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Sentence types and punctuation revision


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Sentence types and punctuation revision

  1. 1. WJEC Unit 2SPAG revisionLearning Outcomes• To revise sentence types and punctuationin preparation for Unit 2 (the writing paper)
  2. 2. Simple, compound and complex sentences• Simple: It was raining.• A simple sentence makes sense on its own and usually gives onepiece of information (it doesn’t have to be a short sentence).Compound: It was raining so I took my umbrella.A compound sentence has two clauses (two parts of the sentence) joinedby a connective (so, and, but, or).Complex: As it was raining, I took my umbrella.I took my umbrella as it was raining.A complex sentence has a main clause (the bit that makes sense on itsown) and a subordinate clause that adds information (this doesn’t makesense on its own).
  3. 3. Read the following extract. For each of the 10sentences, identify whether it is a simple, compound ora complex sentence.• The weather was awful. It had rained cats anddogs all day and I was bored out of my brains.Wanting to find something to do, I flicked throughthe local newspaper. The only things that werehappening were car boot sales and the odd gardenfete. Great! Then I spotted it. Between the‘household sale’ items and the ‘houses to let’, Ifound the cutest little pet wanting a home. I wassure I’d be the best person to look after him as Ihad lots of time to take care of him properly. So, Irang the number. Now I have my very own pettarantula and he’s adorable.
  4. 4. Sentence variation and effect• Remember, a sentence can be just oneword. Bang!• When would a short, simple sentence beeffective?• You also need to remember to vary theways you begin your sentences.
  5. 5. ‘ing’ words• When you begin a sentence with an ‘ing’word, you need a comma after the firstphrase (clause).• Walking to the park, I saw a clown.• Hearing the sound of birds, he feltrelaxed.• Taking her hand in his, John led her tothe dance-floor.
  6. 6. ‘ly’ words• When you begin your sentence with an ‘ly’word, the comma usually comesimmediately after this word.• Slowly, the man walked down the street.• Happily, she accepted the invitation.• Steadily, she began to improve.
  7. 7. Sentences beginning with ‘as’, ‘if’,‘when’, etc• When you begin a sentence with ‘as’ (time words), you need a commaafter the first clause/phrase.• As I walked down the street, I saw a clown.• As he approached me, I was scared.• As she was only small, she was not allowed on the ride.• If I were you, I would leave it alone.• When I was young, I liked rock and roll.In each of these sentences the clauses can beswitched around. If you did that, you would not needa comma.
  8. 8. Add commas to the followingparagraph…• When I was young I wanted to be an actress. Prancing aroundthe house I would pretend that I was on the West End stage.Slowly I learned that it would be a lot harder to break into thanI had first thought. With lots of hard work I made steadyprogress. Firstly through taking on smaller roles until eventuallyI was given my big break. As I look back now I am so proud ofwhat I have achieved. If you want to achieve your goals youneed to see yourself reaching them and just go for it!Hint: there are 7 missing commas
  9. 9. What other types of punctuationcan you use?• Full stops• Commas• Apostrophes• Semi-colons• Colons• Dash• Speech marks• Parenthesis
  10. 10. Colons and Semi-colonsWhy do you think I used a colon in the first sentenceand a semi-colon in the second?• It was a beautiful day and the weather was just perfect: sunny with a slightbreeze.• It was a beautiful day; the weather was just perfect.The clause after the colonexplains or amplifies what’sbefore the colon.The clause after thecolon DOES NOT haveto make sense on itsown.This semi colon is between two mainclauses (they make sense on their own)that are strongly related.Notice how the semi-colon can replaceconnectives – and,but, so … in acompound sentence.
  11. 11. ;
  12. 12. Why is a semi-colon used?• To separate two clauses of a sentence when they are closelyrelated• To separate items in a list when the items are long phrases andto use a comma might lead to ambiguity
  13. 13. Elephants live in hot countries. They cool off by bathing.Elephants live in hot countries; they cool off by bathing.
  14. 14. Technology at Nobel School is a real success. The equipment istop quality.Technology at Nobel School is a real success; the equipment istop quality.
  15. 15. :
  16. 16. • Similar to a semi-colon, but the wordsthat come after a colon do not need tomake sense on their own.• They add information to the sentencebefore the colon.• E.g The weather was beautiful: boilinghot.• The door slammed shut: bang!:
  17. 17. Simple things to include thatwill get you higher grades...• A range of sentencestructures. Also vary theway that you start yoursentences.• One word sentences.• One sentence paragraphs.• A range of punctuation.• Using language techniques.• Punctuation for effect.• Spelling .• Use a thesaurus to extendyour vocabulary.• Make sure that yourwriting flows well.• Make sure that yourwriting has flair for an A*!