5. Understanding change
<ul><li>Educational Leadership and Change </li></ul><ul><li>1. General theories about change </li></ul><ul><li>2. Diffusio...
Change on  ‘Something’   A
Change in time and space    t s A t s
Change on a Something    t s A A1 t s
Change : Definition   t s A A1 Measurement of something according to  a before and an after & a space and another space
Heraclitus <ul><li>Nothing  is . </li></ul><ul><li>Reality is pure change. </li></ul>
Change : Types - Aristotle   t s A A1 Accidental Change, e.g. change in color t s
Change : Types - Aristotle   t s A A1 Substantial Change, e.g. from Paper to Ash t s
Change in Education   t s Ed Ed1 Transformational Leadership in Education: “ a leadership approach that brings change in e...
 
Measurement of Change <ul><ul><ul><li>Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning : a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating...
Diffusion of innovations <ul><li>Rogers, E. M. (2003).  Diffusion of Innovations  (5 th  Ed). New York: Free Press. </li><...
Perceived  attributes  of an  innovation <ul><li>Attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>Relative advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Compat...
1. Relative advantage* <ul><li>‘ the degree to which an innovation is  perceived as better  than the idea it supersedes’ (...
2. Compatibility* <ul><li>‘ the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being  consistent with the existing values, ...
3. Complexity <ul><li>‘ the degree to which an innovation is  difficult  to understand and  use ’ (p.16) </li></ul>
4. Trialability <ul><li>‘ the degree to which an innovation may be  experimented with  on a limited basis’ </li></ul><ul><...
5. Observability <ul><li>‘ the degree to which the results of an innovation are  visible to others . The easier it is for ...
Rate of adoption <ul><li>Greater  [relative advantage, compatibility, trialability and observability] +  Less  [complexity...
Re-invention <ul><li>‘ the degree to which an innovation is changed or modified by a user in the process of adoption and i...
Group work  (@ Google Docs) <ul><li>Comment on the adoption of IT in your workplace using these concepts. </li></ul><ul><l...
Diffusion of Innovations <ul><li>Simplified Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation. </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ORcc...
Communication channels <ul><li>‘ the process by which participants create and share information with one another in order ...
Channels <ul><li>Most people make a subjective judgment about an innovation  based on what others(adopters) say </li></ul>...
Innovation-decision process <ul><li>applies to individuals and organizations </li></ul><ul><li>varies in time </li></ul><u...
Individual or Organizational Adoption <ul><li>awareness  </li></ul><ul><li>interest  </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation  </li></...
Individual or Organizational Adoption <ul><li>awareness  </li></ul><ul><li>interest  </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation  </li></...
Diffusion process Percentage of adoption Time Early adopters Late adopters Crucial stage -  take off
Adopter  categories <ul><li>Innovators – venturesome; able to cope with uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Early adopters – res...
Technology Adoption Cycle http://www.rationalsurvivability.com/blog/wp-content/media/2009/06/techadoptioncurve.jpg
Social Values affect the Adoption Rate <ul><li>Structure of a social system can facilitate or impede diffusion of innovati...
Organizational innovativeness <ul><li>Independent variables Dependent variable </li></ul><ul><li>LEADER CHARACTERISTICS </...
Innovative organizations and leadership <ul><li>Capodagli, B., & Jackson, L. (2010).  Innovate the Pixar way : business le...
Innovative organizations and leadership <ul><li>Key characteristics of innovative organizations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea...
Innovative organizations and leadership <ul><li>Definition of Leadership by Walt Disney: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The  ability ...
Pixar - Disney <ul><li>Changes that usher to long-term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Quality closer to “Dream” </li></ul><ul><ul...
Pixar – Disney Narratives <ul><li>Pixar  director Brad Bird (The Incredibles, Ratatouille) : “It’s never been about cheape...
Innovative organizations and leadership <ul><li>Any  organization’s innovative process  requires three metrics: </li></ul>...
Presenters for next week <ul><li>*  Paper 5  - Yuen, H.K., Law, N. & Wong, K.C. (2003). ICT Implementation and School Lead...
Q & A  @ Google Docs
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6023 session 5_2011

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6023 session 5_2011

  1. 1. 5. Understanding change
  2. 2. <ul><li>Educational Leadership and Change </li></ul><ul><li>1. General theories about change </li></ul><ul><li>2. Diffusion of innovations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5 th Ed). New York: Free Press. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Innovative organizations and leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capodagli, B., & Jackson, L. (2010). Innovate the Pixar way : business lessons from the world's most creative corporate playground . New York: McGraw-Hill. </li></ul></ul>Session 5 - Understanding change    
  3. 3. Change on ‘Something’   A
  4. 4. Change in time and space   t s A t s
  5. 5. Change on a Something   t s A A1 t s
  6. 6. Change : Definition   t s A A1 Measurement of something according to a before and an after & a space and another space
  7. 7. Heraclitus <ul><li>Nothing is . </li></ul><ul><li>Reality is pure change. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Change : Types - Aristotle   t s A A1 Accidental Change, e.g. change in color t s
  9. 9. Change : Types - Aristotle   t s A A1 Substantial Change, e.g. from Paper to Ash t s
  10. 10. Change in Education   t s Ed Ed1 Transformational Leadership in Education: “ a leadership approach that brings change in education, esp. learning outcome” (Kenneth A. Leithwood) t s
  11. 12. Measurement of Change <ul><ul><ul><li>Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning : a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London ; New York: Routledge. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effect Size : Only student learning assessment really counts. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Diffusion of innovations <ul><li>Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of Innovations (5 th Ed). New York: Free Press. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Diffusion is the process by which (1) an innovation (2) is communicated through certain channels (3) over time (4) among the members of a social system ’ (p.5) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Perceived attributes of an innovation <ul><li>Attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>Relative advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Trialability </li></ul><ul><li>Observability </li></ul>http://www.drugabuse.gov/NIDA_notes/NNvol19N3/Rogers.jpg
  14. 15. 1. Relative advantage* <ul><li>‘ the degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the idea it supersedes’ (p.15) </li></ul><ul><li>could be measured in economic terms, but also social prestige, convenience, satisfaction [and educational terms] </li></ul>
  15. 16. 2. Compatibility* <ul><li>‘ the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past experiences , and needs of potential adopters’ (p.15) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ an idea that is incompatible with the values and norms of a social system will not be adopted as rapidly as an innovation that is compatible’ (p.15) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The adoption of an incompatible innovation often requires the prior adoption of a new value system , which is a relatively slow process’ (p.15) </li></ul>
  16. 17. 3. Complexity <ul><li>‘ the degree to which an innovation is difficult to understand and use ’ (p.16) </li></ul>
  17. 18. 4. Trialability <ul><li>‘ the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ new ideas that can be tried on the installment plan will generally be adopted more quickly than innovations that are not divisible’ (p.16) </li></ul>
  18. 19. 5. Observability <ul><li>‘ the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others . The easier it is for individuals to see the results of an innovation, the more likely they are to adopt’ (p.16) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Rate of adoption <ul><li>Greater [relative advantage, compatibility, trialability and observability] + Less [complexity] = More rapid adoption </li></ul><ul><li>Relative advantage and compatibility are ‘particularly important in explaining an innovation’s rate of adoption’ (p.17) </li></ul>
  20. 21. Re-invention <ul><li>‘ the degree to which an innovation is changed or modified by a user in the process of adoption and implementation’ (p.17) </li></ul>
  21. 22. Group work (@ Google Docs) <ul><li>Comment on the adoption of IT in your workplace using these concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Does IT have ‘high’ or ‘low’ relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability with Hong Kong employees? Is re-invention evident? In what ways? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the leadership issues in connection to these observations? </li></ul>
  22. 23. Diffusion of Innovations <ul><li>Simplified Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation. </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ORcczcDNETU
  23. 24. Communication channels <ul><li>‘ the process by which participants create and share information with one another in order to reach a mutual understanding’ (p.18) </li></ul><ul><li>channel = ‘the means by which messages get from one individual to another’ (p.18) – mass media or interpersonal channels, WWW … etc </li></ul>
  24. 25. Channels <ul><li>Most people make a subjective judgment about an innovation based on what others(adopters) say </li></ul><ul><li>‘ the heart of the diffusion process consists of the modeling and imitation by potential adopters of their network partners who have previously adopted’ (p.19) </li></ul>
  25. 26. Innovation-decision process <ul><li>applies to individuals and organizations </li></ul><ul><li>varies in time </li></ul><ul><li>Stages - very important – ‘the individual [or organization] wants to know the innovation’s advantages and disadvantages for his or her own particular situation’ (p.21) </li></ul>
  26. 27. Individual or Organizational Adoption <ul><li>awareness </li></ul><ul><li>interest </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>trial </li></ul><ul><li>adoption </li></ul><ul><li>awareness </li></ul><ul><li>interest </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>trial </li></ul><ul><li>adoption </li></ul>
  27. 28. Individual or Organizational Adoption <ul><li>awareness </li></ul><ul><li>interest </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>trial </li></ul><ul><li>adoption </li></ul><ul><li>awareness </li></ul><ul><li>interest </li></ul><ul><li>evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>trial </li></ul><ul><li>adoption </li></ul>
  28. 29. Diffusion process Percentage of adoption Time Early adopters Late adopters Crucial stage - take off
  29. 30. Adopter categories <ul><li>Innovators – venturesome; able to cope with uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Early adopters – respected by peers; judicious about innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Early majority – deliberate before adopting </li></ul><ul><li>Late majority – skeptical; economic necessity or peer pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Laggards – traditional values; decisions based on what’s been done previously </li></ul>
  30. 31. Technology Adoption Cycle http://www.rationalsurvivability.com/blog/wp-content/media/2009/06/techadoptioncurve.jpg
  31. 32. Social Values affect the Adoption Rate <ul><li>Structure of a social system can facilitate or impede diffusion of innovations </li></ul><ul><li>(A) Social Ethical Discourse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normative (rule-based) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilitarian (usefulness) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtues (merits) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(B) Taste, Habits in Art, Education, Consumption e.g. Veblen (conspicuous consumption, leisure); Bourdieu (habitus, social reproduction, schooling as symbolic violence) </li></ul>
  32. 33. Organizational innovativeness <ul><li>Independent variables Dependent variable </li></ul><ul><li>LEADER CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude to change (+) </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>1. Centralization (-) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Complexity (+) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Formalization (-) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Interconnectedness (+) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Organizational slack (+) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Size (+) </li></ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>System openness (+) </li></ul>Organizational innovativeness Rogers (2003). Diffusion of Innovations , p.441
  33. 34. Innovative organizations and leadership <ul><li>Capodagli, B., & Jackson, L. (2010). Innovate the Pixar way : business lessons from the world's most creative corporate playground . New York: McGraw-Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Why are innovative organizations so few (Disney, Wal-Mart, Apple) ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their main features? </li></ul>
  34. 35. Innovative organizations and leadership <ul><li>Key characteristics of innovative organizations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search for substantial change rather than accidental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality over quantity “Quality is the best business plan” (Capodagli p. x) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passionate & autonomous about learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term mentality over Short-term mentality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to delay return (Marshmallow exp.) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Innovative organizations and leadership <ul><li>Definition of Leadership by Walt Disney: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The ability to establish and manage a creative climate in which individuals and teams are self-motivated to the successful achievement of long-term goals in an environment of mutual respect and trust .” (p. 38) </li></ul>
  36. 37. Pixar - Disney <ul><li>Changes that usher to long-term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Quality closer to “Dream” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers : the story of success (1st ed.). New York: Little, Brown and Co. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The 10,000-Hour Rule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The process of change-innovation should be fun for everyone in the organization (Org. Climate) </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual respect and trust are most important aspects of Pixar’s leadership, namely collaborative environment </li></ul><ul><li>Creative ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Self-motivated people (Self-realization, Maslow) </li></ul>
  37. 38. Pixar – Disney Narratives <ul><li>Pixar director Brad Bird (The Incredibles, Ratatouille) : “It’s never been about cheaper [and] faster at Pixar. It’s creating for the long term .” (p. 45) </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Ownership: “Ed Catmull emphasizes the importance of set[ting] people up for success by giving them all the information they need to do the job right without telling them how to do it. Each person on the film must be given creative ownership of even the smallest task .” (p. 41) </li></ul><ul><li>Brad Bird: “The most significant impact on a movie’s budget – but never in the budget – is morale . If you have low morale, for every one dollar you spend, you get about twenty-five cents of value. If you have high morale, for every dollar you spend you get about three dollars of value. Companies should pay much more attention to morale.” (p. 86) </li></ul>
  38. 39. Innovative organizations and leadership <ul><li>Any organization’s innovative process requires three metrics: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Top leadership who is totally enamored with and enchanted by innovation , and who expects the same from everyone in the organization, from the boardroom to the storeroom. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Frontline leadership who facilitates and encourages creative ideas from the entire team : a work environment that enables employees to quickly try new and innovative ways of doing their jobs, learn from their experiences, and try again. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Tangible measurements that are meaningful to the business process. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Presenters for next week <ul><li>* Paper 5 - Yuen, H.K., Law, N. & Wong, K.C. (2003). ICT Implementation and School Leadership: Case Studies of ICT Integration in Teaching and Learning, Journal of Educational Administration , 41 (2), 158-170. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LEUNG Lok Sang </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CHOY Wing Chi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HO Kwok Keung </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LI Ximeng </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Q & A @ Google Docs

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