Ll1 structure

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Ll1 structure

  1. 1. EXAM PRACTICE L.O: To plan and write a response for LL1 section A
  2. 2.  Text C: the poem A Musical Instrument by Elizabeth Barrett Browning.  Text D: an entry from the Encyclopaedia Britannica for children describing the Greek god Pan.
  3. 3. 1.) GAP/CONTEXT  (a) Genre  Does the genre focus on the author (eg a lyric poem), or is it more impersonal?  Is it dominated by a single voice, or are their different characters/people?  What is the history of the genre? What precedents were there for the author?  Are there particular attitudes and values the genre was used to express?  How does the author use a chosen genre for his own ends? Are there are biographical reasons the author may have been drawn to a particular genre?
  4. 4. b) Audience  Can you compare the audiences of the four texts in terms of  the age that are assumed to be?  the class they are assumed to come from?  the education/information/knowledge they are assumed to have?  whether they are assumed to be hostile or sympathetic to what the author says? (c) Purpose  Group together texts that seek to inform, entertain, persuade, advise, criticise, satirise,  celebrate, instruct, describe, explain, narrate or argue.
  5. 5. Poem Unseen text GAP/ context Poems written to Pan were popular in the Romantic period which would have influenced Victorian poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning. There are strong undertones of violation and sexual fertility in the poem often associated with the god Pan. Browning was the heroine of a real-life romance, she was rescued from parental tyranny and poor health by Robert Browning, with whom she eloped in 1846. The cutting of the river-bed reeds and the creation of the pan pipes for which Pan is famous are explicitly described in both texts, but the style in which this information is conveyed differs markedly. Pan's sexuality is not dealt with explicitly in either text; however the poem has a strong undercurrent of sexual violence typical of a repressed Victorian context, whereas Text D has a strong factual and educative purpose, differing from the poem's emotional, highly charged style. Text D is written for children and therefore has a responsibility to deal with the issue appropriately.
  6. 6. 2.) DISCOURSE STRUCTURE For our purposes, discourse structure refers to how a text is set out in poetry, prose or in spoken language. For the exams, you have to be able to compare these different discourse structures. Discourse structure means the same as form. It is best to use the term discourse structure, however, because ‘form’ can mean different things in different contexts. When writing about discourse, it is advisable to write about the poem first, because it’s most likely to be the most patterned in its use of language, and therefore the most straightforward to analyse.
  7. 7. Poetry You can talk about the technical discipline and structural rigour of the poem if • it has a regular rhyme scheme (eg the sonnets) • it has a repeated stanza pattern (eg Byron, Browning) • it has a regular rhythm (eg Bradstreet’s iambic pentameter) You can talk about the poet’s flowing rhythm and thought if • it is written in continuous verse without stanza divisions (eg Coleridge) • there is enjambment (eg Dickinson) NB If a poem has both a highly structured stanza pattern and enjambment (eg Wordsworth, Shelley, Keats), you are perfectly entitled to say that both of the above apply. You can talk about the poet’s flexibility and use of variation if sprung rhythm is used. Prose Generally speaking, prose is organised structurally into sentences and paragraphs. This form is flexible, however, because sentences and paragraphs may be long or short – you might want to compare with poetic features such as stanzas and iambic pentameter, which are always exactly the same length. You may also want to comment on the use of subheadings as a way of grouping related paragraphs or sentences together in a cohesive way.
  8. 8. Discourse structure Text C: 7 stanzas of sestets, repetitive structure creates choral effect echoing musical subject, unusual rhythm, 9 syllables, rhyme scheme abaccb with lines 1,2 and 6 ending with the same word in each verse, mostly end-stopped to reinforce repetitive structure, enjambment used typically in slightly longer fifth line, third person address describes myth of Pan from omniscient viewpoint; Text D: Four paragraphs of detailed factual information, short final paragraph links Pan with the devil, third person address provides detailed overview.
  9. 9. 3.) LIT/LANG FEATURES Use your terminology table. Make sure you know all the terms, and can identify them when they occur in texts. It’s best to get an overview first. In order to get this, it can be very useful to consider: • sentence types (simple, compound, complex?) • imagery • register (formal/informal) • lexis After you have got an overview, you can consider the more specific points.
  10. 10. Poem Unseen text Lit/lang features • Grammar - Text C: Opening interrogative 'What was he doing...?', exclamatory tone 'O Pan!', declarative mood describes violent actions 'hacked and hewed', Pan's actual words conveyed through direct speech 'This is the way', prepositional phrase 'Down in the reeds', repetition of pre- modified noun phrase 'great god Pan', asyndetic listing of adjectives 'poor dry empty'; • Imagery – Text C: Imagery of Pan as half-man, half-beast, 'hoofs of a goat', 'half a beast', violence of Pan's actions towards nature, 'broken', 'cut', 'fled' and his detrimental effect of the river scene until he plays his music when harmony is restored, personification of the reed as 'patient' and 'sun on the hill forgot to die', 'lilies revived', simile 'like the heart of a man', Pan cruelly strips the reed of its vitality; – • Lexis – Text C: Violent dynamic verbs 'hacked', 'hewed', 'scattering', third person pronoun 'he' and determiner 'his', adjectives 'golden', 'deep cool', 'limpid', repetition of adverb 'turbidly' meaning muddy, repetition of callous verb 'laughed' to reveal Pan's carefree attitude, tripling of adjective 'sweet' in an asyndetic list with the adverbs 'piercing' and 'blinding', definitive adverb 'nevermore again'; Text C: Alliteration 'reeds by the river' and 'great god' creates repetitive tone and underlines poem's rhythmical structure, sibilance 'shores sat' suggests peaceful scene before the violent act of cutting the reed, aspirants 'hacked and hewed' suggests effort involved in the physical action, bilabial nasals 'making...man' contentment suggested in Pan's purpose of going music to humankind; Text D: Declarative mood used to convey facts, simple sentences 'In most tales the god Hermes is Pan's father.' And final sentence of extract, dashes used to create parenthesis in third paragraph, syndetic pairs 'religion and mythology', 'merriment and revelry', syndetic list 'legs, horns and ears‘ Text D: Imagery of Pan as bestial 'Pan's goat parts', euphemistic sexual references 'progeny', 'suitors', 'courted', 'amorousness', subversive connection to the devil and the Roman gods Faunus and Silvanus. Text D: proper nouns, 'Pan', 'Arcadia', 'Hermes', 'Penelope', third person pronoun 'he' and determiner 'his', adjectives 'rural', 'wild', 'fertility', etymology of 'panic' explored, lexical set of verbs 'play music', 'dance', 'pursuing'; some surprisingly complex lexis given audience, 'progeny', 'attributes'. Text D: Guttural sounds 'goatherds...guarded...god', plosive alliteration 'Pan is the progeny of Penelope', 'Pan was a piper'.
  11. 11. 5.) EVALUATION  Conclude briefly by saying what is effective about the two texts, and how well they fulfil their purposes.
  12. 12. GRADE BOUNDARIES Grade A B C D E U Raw Mark Grade Boundary Raw: Actual mark for the unit. 063 054 045 036 027 000

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