In order for a product to be successful it must have an audiencethat will consume it. All types of companies study their potential audiences to createproducts that will appeal to their wants and needs. Audiences can be split into several categories: Age Ethnicity Sexuality Gender Occupation Earnings Expendable Income etc…..WHY IS AUDIENCE IMPORTANT?
Defines the adultpopulationGroups them intocategories definedby their jobA Highermanagement, bankers, lawyers,doctors and other professionalsB Middlemanagement, teachers, creativemedia (graphic designers etc…)C1 Office supervisors, juniormanagers, nurses, specialistclerical staff (white collar)C2 Skilled manualworkers, plumbers, bricklayers(blue collar)D Semi-skilled and unskilledmanual workersE Unemployed, students,pensioners, casual workersDEMOGRAPHICS
PSYCHOGRAPHICSDescribes and audience by looking at theirbehaviour and personality traits
Mainstreamers Seek security. Tend to be domestic, conformist, conventional andsentimental. Favour value for money, family brands. Majority groupAspirers Seek status. Materialistic, orientated to image, appearance andfashion. Attractive packaging more important than contents.Typically younger people. Clerical or sales jobsSucceeders Seek control. Strong goals, confident. Strong work ethic. Supportsstability. Brand choice made of self reward and quality. Typicallyhigher management and professionalsResigned Seeks survival. Rigid and authoritarian values. Interested in pastand tradition. Brand choice stresses safety and familiarity. Usuallyolder people.Explorers Seek discovery. Energetic, individual. Values difference andadventure. First to try new brands. Younger demographic -students.Strugglers Seek escape. Alienated and disorganised. Few resources beyondphysical skills. Buys alcohol and junk food. D and E demographicReformers Seek enlightenment. Freedom from restrictions. Personal growth.Social awareness and independent judgement. Anti-materialisticbut aware of good taste. Attended higher education, selectsproducts for quality.PSYCHOGRAPHICS CONT…
States that all texts are polysemic (can have multiplemeanings) Texts can be “read” in different ways depending on theaudience’s identity, cultural knowledge and opinions He states that texts can be “read” in 3 different ways Preferred reading Negotiated reading Oppositional readingSTUART HALL – RECEPTION THEORY
Preferred reading The audience responds to the product the way the media producersexpect them and want them to Negotiated reading The audience partly agrees with the message or product but maydisagree with other parts Oppositional reading The audience is in complete disagreement with the product ormessageSTUART HALL – RECEPTION THEORY