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The rare scare…
Endangered Species
• An endangered species is a population of organisms
which is at risk of becoming extinct because it is
either few in numbers, threatened by changing
environmental or predation parameters,
deforestation, or lack of food or water.
• International and national agencies work to maintain
lists of endangered species, to protect and preserve
natural habitats, and to promote programs for
recovery and reestablishment of these species
What is an Endangered Species?
• Extinction is the disappearance of an entire species
• If a species does not have the genetic traits to survive in its
environment, then the species will eventually become extinct forever
• Some examples of extinct animals are:
Thylacine Quagga Dodo Bird
Galapagos Tortoise
Bali Tiger
Dinosaurs Steller’s Sea Cow Laughing Owl
What is an Extinct Species?
Endangered Species
African Elephant
Snow Leopard
Northern Hairy-nosed
Wombat
Short Tailed Chinchilla
Giant Armadillo
Hawaiian Crow
Right Whale
Red Wolf
Black Rhinoceros
Golden Lion Tamarin
Wild Bactrian Camel
Asiatic Cheetah
Chinese
Paddlefish
Cochabamba Mountain Finch
All of these species, along with hundreds of others are currently endangered
Causes of Endangerment
• There are many different reasons that a species may
become endangered or extinct. Some of them that we will
explore today are:
 Rarity
 Inbreeding
 Hybridization
 Gradual loss of habitat
 Long-term environmental trends
 Catastrophe
 Extinction or reduction of mutualistic population
 Competition
 Predators
 Disease
 Hunting and collecting
• Rarity- when there are very few animals of a species left there are
less available mates
– Animals can be rare if they have very specific food or nesting
requirements, are sensitive to change, compete with other
species, migrate, or interfere with human activities in some way.
(Galapagos tortoise became rare because of their lack of ability
to compete with other species)
• Inbreeding- when animals mate too much within their own group
the offspring become less able to survive and adapt in a healthy way
– Below is a picture of an inbred white tiger with visible birth defects due
to inbreeding.
Causes of Endangerment

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Endangered-Species (1).ppt

  • 2. • An endangered species is a population of organisms which is at risk of becoming extinct because it is either few in numbers, threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters, deforestation, or lack of food or water. • International and national agencies work to maintain lists of endangered species, to protect and preserve natural habitats, and to promote programs for recovery and reestablishment of these species What is an Endangered Species?
  • 3. • Extinction is the disappearance of an entire species • If a species does not have the genetic traits to survive in its environment, then the species will eventually become extinct forever • Some examples of extinct animals are: Thylacine Quagga Dodo Bird Galapagos Tortoise Bali Tiger Dinosaurs Steller’s Sea Cow Laughing Owl What is an Extinct Species?
  • 4. Endangered Species African Elephant Snow Leopard Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat Short Tailed Chinchilla Giant Armadillo Hawaiian Crow Right Whale Red Wolf Black Rhinoceros Golden Lion Tamarin Wild Bactrian Camel Asiatic Cheetah Chinese Paddlefish Cochabamba Mountain Finch All of these species, along with hundreds of others are currently endangered
  • 5. Causes of Endangerment • There are many different reasons that a species may become endangered or extinct. Some of them that we will explore today are:  Rarity  Inbreeding  Hybridization  Gradual loss of habitat  Long-term environmental trends  Catastrophe  Extinction or reduction of mutualistic population  Competition  Predators  Disease  Hunting and collecting
  • 6. • Rarity- when there are very few animals of a species left there are less available mates – Animals can be rare if they have very specific food or nesting requirements, are sensitive to change, compete with other species, migrate, or interfere with human activities in some way. (Galapagos tortoise became rare because of their lack of ability to compete with other species) • Inbreeding- when animals mate too much within their own group the offspring become less able to survive and adapt in a healthy way – Below is a picture of an inbred white tiger with visible birth defects due to inbreeding. Causes of Endangerment
  • 7. • Hybridization- When two animals from different sub-species mate, they might pass on genes that are less healthy (Quagga-half horse half zebra which is now extinct) • Gradual loss of habitat- When an animal's habitat is slowly destroyed and they have nowhere to live. (Bali Tiger, also now extinct) Causes of Endangerment
  • 8. • Long-term environmental trends- Scientists think that dinosaurs became extinct because of a slow cooling of the earth • Catastrophe- Volcanic eruption, dramatic change in climate, tsunami, etc. Causes of Endangerment
  • 9. • Extinction or reduction of mutualistic population- If two species are dependent on each other, then the endangering of one also endangers the other – the Ocellaris clownfish that dwell among the tentacles of Ritteri sea anemones would become endangered if the anemones were to become endangered • Competition- When a new species is introduced to a habitat, then the stronger of the two species will be more likely to survive. – A Japanese vine introduced in a Georgia forest competes with the other plants for light…and clearly wins. Causes of Endangerment
  • 10. • Predators- When the population of a species of predator in a habitat suddenly increases, the population of their prey decreases – The wolves in Yellow Stone National Park prevent herbivores from over- grazing the area by preying on them, thus increasing their risk of endangerment • Disease- If a particular sickness spreads quickly throughout a particular species, then many may die before they can reproduce – The Tasmanian Devil Tumor Disease has made the species become endangered • Hunting and collecting- Hunters have been largely responsible for the endangerment of many animal species. – Elephant poachers have been the cause of many endangered and extinct species of elephants. Elephants have long been hunted and killed for their valuable ivory tusks Causes of Endangerment
  • 11. “Plants and animals hold medicinal, agricultural, ecological, commercial and aesthetic/recreational value. Endangered species must be protected and saved so that future generations can experience their presence and value.” Why Save Endangered Species?
  • 12. • About 40% of all prescriptions written today are composed from the natural compounds of different species • The Pacific Yew  is a tree that used to be considered a “trash tree.” It was discovered to be a promising treatment for some cancers. Medicinal
  • 13. • Scientists estimate there are about 80,000 edible plants in the world • Only 20 species of these plants (wheat, corn, etc) provide most of the world’s food. • Animals, too, are part of the agriculture. For example, having birds eat certain insects so that they do not devour all of the farmer’s crops Agricultural
  • 14. • Plant and animal systems are the foundation of healthy ecosystems. When a species becomes endangered it is an indicator that the health of these vital ecosystems is beginning to unravel. • The US Fish and Wildlife Service estimates that losing one plant species can trigger the loss of up to 30 other insect, plant, and higher animal species • Pollution off the coast of Florida is killing the coral reefs along the Florida Keys, which serve as a habitat for hundreds of fish. Commercial fish species have begun to decline causing a threat to the tourism industry which depends on the quality of the environment Ecological
  • 15. • Various wild species are commercially raised, directly contributing to local and regional economies. • For example, commercial salmon fishing in the Pacific Northwest provides 60,000 jobs and $1 billion dollars a year in income. This industry is in trouble as salmon decline due to habitat degradation from dams, clear cutting, and overgrazing. Commercial
  • 16. • Plant and animal species and their ecosystems form the basis of America’s multi billion dollar job intensive tourism industry. They also supply recreation, spiritual, and quality of life values as well. • Each year over 100 million people in the US participate in wildlife related recreation including observing, feeding and photographing wildlife. Recreational
  • 17. • Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act – Makes it illegal to import, export, or take bald or golden eagles to sell, purchase, or barter their parts, or products made from them including their nests or eggs. • Marine Mammal Protection Act – This Act establishes a moratorium on the taking and importation of marine mammals, including parts and products, and defines Federal responsibility for conservation of marine mammals, with management authority vested in the Department of the Interior for the sea otter, walrus, polar bear, dugong, and manatee • Endangered Species Act – This Act prohibits the importation, exportation, taking, and commercialization in interstate or foreign commerce of fish and wildlife, and plants that are listed as threatened or endangered species. The Act also implements the provision of the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. • Antarctic Conservation Act (16 U.S.C. 2401). – The purpose of the Act is to provide for the conservation and protection of the fauna and flora of Antarctica and of the ecosystem upon which such fauna and flora depend. The primary prohibitions of the Act make it unlawful for any United States citizen to take any native bird or mammal in Antarctica or to collect any native plant from any specially protected area within Antarctica. In addition, the Act makes it unlawful for any United States citizen or any foreign person in the United States to possess, sell, offer for sale, deliver, receive, carry, transport, import, export, or attempt to import or export from the United States any native mammal or bird taken in Antarctica or any plant collected in any specially protected area. Laws That Protect Endangered Species THERE ARE MANY OTHER LAWS SET IN PLACE TO PRESERVE AND PROTECT ENDANGERED SPECIES