G325 – CRITICALPERSPECTIVES IN MEDIASectionA , Question B –Theoretical Evaluation of Production
Section A: TheoreticalEvaluation of Production Section A, question 1b of the A2 exam is worth 25 marks You will choose to evaluate one of your pieces ofcoursework in relation to a media concept. In the exam one of the following areas will beselected for you to write about: Genre Narrative Representation Audience Media language
How to approach 1b. You need to understand all 5 concepts, includingrelevant theories. Your task over the next 2 weeks will be toproduce a detailed evaluation of yourcoursework using all 5 concepts. The documents you produce will be vital revisionaids for the exam this summer. These documents should be tailored to you, andsuit your own learning style. However they mustbe detailed and use specific examples from oneof your coursework productions.
GenreGenres are categories or types of media text.Genres are recognisable through the repeateduse of generic codes and conventions: Iconographies Narrative Representations IdeologiesWhich of the above codes/conventions doesyour c/w use and how?
Genre and Audience Genre offers audiences a structure or framework Audiences gain enjoyment from “spotting theconventions” (repetition) and making comparisonswith other films of the same genre If a text deviates from the conventions it can confuseus, but at the same time we enjoy seeing the rulesbroken Audiences like the anticipation of waiting for thepredictable featuresHow did you use genre to offer your audience aframework? Do you think your target audienceenjoyed spotting the conventions or seeing the rulesbroken?
Genre theoriesOver the next 2 weeks we will look at thefollowing theorists and start to apply thesetheories to your own courseworkproductions. Steve Neale (1980) - all genres are instancesof repetition and difference Douglas Pye - films have to conform toaudience expectations about narrative Tom Ryall – conventions =Narrative,Themes, Characters/stereotypes,Iconography
Narrative All media texts tell stories.The structure of thesestories is called the narrative. A story must have verisimilitude (appear to be real)in order to engage us – how does your c/w haveverisimilitude? It might seem more obvious to apply narrativetheory to a film, but if you created a magazine youneed to consider the following: How is your magazine structured? How does thefront cover lead the reader into the magazine? Howdoes the contents page lead the reader into the restof the magazine?
Narrative theoriesWe will be looking at these narrative theoristsand begin to apply their theories to yourcoursework productions. Propp – 8 character roles Todorov – equilibrium – disequilibrium – newequilibrium Barthes – 5 codes(action, enigma, cultural, symbolic, semic) Levi-Strauss – binary opposites
Moving texts and narrative•To introduce character (Propp)• Establish narrative structure (Todorov)• Captivate audience/interest• Establish core themes (Levi Strauss)• Introduce core iconography• Establishes audience expectation through use ofgeneric conventions• Establish sense of enigma (Barthes)
Narrative conventions of MovingTexts• Predominance of action codes (Barthes)• Significance of soundtrack – establishingmood• Use of titles as credits/ event signifiers• Pace
RepresentationEverything in the media is a representation - everything wesee is being represented e.g.regions/locations, individuals, groups, places, nations, ideasQuestions we would ask when analysing representations: WHO orWHAT is being represented? HOW is the representation created? WHO has created the representation? WHY is the representation created in that way?What is the intention? WHAT is the effect of the representation?You will need to consider the representations in your c/w andanswer the above questions in detail.
Representation To maintain a representation of reality, medialanguage elements such aslighting, music, editing, camera work and miseen scene are used. How did you use these microaspects to create representations? Sometimes, representations are seen to be adeliberate attempt to create associations andideas for the audience – did you represent anycharacters in a certain way so as to remind youraudience or someone/something else?
Representation theoriesWe will be looking at the following theorists andexamining how you can apply these theoriesto your coursework production. Laura Mulvey (the gaze) Marjorie Ferguson (facial expressions) Trevor Millum (facial expressions)
Audience Every media text is made with a view topleasing an audience in some way – how didyou try to please your audience? Success is measured by the audience’sresponse to a media text and those that donot attract and maintain an audience do notsurvive. At the heart of this is the fact that all mediatexts are created in order to make money.
Audience We will be looking the followingtheories/theorists and beginning to applythese to your coursework productions. Demographics Stuart Hall (Preferred, negotiated andoppositional readings)
Media LanguageYou made lots of decisions regarding the following microaspects: Camera Editing Lighting Sound Mise-en- Scene Special Effects: visual, sound and lighting These micro elements form a type of “Media Language”allowing you to “speak” to your audience and“communicate” your message.
Media LanguageYou will be using the following theorists toexplain how you have used media languagein your coursework productions. Saussure (Signifier and Signified) Barthes (Denotation and Connotation) Hall (Encoding and Decoding)