Green energy<br />Orest Petrit Mushi<br />Eneja Petrit Mushi<br />1<br />
Types of Green Energy<br />Nuclear<br />Hydro<br />Wind<br />Solar<br />Geothermal<br />Biomass<br />Other<br />2<br />
Nuclear<br />Cost <br />Sustainability<br />Danger<br />Economics<br />Current status<br />Future <br />Emitions<br />3<br />
Cost<br />Monthly Fuel Cost to U.S. Electric Utilities1995 – 2007, In 2007 cents per kilowatt-hour<br />Source:  Global En...
Cost<br />U.S. Electricity Production Costs 1995-2007, In 2007 cents per kilowatt-hour<br />Production Costs = Operations ...
Danger<br />Nuclear Waste<br />Mining and refining uranium produces GHG<br />Plants are expensive<br />Nuclear melt down r...
Nuclear waste<br />Yuka Mountain<br />It can be recycled in reactors indefinitely – France<br />7<br />
GHG<br />8<br />
Plants are expensive<br />9<br />
Nuclear Meltdown<br />Minimal<br />Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania<br />K19 -Russian Submarine <br />Chernobyl<br />10<b...
Nuclear Proliferation<br />A serious problem<br />Political ramification / instability<br />Might lead to higher energy pr...
Sustainability<br />Nuclear power is a 'sustainable development' technology because its fuel will be available for multipl...
Economics<br />Solar	     Biomass	Wind	          Nuclear	          Coal	Gas<br />30¢	        10 ¢ 	8 ¢ 	                6 ...
Current Status<br />NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS INFORMATION Lifetime <br />CountryNo. of Reactors                Energy in (%)<br...
Current Status<br />	CountryNo. of Reactors                       	 Energy in (%)<br />	FRANCE 			68 			76.9<br />	GERMANY...
Current Status<br />	CountryNo. of ReactorsUCF (%)<br />	SLOVAK REPUBLIC 		7 			 54.3 <br />	SLOVENIA 			1 			 41.6 <br />...
Current status<br />517 nuclear power reactors in operation with a total net installed capacity of 370.120 GW(e) <br />5 n...
Comparison Nuclear vs. Other<br />18<br />
Emissions Avoided<br />19<br />
CURRENT STATUS IN U.S<br />	TYPE		PERCENTAGE OF ELECTRICITY<br />	Coal 				49 %<br />	Natural gas, 			21.5 % 	<br />	Nucle...
LOW PROJECTIONS<br />145 of today’s reactors will have been retired by<br />	2030, and 178 new reactors will have been bui...
HIGH PROJECTION<br />82 retirements, and 357 new reactors by 2030. <br />Most of the retirements would still be in Europe....
FUEL AVAILABILITY<br />The currently estimated available uranium is at 5.5 million tones uranium (Mt U).<br />While the re...
Current Status<br />24<br />
Cost<br />U.S. had an average cost of $5,000 per kilowatt. <br />The current price for large-scale wind power is $1,200 pe...
COAL<br />Coal supplies 40% of the world's electricity<br />Worldwide the industry directly employs some 7 million people<...
HYDRO<br />Economics<br />Impact<br />Future<br />27<br />
Solar<br />The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation. <br />Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Con...
Advantages<br />It’s plentiful (89 petawatts)   <br />Solar power is pollution free during use. <br />Little maintenance<b...
Renewable<br />Total Global Energy Use:<br />18% Renewable<br />13% Biomass (wood-burning)<br />15% Hydroelectricity<br />...
Photovoltaics<br />Europe leads the way.<br />Germany gets 20% of its energy for photovoltaic.<br />The manufacturing outp...
Ethanol<br /> Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, in production of ethanol fuel, it now ...
World potential for solar power use<br />
Wind Power Markets<br />In 2008, worldwide wind farm capacity was 121,000 megawatts (MW), an increase of 28.8 % in 1 year....
Wind Power Markets<br />Grid-connected, solar electric generation can displace the highest cost electricity during times o...
Current development<br />Once the initial capital cost of building a solar power plant has been spent, operating costs are...
Current development<br />In 2007, David Faiman, director of the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center of Israel, created...
Current development<br />The most important issue with solar panels is capital cost (installation and materials). <br />Av...
Financial incentives<br />In some countries, additional incentives are offered for BIPV compared to stand alone PV.<br />F...
Investments<br />Investments in clean energy companies increased by 167 percent in 2006.<br />Clean energy investments inc...
Investments<br />Investments in solar energy more than tripled, while wind power investments more than doubled. <br />New ...
Wind<br />30 % annual growing rate.<br />100 GWs today’s capacity.<br />44<br />
To give an idea of the constraints, the estimate for solar energy assumes that 0.0001% of the world's unused land surface ...
Renewable power use in Europe<br />
Primary renewable energy resources - the volume of each cube shows the relative supply of each source, compared to total e...
Produced, Installed & Total Photovoltaic Peak Power Capacity (MWp) as of the end of 2007<br />
Geothermal<br />51<br />
Biomass<br />52<br />
References<br />http://www.climatechangeconnection.org/Solutions/Nuclearenergy.htm<br />http://www.world-nuclear.org/why/d...
References<br />Jeffrey R. Immelt chairman of GE<br />Brian Blake, Corporate Communications, GE <br />Paul Bresnehan, Corp...
References<br />R. Margolis; J. Zuboy (September 2006). "Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Liter...
References<br />The Economics of Solar Power for California: A White Paper. Akeena Solar Inc, 2005 <br />Planet Ark : Gore...
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Green energy

  1. 1. Green energy<br />Orest Petrit Mushi<br />Eneja Petrit Mushi<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Types of Green Energy<br />Nuclear<br />Hydro<br />Wind<br />Solar<br />Geothermal<br />Biomass<br />Other<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Nuclear<br />Cost <br />Sustainability<br />Danger<br />Economics<br />Current status<br />Future <br />Emitions<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Cost<br />Monthly Fuel Cost to U.S. Electric Utilities1995 – 2007, In 2007 cents per kilowatt-hour<br />Source: Global Energy Decisions<br />Updated: 5/08<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Cost<br />U.S. Electricity Production Costs 1995-2007, In 2007 cents per kilowatt-hour<br />Production Costs = Operations and Maintenance Costs + Fuel Costs<br />Source: Global Energy Decisions<br />Updated: 5/08<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Danger<br />Nuclear Waste<br />Mining and refining uranium produces GHG<br />Plants are expensive<br />Nuclear melt down risk<br />Weapon proliferation<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Nuclear waste<br />Yuka Mountain<br />It can be recycled in reactors indefinitely – France<br />7<br />
  8. 8. GHG<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Plants are expensive<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Nuclear Meltdown<br />Minimal<br />Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania<br />K19 -Russian Submarine <br />Chernobyl<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Nuclear Proliferation<br />A serious problem<br />Political ramification / instability<br />Might lead to higher energy prices<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Sustainability<br />Nuclear power is a 'sustainable development' technology because its fuel will be available for multiple centuries.<br />Its safety record is superior among major energy sources.<br />Its consumption causes virtually no pollution.<br />Its use preserves valuable fossil resources for future generations.<br />Its costs are competitive and still declining and <br />Its waste can be securely managed over the long-term.<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Economics<br />Solar Biomass Wind Nuclear Coal Gas<br />30¢ 10 ¢ 8 ¢ 6 ¢ 7.5 ¢ 8 ¢<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Current Status<br />NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS INFORMATION Lifetime <br />CountryNo. of Reactors Energy in (%)<br />ARGENTINA 2 6.2 <br />ARMENIA 1 43.5 <br />BELGIUM 8 54.1 <br />BRAZIL 2 2.8 <br />BULGARIA 6 32.1<br />CANADA 25 14.7<br />CHINA 11 1.9<br />CZECH REPUBLIC 6 30.3<br />FINLAND 4 28.9 <br />14<br />
  15. 15. Current Status<br /> CountryNo. of Reactors Energy in (%)<br /> FRANCE 68 76.9<br /> GERMANY 30 25.9 <br /> HUNGARY 4 36.8<br /> INDIA 17 2.5<br /> JAPAN 57 27.5 <br /> KOREA, REPUBLIC OF 20 35.3 <br /> LITHUANIA, REPUBLIC OF 2 64.4 <br /> MEXICO 2 4.6 <br /> NETHERLANDS 2 4.1 <br /> PAKISTAN 2 2.3 <br /> ROMANIA 2 13.0 <br /> RUSSIAN FEDERATION 31 16.0 <br />15<br />
  16. 16. Current Status<br /> CountryNo. of ReactorsUCF (%)<br /> SLOVAK REPUBLIC 7 54.3 <br /> SLOVENIA 1 41.6 <br /> SOUTH AFRICA 2 5.5 <br /> SPAIN 10 17.4 <br /> SWEDEN 13 46.1 <br /> SWITZERLAND 5 40.0 <br /> UKRAINE 17 48.1 <br /> UNITED KINGDOM 29 15.1 <br /> UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 121 19.4 <br /> World Wide 517 Above data from PRIS database. Last updated on 2009/03/25 <br />16<br />
  17. 17. Current status<br />517 nuclear power reactors in operation with a total net installed capacity of 370.120 GW(e) <br />5 nuclear power reactors in long term shutdown <br />44 nuclear power reactors under construction<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Comparison Nuclear vs. Other<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Emissions Avoided<br />19<br />
  20. 20. CURRENT STATUS IN U.S<br /> TYPE PERCENTAGE OF ELECTRICITY<br /> Coal 49 %<br /> Natural gas, 21.5 % <br /> Nuclear, 19.4 %. <br />20<br />
  21. 21. LOW PROJECTIONS<br />145 of today’s reactors will have been retired by<br /> 2030, and 178 new reactors will have been built.<br />85 % of the retirements will be in Eastern and Western Europe. <br />While there will be new reactors built in all regions, most will be in the Far East and Eastern Europe<br />21<br />
  22. 22. HIGH PROJECTION<br />82 retirements, and 357 new reactors by 2030. <br />Most of the retirements would still be in Europe. <br />New construction would be spread more broadly, although the Far East, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East and<br />South Asia would have the most.<br />22<br />
  23. 23. FUEL AVAILABILITY<br />The currently estimated available uranium is at 5.5 million tones uranium (Mt U).<br />While the recoverable cost is less than $130/kg U<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Current Status<br />24<br />
  25. 25. Cost<br />U.S. had an average cost of $5,000 per kilowatt. <br />The current price for large-scale wind power is $1,200 per kilowatt and for a natural gas plant, it’s currently $1,000 per kilowatt.<br />25<br />
  26. 26. COAL<br />Coal supplies 40% of the world's electricity<br />Worldwide the industry directly employs some 7 million people<br />Coal has been the fastest-growing major fuel for five consecutive years. <br />26<br />
  27. 27. HYDRO<br />Economics<br />Impact<br />Future<br />27<br />
  28. 28. Solar<br />The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation. <br />Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Consumption<br />Solar 3,850,000 EJ<br />Wind 2,250 EJ<br />Biomass 3,000 EJ<br />Primary energy use 487 EJ<br />Electricity 56.7 EJ<br />28<br />
  29. 29. Advantages<br />It’s plentiful (89 petawatts) <br />Solar power is pollution free during use. <br />Little maintenance<br />29<br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Renewable<br />Total Global Energy Use:<br />18% Renewable<br />13% Biomass (wood-burning)<br />15% Hydroelectricity<br />0.8% Geothermal energy, wind power, solar power, and ocean energy together.<br />31<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Photovoltaics<br />Europe leads the way.<br />Germany gets 20% of its energy for photovoltaic.<br />The manufacturing output of the photovoltaics industry reached more than 2,000 MW. <br />Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 MW SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert. <br />The world's largest geothermal power installation is the Geysers in California, with a capacity of 750 MW.<br />33<br />
  34. 34. Ethanol<br /> Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, in production of ethanol fuel, it now provides 18 % of the country's automotive fuel. <br />This success can not be replicated in the States due to shear volume of gas consumed.<br />It is not cost effective.<br />34<br />
  35. 35. World potential for solar power use<br />
  36. 36. Wind Power Markets<br />In 2008, worldwide wind farm capacity was 121,000 megawatts (MW), an increase of 28.8 % in 1 year. <br />Wind power produced some 1.3% of global electricity consumption.<br />Worldwide use of geothermal energy for electricity reached 9.3 GWs<br />Portugal now has the world's first commercial wave farm, the Agucadoura Wave Park, generating 2.25 MW. <br />Present renewable energy sources supply about 18% of current energy.<br />36<br />
  37. 37. Wind Power Markets<br />Grid-connected, solar electric generation can displace the highest cost electricity during times of peak demand.<br />Can reduce grid loading<br />Can eliminate the need for local battery power<br />It can be used locally thus reducing transmission/distribution losses up to 7.2% <br />37<br />
  38. 38. Current development<br />Once the initial capital cost of building a solar power plant has been spent, operating costs are extremely low. <br />Very little research-money has been invested in the development of solar cells. <br />Experimental high efficiency solar cells already have efficiencies of over 40% and mass production costs are rapidly falling.<br />38<br />
  39. 39. Current development<br />In 2007, David Faiman, director of the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center of Israel, created a home solar energy system that uses a 10 square meter reflector dish. <br />The concentrated solar technology is 5 times more cost effective than standard flat photovoltaic panels, which is the same cost as oil and natural gas. <br />A prototype achieved a concentration of solar energy that was more than 1,000 times greater than standard flat panels.<br />39<br />
  40. 40. Current development<br />The most important issue with solar panels is capital cost (installation and materials). <br />Average cost per installed watt for a residential sized system is USD 7.50 to USD 9.50.<br />In 2006 investors began offering free solar panel installation in return for a 25 year contract, to purchase electricity at a fixed price.<br />Sun Power, cells have a conversion ratio of 23.4%, well above the market average of 12-18%. <br />Advances past this efficiency mark are being pursued in R&D labs with efficiencies of 42% achieved at the University of Delaware in conjunction with DuPont.<br />40<br />
  41. 41. Financial incentives<br />In some countries, additional incentives are offered for BIPV compared to stand alone PV.<br />France + EUR 0.25/kWh (EUR 0.30 + 0.25 = 0.55/kWh total) <br />Italy + EUR 0.04-0.09 kWh <br />Germany + EUR 0.05/kWh (facades only) <br />41<br />
  42. 42. Investments<br />Investments in clean energy companies increased by 167 percent in 2006.<br />Clean energy investments increased from $2.7 billion in 2005 to $7.1 billion in 2006.<br /> Investments in bio-fuels more than quadrupled, increasing from $647 million in 2005 to $2.8 billion in 2006.<br />42<br />
  43. 43. Investments<br />Investments in solar energy more than tripled, while wind power investments more than doubled. <br />New investment into the sector jumped US$148 billion in 2007, up 60 per cent over 2006. <br />Wind energy attracted one-third of the new capital and solar one-fifth. <br />Major technological advances saw solar investment increase 254 %.<br />43<br />
  44. 44. Wind<br />30 % annual growing rate.<br />100 GWs today’s capacity.<br />44<br />
  45. 45.
  46. 46. To give an idea of the constraints, the estimate for solar energy assumes that 0.0001% of the world's unused land surface is used for solar power.<br />Sustainable development and global warming groups propose a 100% Renewable Energy Source Supply, without fossil fuels and nuclear power<br />Imposition of carbon taxes, will lead to huge demand in other energy resources. <br />Oil peak and world petroleum crisis and inflation are helping to promote renewable.<br />46<br />
  47. 47. Renewable power use in Europe<br />
  48. 48. Primary renewable energy resources - the volume of each cube shows the relative supply of each source, compared to total energy use in 2007.<br />
  49. 49. Produced, Installed & Total Photovoltaic Peak Power Capacity (MWp) as of the end of 2007<br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Geothermal<br />51<br />
  52. 52. Biomass<br />52<br />
  53. 53. References<br />http://www.climatechangeconnection.org/Solutions/Nuclearenergy.htm<br />http://www.world-nuclear.org/why/default.aspx<br />http://www.iaea.or.at/programmes/a2/<br />http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Reports/ntr2008.pdf<br />http://www.nei.org/<br />http://www.bp.com/home.do?categoryId=1&contentId=2006973<br />53<br />
  54. 54. References<br />Jeffrey R. Immelt chairman of GE<br />Brian Blake, Corporate Communications, GE <br />Paul Bresnehan, Corporate, GE<br />Linda Fuller Assistant to Pam Daley<br />Milissa Rocker, GE Infra, Energy<br />Peter J O'Toole, GE, Corporate<br />54<br />
  55. 55. References<br />R. Margolis; J. Zuboy (September 2006). "Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature". National Renewable Energy Laboratory. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy07osti/40116.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-01-19<br />Renewable Energy. Bent Sorensen. Elsevier, 2004 <br />Culture of Ecology: reconciling economics and environment. Robert E Babe. University of Toronto Press, 2006. <br />55<br />
  56. 56. References<br />The Economics of Solar Power for California: A White Paper. Akeena Solar Inc, 2005 <br />Planet Ark : Gore: Make All US Electricity From Renewable Sources <br />Greentech Media | Al Gore Sets Energy Goal <br />Center for Resource Solutions Supports Al Gore's 100% Renewable Energy Goal <br />http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/09/university-of-oklahoma-100-percent-wind-power-by-2013.php<br />EERE News: Clean Energy Investments More Than Double in 2006 <br />56<br />

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