Implement Residential Food Waste Collection! </li></ul><ul><li>(‘000s tons CO 2 e reduction) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Organics GHG Reduction <ul><li>#3 </li></ul><ul><li>Transform to BioChar/Bioenergy! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All green bin contents = minus 7,000 tons CO 2 e </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% blackbin compostables = - 4500 tons CO 2 e </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastewater sludge = - 6,000 tons CO 2 e </li></ul></ul>C CO 2 CO 2
  18. 19. Organics Management <ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>lowest cost disposal </li></ul><ul><li>diversion mandates </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Resource recovery </li></ul><ul><li>GHG minimization </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term cost </li></ul>?
  19. 20. Organics Management Passive Active Palo Alto Operation Multi-city Partnership Contracted Location & Technology
  20. 21. Organics Management Control Economies of Scale City-Owned Multi-City Contracted
  21. 22. Multi-tech Organics Approach Composting Digestion Soils Restoration Sequestration Green Energy Green Bins Wastewater Black Bins Pyrolysis
  22. 23. Location Possibilities <ul><li>Expansion of WWTF </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial sites in Palo Alto </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial sites elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Energy/GHG Efficiency tradeoff: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large scale operations vs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local operations </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. GHGs in Perspective <ul><li>Compost just a small piece of the opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>What more important than where . </li></ul><ul><li>Audit, execute, and improve. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional partnership (we are not alone) </li></ul>

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