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Ecology of the Zenobia shipwreck
and Marine Research
Antonis Petrou
Marine Biologist
SO WHAT’S THE BIG DEAL?
© Larnaka Napa Sea Cruises
SHIPWRECK “ZENOBIA”
© Enalia Physis© Enalia Physis
© Enalia Physis
© Enalia Physis
© Rassan Doubbane
© Rassan Doubbane
Chromis Nursery
© Enalia Physis
Juvenile Scorpion Fish - Nursery
© Enalia Physis
© Enalia Physis
THE BIODIVERSITY IS
INSANE
© Enalia Physis
CORALS
© Enalia Physis
© Enalia Physis
© Enalia Physis
SPONGES
© Enalia Physis
© Enalia Physis© Rassan Doubbane
© Rassan Doubbane
© Enalia Physis
© Rassan Doubbane
© Rassan Doubbane
Negotiating space:
Composition of the marine encrusting communities of the Zenobia
Shipwreck (Larnaka, Cyprus]
Energy,
Env...
Very high diversity
Competition
Predation
Extreme grazers
Extreme idiots
Coral Point
Cover-Excel
extensions
[CPCe]
www.nova.edu/ocean/cpce
METHODS
• Cover [area%]
• Photo quadrates
• High diversity
• Uncommon species [Levant]
• Extreme conditions/substrate
CO2 ponds
Spill over and cascades
Thermistors
Comparative Evaluation of the encrusting communities at
contrasting study sites
Zenobia Wreck (Cyprus) vs Alice B Wreck (L...
ALICE-B
49m length
© A.S. Haddad
30-38m depth
Militias 1985
• Few differences in cover [%]
• Different species composition & diversity
• Heterotrophy (prey on large zooplankton)
• Re...
IMPACT OF RECREATIONAL DIVING ON THE
“ZENOBIA” SHIPWRECK
IMPACT OF RECREATIONAL DIVING ON BENTHIC COMMUNITIES
DIVING IS RAPIDLY-GROWING COMPONENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL TOURISM INDU...
"SS President Coolidge", Vanuatu
"Thistlegorm", Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt
"USS Oriskany", Pensacola, Florida
"Fujikawa Maru",...
GETTING TOO FRIENDLY
© Rassan Doubbane
© Enalia Physis
FISH FEEDING
© Rassan Doubbane
SURVIVABILITY IS INFLUENCED BY FEEDING
© Enalia Physis
COMPETITION FOR PREY IS INFLUENCED BY FEEDING ACTIVITIES
SO BALANCE IS AFFECTED
© Alfonso Siciliano
Siciliano Alfonso, Petrou Antonis
PHOTOQUADRATS TECHNIQUE AND USING OF CPCe SOFTWARE
TO ESTIMATE THE IMPACT OF RECREATIONA...
THE METHOD
© Alfonso Siciliano
We have chosen three areas to be sampled using transects, two "impact" zones (zone A and B), selected
according to the cla...
Transect R Transect ATransect B
© Alfonso Siciliano
RANDOM TRANSECT DESIGN
© Alfonso Siciliano
© Alfonso Siciliano
Padina
pavonica
R TRANSECT B TRANSECT A TRANSECT
52%
3.7%
4%
3%
1.25%
0.11%
0%
1%
0.08%
Sargassum sp.
Peyssonnelia sp.
SPE...
CONCLUSION
Our results suggest that the diving is having
a significant impact on the macroalgae
coverage of the shipwreck,...
Mucilage
Possible reasons: Change in temp, oceanographic changes, eutrophication events
© Enalia Physis
Suggestions
Future research
• Mucilage causes
• Effect of air bubbles on the
wreck’s ecology
• Effect of oil
• Further studies on the
...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
© Enalia Physis
• Larnaka Napa Sea Cruises
• AP Marine Environmental Consultancy Ltd
• CORER German Progr...
THANK YOU
FOR YOUR
ATTENTION!
www.enaliaphysis.org.cy
a.petrou@ enaliaphysis.org.cy
info@enaliaphysis.org.cy
Ecology of the Zenobia Shipwreck and Marine Research
Ecology of the Zenobia Shipwreck and Marine Research
Ecology of the Zenobia Shipwreck and Marine Research
Ecology of the Zenobia Shipwreck and Marine Research
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Ecology of the Zenobia Shipwreck and Marine Research

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Ecology of the Zenobia Shipwreck and Marine Research

  1. 1. Ecology of the Zenobia shipwreck and Marine Research Antonis Petrou Marine Biologist
  2. 2. SO WHAT’S THE BIG DEAL? © Larnaka Napa Sea Cruises
  3. 3. SHIPWRECK “ZENOBIA”
  4. 4. © Enalia Physis© Enalia Physis © Enalia Physis © Enalia Physis © Rassan Doubbane
  5. 5. © Rassan Doubbane
  6. 6. Chromis Nursery © Enalia Physis
  7. 7. Juvenile Scorpion Fish - Nursery © Enalia Physis
  8. 8. © Enalia Physis
  9. 9. THE BIODIVERSITY IS INSANE © Enalia Physis
  10. 10. CORALS © Enalia Physis © Enalia Physis © Enalia Physis
  11. 11. SPONGES © Enalia Physis © Enalia Physis© Rassan Doubbane © Rassan Doubbane
  12. 12. © Enalia Physis
  13. 13. © Rassan Doubbane
  14. 14. © Rassan Doubbane
  15. 15. Negotiating space: Composition of the marine encrusting communities of the Zenobia Shipwreck (Larnaka, Cyprus] Energy, Environment and Water Research Center (EEWRC) Jimenez Carlos 1, 2, Petrou Antonis 2, Evriviadou Marina 1, 2, Hadjioanou Louis 2, Munkes Britta 3 and Lange Manfred A.1 [1] Energy, Environment, Water Research Centre of The Cyprus Institute, [2] Enalia Physis Environmental Research Centre , Cyprus, [3] FB3 Marine Ecology, GeoMar, Germany
  16. 16. Very high diversity
  17. 17. Competition Predation
  18. 18. Extreme grazers Extreme idiots
  19. 19. Coral Point Cover-Excel extensions [CPCe] www.nova.edu/ocean/cpce METHODS • Cover [area%] • Photo quadrates
  20. 20. • High diversity • Uncommon species [Levant] • Extreme conditions/substrate
  21. 21. CO2 ponds
  22. 22. Spill over and cascades
  23. 23. Thermistors
  24. 24. Comparative Evaluation of the encrusting communities at contrasting study sites Zenobia Wreck (Cyprus) vs Alice B Wreck (Lebanon)
  25. 25. ALICE-B 49m length © A.S. Haddad 30-38m depth Militias 1985
  26. 26. • Few differences in cover [%] • Different species composition & diversity • Heterotrophy (prey on large zooplankton) • Resilient species – “Cockroaches” • Recruitment and settlement differ • Different environmental histories • Management under extreme conditions ALICE-B vs. ZENOBIA © Enalia Physis
  27. 27. IMPACT OF RECREATIONAL DIVING ON THE “ZENOBIA” SHIPWRECK
  28. 28. IMPACT OF RECREATIONAL DIVING ON BENTHIC COMMUNITIES DIVING IS RAPIDLY-GROWING COMPONENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL TOURISM INDUSTRY, ESPECIALLY IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA. DIVERS CAN EASILY DAMAGE MARINE ORGANISMS THROUGH PHYSICAL CONTACT WITH THEIR HANDS, BODY, EQUIPMENT, AND FINS.
  29. 29. "SS President Coolidge", Vanuatu "Thistlegorm", Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt "USS Oriskany", Pensacola, Florida "Fujikawa Maru", Truk, Micronesia "Blackjack B17", Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea "SS Yongala", off coast of Ayr, Australia "MV Captain Keith Tibbetts", Cayman Islands "Zenobia", Larnaca Bay, Cyprus "Umbria", Wingate Reef, Sudan "SMS Markgraf", Scapa Flow, Scotland. 2003, The Times: “Top 10 wreck dives in the world”
  30. 30. GETTING TOO FRIENDLY © Rassan Doubbane © Enalia Physis
  31. 31. FISH FEEDING © Rassan Doubbane
  32. 32. SURVIVABILITY IS INFLUENCED BY FEEDING © Enalia Physis
  33. 33. COMPETITION FOR PREY IS INFLUENCED BY FEEDING ACTIVITIES SO BALANCE IS AFFECTED © Alfonso Siciliano
  34. 34. Siciliano Alfonso, Petrou Antonis PHOTOQUADRATS TECHNIQUE AND USING OF CPCe SOFTWARE TO ESTIMATE THE IMPACT OF RECREATIONAL DIVING ON THE MACROALGAE COVERAGE OF THE SHIPWRECK "ZENOBIA" (CYPRUS - MEDITERRANEAN SEA) UNIVERSITY OF MESSINA © Alfonso Siciliano
  35. 35. THE METHOD © Alfonso Siciliano
  36. 36. We have chosen three areas to be sampled using transects, two "impact" zones (zone A and B), selected according to the classic routes that divers (recreational or otherwise) running on the shipwreck and, therefore, the possible impact that we decided to quantify, and a "control" zone (zone R). SAMPLING AREAS
  37. 37. Transect R Transect ATransect B © Alfonso Siciliano
  38. 38. RANDOM TRANSECT DESIGN © Alfonso Siciliano
  39. 39. © Alfonso Siciliano
  40. 40. Padina pavonica R TRANSECT B TRANSECT A TRANSECT 52% 3.7% 4% 3% 1.25% 0.11% 0% 1% 0.08% Sargassum sp. Peyssonnelia sp. SPECIFIC COVERAGE © Alfonso Siciliano
  41. 41. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that the diving is having a significant impact on the macroalgae coverage of the shipwreck, especially in areas subject to high levels of use where divers come into contact with the hull. © Alfonso Siciliano
  42. 42. Mucilage Possible reasons: Change in temp, oceanographic changes, eutrophication events © Enalia Physis
  43. 43. Suggestions
  44. 44. Future research • Mucilage causes • Effect of air bubbles on the wreck’s ecology • Effect of oil • Further studies on the coralligenous communities and ichthyofauna © Enalia Physis
  45. 45. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS © Enalia Physis • Larnaka Napa Sea Cruises • AP Marine Environmental Consultancy Ltd • CORER German Program for the Lebanese Sea • University of Messina – Alfonso Siciliano • Octopus Divers Junieh – Lebanon • Rassan Doubbane
  46. 46. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION! www.enaliaphysis.org.cy a.petrou@ enaliaphysis.org.cy info@enaliaphysis.org.cy

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