Cinematography focus and lighting

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Cinematography focus and lighting

  1. 1. CinematographyCinematography ContinuedContinued Focus and Lighting
  2. 2. Camera FocusCamera Focus • How the camera focuses on things is very important to creating meaning in cinema and engaging us as spectators. • The camera acts as our eyes in the scene, focusing on different people or objects. This allows us as an audience to identify important narrative points and create relationships with characters.
  3. 3. Types of FocusTypes of Focus • Soft Focus: • Soft focus was used a lot in the ‘Golden Age’ of cinema. • It was used primarily on women to give them a glowing look and to soften their features. • It can also be used in excess to cause disorientation and confuse an audience (for example if a character has been struck)
  4. 4. Types of FocusTypes of Focus • Deep Focus: • Deep focus allows everything in the shot to be in focus at the same time. • It was made popular by Orson Welles in his infamous film Citizen Kane
  5. 5. Types of FocusTypes of Focus • Shallow Focus: • This type of focus is the opposite to Deep Focus. In this shot only the foreground is in focus, but the background remains a blur.
  6. 6. Types of FocusTypes of Focus • Pull Focus: • This type of focus shifts between 2 points. • It can be used to draw an audiences attention, or to shift between 2 characters in dialogue. • http://vimeo.com/24761371
  7. 7. LightingLighting • Lighting is an incredibly important part of cinematography. • It can completely change the mood of a film by creating or removing shadows on a characters face or in a scene. • By simply changing the lighting these two hospital corridors have a drastically different effect on an audience. Drama Horror
  8. 8. LightingLighting • High Key Lighting: • This is a very bright lighting set up which is usually free from shadows. • Its is used to create a light and open environment. • This is normally achieved by using lots of different light sources. • What types of films do you think would use High Key Lighting?
  9. 9. • Romantic Comedies • Comedies • Feel Good Films • Action Films • Children’s Films
  10. 10. LightingLighting • Low Key Lighting: • This is the opposite of high key lighting. • This lighting looks to create shadow, which creates suspense and tension in a scene. • This is usually achieved by using one light source. • What types of films do you think would use Low Key Lighting?
  11. 11. • Horrors • Suspense • Thrillers
  12. 12. LightingLighting • These two definitions are very basic and encompass either end of the lighting spectrum. There is a wide range of different lighting techniques between the two.
  13. 13. LightingLighting • Three Point Lighting: • Films rarely use one light in a scene. The most common way to light a scene and an actor is through three point lighting. • As the name suggests this used three main points of lighting. • The key light, the back light and a fill light.
  14. 14. LightingLighting • Three Point Lighting: • Key Light: • The key light is the biggest and brightest of the lights. • It shines from the front and bleaches out any contours in the actors face. It also creates shadows behind the person.
  15. 15. LightingLighting • Three Point Lighting: • Back Light: • This creates a ‘halo’ effect and removes any defects in the background and foreground.
  16. 16. LightingLighting • Three Point Lighting: • Fill Light: • This fills any shadows created by the Key light or Back light, for example shadows across the eyes or nose.
  17. 17. LightingLighting • Overhead Lighting: • A single light from above a character can be used to create a sinister effect and can be unflattering for the actor. • This will highlight contours in the actors face and make them look harder, masculine and colder.
  18. 18. LightingLighting • Under Lighting: • Although this lights from the opposite direction it still creates a similar effect. • Similarly to overhead lighting this hollows out the eyes and obscures the face. • It is normally reserved from male characters.
  19. 19. LightingLighting • Side Lighting: • This creates a shadow across the actors face. • This can be used to symbolise a duplicitous character, or one with a split personality.
  20. 20. AnalysisAnalysis • Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring • Watch the following scene. • Make notes on how cinematography is used to create meaning in this scene. • Remember you’re looking at Lighting, Camera Framing, Movement and Angles and Focus.

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