An extreme close (ECU) is a shot which is used to show a
specific object or body part which relates to the storyline. It is
usually a facial feature, such as an eye or mouth, to help
represent an emotion or an effect. It can also be of an object
which relates to the storyline, for example, an extremely close
up on a button which causes an explosion when pressed.
A close up is used to show a facial expression which conveys
an emotion, such as happiness, anger or sorrow. It is also
used to show when dialog is being spoken and who is
speaking. This shot is also used to give prominence to a
character (usually the protagonist) when they have
something important to say; this shows dominance.
A mid shot is used to show emotion and gestures made by
characters which help to explain the narrative. It can also be
used to show characters costumes (m-e-s) to the audience.
A mid shot allows the audience to see relationships of
characters and their interactions.
A long shot is used to show action; there is room for characters
to move around within the shot. It is also used to show
relationship between characters. For example, 2 characters may
be having a fight. Furthermore, it gives us an insight into the
location of the scene, for example in a school class room, field or
A panoramic shot, also referred to as an establishing
shot or a master shot is big wide view shot. It is
often used to introduce a new location/environment
to the audience; they are able to see the whole area.
A two person shot is used when there is 2 people in the shot. If there is 3
people in the shot, it would be referred to as a 3 shot and so on. This is
used to show relationship between characters which helps to explain the
P.O.V shots are used to show the view from a character. In a P.O.V
shot we are looking through the eyes of a character. This allows
the audience to see what they can see which helps the audience
relate and empathise towards the character.
An over the shoulder shot is similar to a P.O.V shot.
It incorporates audience into the text, shows
conversation and helps shows relationships between
A high angle shot shows a birds eye view of a scene or simply a
camera angle which is higher than the object/subject it is focused on.
It can be used to make a character appear smaller and more
vulnerable as well as making it seem like they have a lower status
than other characters.
Low angle can make the character look powerful and can be used to show that
they are important to the media text. The characters are made to look superior
to other characters in the media text usually the protagonist is the character that
has the most low angle shots used on them as the are usually the one that fixes
the dilemma in the narrative of the media text.
In this shot the camera revolves horizontally on axis. This shot shows
movement and makes the audience feel like they are an onlooker
rather than being involved in the action.
A tracking shot, also known as a dolly shot, is when the
camera is placed on a dolly track and can able moved along
the track to film scenery as well as follow action.
A tilt shot is where the camera stays in one place is tilted up and down horizontally to
follow action. An example of a tilt shot would be tilting the camera upwards to follow
the action of somebody climbing a ladder.
A crane shot is where the camera is held up on a
crane to give the audience a bird’s eye view of a
location or action which is taking place.
A canted angle is used to show that the world is not right,
for example there has been a disaster. It can also be used as
a P.O.V to show when someone has fallen over or to show
the P.O.V of someone who is drunk. It is commonly used in
horror and thriller films.