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Introductiontodigitalepigraphy
EmmanuelleMorlock
CNRS, HISoMA (UMR 5189)
French-american program ‘Visible Words’
Informati...
Outline
● Digital Scholarly Editions (DSE)
● Digital epigraphy examples
● How does it work?
What is a DSE*?
*Digital Scholarly Edition
Why digital editions?
1. to facilitate the pooling and exchange of resources
2. for larger dissemination of resources:
○ a...
Text?
Patrick Sahle
A critical representation
● Representation:
○ re-creation, re-presentation of a text
○ model, data structure(s)
● Critical...
Digital epigraphy?
Digital Epigraphy: community driven from the beginning
● Since 1999-2000
○ 1st
draft of EpiDoc as guidelines for the appli...
a TEI file structure
Digital Epigraphy: What is EpiDoc?
● EpiDoc
○ a subset of TEI tags
○ specific structural constraints:
■ re-expression of t...
div[@type=”commentary”]
entrée d’apparat critique
leçon préférée
alternative
version régularisée
version diplomatique
autre leçon
fin entrée d’app...
What new interfaces
will you design?
inscriptions as ‘communication devices’...
How does it work?
very basic principle of web pages production
the formula
HTML + CSS
=
web page
in a navigator
<html>
(...)
<h1>Visible Words</h1>
<p>Editer & Etudier les
inscriptions dans un
environnement numérique :
méthodes, outil...
How do you do it?
XML file HTML file
transformation (XSLT, Xquery)
Index
transformation (XSLT, Xquery)
many
XML
files
TOC
...
Why XML?
the basics
XML in short
1. XML doesn’t do nothing. It only describes. With means of tags (delimiter).
In a context of text representa...
Descriptive markup - 1
★ chunks of text (of all sizes) delimited by start tag and
end tag
★ description of nature of funct...
Descriptive markup - 2
★ Attributes: additional information
<handNote xml:id="EP" medium="red-ink">
Ezra Pound's annotatio...
Descriptive markup - 3
★ descriptive markup says what things are.
○ not what is to be done with the data (procedural infor...
More specifically
XML file :
<author><forename>Louise</forename>
<surname>Labé</surname></author>
CSS file:
surname { font...
Advangages of a
TEI/Epidoc markup
Expressiveness
Exploitability
Upgradability
Reusability
EpiDocencodingexample:abbreviation
<expan>
<abbr>a</abbr>
<ex>bc</ex>
</expan>
<expan>
<abbr>
<supplied reason="lost" cert...
Tools:OxygenEditor
Schema &
documentation
Wrap up - 1
● Digitized vs digital
○ if you can reproduce your edition without substantial loss, you’re not really doing a...
Wrap up - 2
● Markup may be an intellectual activity:
○ there is no such thing as a neutral markup
○ the editor’s job: dec...
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final
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20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final

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Introduction to digital epigraphy
Programme "Visible words", information day, Athens, 05/04/2015

Published in: Education
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20150504 introduction2 digitalepigraphy-visible-words_final

  1. 1. Introductiontodigitalepigraphy EmmanuelleMorlock CNRS, HISoMA (UMR 5189) French-american program ‘Visible Words’ Information day, Ecole Française d’Athènes, may 4th , 2015
  2. 2. Outline ● Digital Scholarly Editions (DSE) ● Digital epigraphy examples ● How does it work?
  3. 3. What is a DSE*? *Digital Scholarly Edition
  4. 4. Why digital editions? 1. to facilitate the pooling and exchange of resources 2. for larger dissemination of resources: ○ as webpages ○ multimodal distribution : one single source (xml) => several outputs (html, pdf, word, epub, xml, etc.) 3. to overcome the material constraints and limits of print editions 4. to enable new kinds of exploitations (statistics, visualizations, semantic web, big data…)
  5. 5. Text? Patrick Sahle
  6. 6. A critical representation ● Representation: ○ re-creation, re-presentation of a text ○ model, data structure(s) ● Critical: ○ enhancement of the material with scholarly knowledge: ■ facsimile != not a digital scholarly edition ● A schoarly edition is about a research question... ○ Research objectives determines what is necessary to annotate cf. P. Sahle, Criteria for Reviewing Scholarly Digital Editions, version 1.1 <http://ride.i-d-e.de/reviewers/catalogue-criteria-for-reviewing-scholarly-digital-editions/> “model” of brandebourg gate with lego blocks
  7. 7. Digital epigraphy?
  8. 8. Digital Epigraphy: community driven from the beginning ● Since 1999-2000 ○ 1st draft of EpiDoc as guidelines for the application of TEI ● Today: ○ a mechanism for the creation of complete digital editions ○ a framework maintained by an active community “The collaborators were seeking a digital encoding method that preserved the time-tested combination of flexibility and rigor in editorial expression to which classical epigraphers were accustomed in print, while bringing to both the creator and the reader of epigraphic editions the power and reusability of XML.”
  9. 9. a TEI file structure
  10. 10. Digital Epigraphy: What is EpiDoc? ● EpiDoc ○ a subset of TEI tags ○ specific structural constraints: ■ re-expression of the epigraphic lemma in the metadata of the transcription file (teiHeader) ■ transcription part (text) divided in the conventional parts of a traditionnal edition: edition, apparatus, bibliography, commentary, translation ○ guidelines for their use, dedicated to epigraphy ○ tools (xslt tranformation files from XML to .html and .txt, ODD schema)
  11. 11. div[@type=”commentary”]
  12. 12. entrée d’apparat critique leçon préférée alternative version régularisée version diplomatique autre leçon fin entrée d’apparat critique
  13. 13. What new interfaces will you design? inscriptions as ‘communication devices’...
  14. 14. How does it work? very basic principle of web pages production
  15. 15. the formula HTML + CSS = web page in a navigator
  16. 16. <html> (...) <h1>Visible Words</h1> <p>Editer & Etudier les inscriptions dans un environnement numérique : méthodes, outils, ressources</p> (...) </html> body { font-family:Times; } h1 { font-size: 200%; color: green; font-weight: bold; } p { color: black; font-size: 100%; margin-top:10%; } Visible Words Editer & Etudier les inscriptions dans un environnement numérique : méthodes, outils, ressources h1 (title level 1)
  17. 17. How do you do it? XML file HTML file transformation (XSLT, Xquery) Index transformation (XSLT, Xquery) many XML files TOC RDF etc. edition as the design of information artifacts
  18. 18. Why XML? the basics
  19. 19. XML in short 1. XML doesn’t do nothing. It only describes. With means of tags (delimiter). In a context of text representation: text structures in particular (book, section, chapter, paragraph, etc.). 2. XML tags are not pre-defined. One can freely create its own tags (according to one’s research interests, for example). 3. But a tag’s grammar can be defined (DTD or Schema) Provides some rigour or means to use a common language between projects. 4. XML is defined to be self descriptive and can easily be read You can open any xml file with any text editor and read the tags labels (it’s english!)
  20. 20. Descriptive markup - 1 ★ chunks of text (of all sizes) delimited by start tag and end tag ★ description of nature of function in tag name <tagX>My contenttagX> start tag end tagchunk of text
  21. 21. Descriptive markup - 2 ★ Attributes: additional information <handNote xml:id="EP" medium="red-ink"> Ezra Pound's annotations. </handNote> value attribute name
  22. 22. Descriptive markup - 3 ★ descriptive markup says what things are. ○ not what is to be done with the data (procedural information) ○ not how they are to be displayed (presentational information). ○ The objective is to describe the fonction and not the final appearance. ★ Separation of form and content ★ Compare: ★ More flexibility: ○ same underlying data for multiple presentations ○ presentation easy to change through stylesheets, etc. ○ facilitates the addition of multiple annotation and re-use <author>Louise Labé</author> <span class=”small-caps”>Louise Labé</span>
  23. 23. More specifically XML file : <author><forename>Louise</forename> <surname>Labé</surname></author> CSS file: surname { font-variant: small-caps; font-family: Times; } Web page in browser: Louise LABÉ
  24. 24. Advangages of a TEI/Epidoc markup Expressiveness Exploitability Upgradability Reusability
  25. 25. EpiDocencodingexample:abbreviation <expan> <abbr>a</abbr> <ex>bc</ex> </expan> <expan> <abbr> <supplied reason="lost" cert="low">F</supplied>el </abbr> <ex cert="low">icitati</ex> </expan> a(bc) Default (Panciera) style: [F?]el(icitati?) Duke Databank style: [F(?)]el(icitati(?)) London style: [F?]el(icitati?)
  26. 26. Tools:OxygenEditor Schema & documentation
  27. 27. Wrap up - 1 ● Digitized vs digital ○ if you can reproduce your edition without substantial loss, you’re not really doing a scholarly edition… ● Encoding text allows to: ○ publish texts electronically ○ capture semantic distinctions ○ single input => multiple output ○ interchange with other projects ■ federated searches ■ linked data ○ Reuses ○ Long term sustainability
  28. 28. Wrap up - 2 ● Markup may be an intellectual activity: ○ there is no such thing as a neutral markup ○ the editor’s job: deciding what markup to apply and how this represents his understanding ● It’s not difficult: Philology is encoding

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