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Organizational Skills
Emily Kates, Miguel Lara, Travis Dodge, Nichole Buck, Sarah Hamilton
“Some people are naturally organized, but their habits
which they adopt to become organized are not that
difficult to learn”
Mancini, (2003)
Words of Wisdom
 Pitfalls to Organization
 Strategies for Being More Organized
 Time management
 Traditional Managers
 Organization for Managers & Leaders
Road Map
What Prevents you from being
Organized?
Pitfalls of Organization
 Task Management
 Gathering Tasks
 Defining Tasks
 Preparation
 Methods
 Files
 Folders
 Planner
 Technology
Strategies for Getting More Organized
 Finding Out what Needs to Be Done:
 “Information flows at us continuously from email, voice mail,
meetings, cellphones, mail, magazines, books, newspaper,
Web, TV”
→ The trick knowing what information is valuable and
what is not
 Having a Method & Using it Consistently
 Once you receive a task write it down, set an alarm, put it in your
phone.
 Whatever you do- Do it Consistently
Gathering Tasks
 When Does it Need to be Done by:
 Deadlines
 create a sense of urgency
 help prioritize which tasks are most important
 “Non-time targeted tasks don’t get done! Give every task a
deadline. Until you set a deadline for a project, it’s more like a
wish not an action”
Someday is Not a Day of the Week!
Gathering Tasks
 Involves a written plan which specifies the steps needed to
achieve a desired result
 You cannot plan and work at the same time
 “ Suppose you wanted to build a deck, you wouldn’t buy the
lumber and start sawing the wood without planning how large
the deck should be”
Defining Tasks
 Use your Question Words:
 Who
 Personal Tasks
 Delegation - Do I have time? Would it be a better project for someone
else?
 When
 Deadlines
 What
 What exactly needs to be done?
 How
 Break it down into smaller steps
 Work Back from a deadline to identify the action that needs to be taken.
Defining Tasks
 At the End of the Day
 Tidy Up
 Take 5 Minutes to clear your desk for tomorrow
 Evaluate the Day
 What worked, what didn’t work, what would I do differently?
Preparation
 Creating a plan for Tomorrow Today
 Define what needs to get done, and by when
 Work in what will be done differently tomorrow
 Example
 Looking at schedule/planner before bed every night
 Helps Determine:
 What needs to be done, and when I am going to do it during the
day.
Preparation
“With practice practitioners can improve their organizational
skills through consistently following an organizational process and
developing positive and helpful routines and habits”
(Wicker, 2009)
METHODS
Lack of consistency results in a loss of
information and time
Pick a single reference tool
 Help with awareness of where things are located.
 Filing:
File Systems
Excessive
“Is it conceivable I
might want to
refer to this file in
the future?”
Always a Yes
Sensible
“If I wanted this
item again and I
didn’t have it,
what would I do?”
Usually you’ll get
along fine without
it
 Physical Record Keeping
 Portable - Easy to Carry Essentials
Folders
Home
Folder
Pocket
Files
 Master List
 “Reservoir or catchment basin in which you capture
everything you have to do”
 Daily List
 “Each morning or night, create a new daily list for the day
mostly including things from the master list, but also adding
sporadic things that have just arisen”
 Should be specific, limited, and timely
Lists with Dates
Benefits
Planners
Permanent Records
Don't Need to be Recharged
Ability to cross out once completed
Emily’s Planner
Benefits
Technology
Easy for simple routine tasks time after
time
Organizing lists of items & displaying in
various ways
Cloud Technology - Access anywhere, no
need to bring a planner
Microsoft Office Software
 No method is perfect
 They all have different benefits & downfalls!
Consistency is the key!
Methods – Take Away
 Instructions:
 You will each receive a handout that contains a few different types of
tasks to be organized for two months!
 Use:
 One of the techniques discussed
 A hybrid technique
 Your own method to organize these tasks
 You can use the Calendar provided on the back, your planner, or any
device you have with you!
 Assume Today is November 1st!
 Some Tasks Don’t have dates – Use your own judgment
 You have 5 Minutes!
Time: 5 Minutes
Class Activity
 Things to Note:
 Not all tasks have dates – Emails, Phone calls, ASAP
 Should use your judgment and assign a date yourself
 Repetitive Tasks – Make sure you write-in for every date
 Big Tasks – Start taxes, Organize personal Finances, Submit Quarter Reports
 Probably require breaking into smaller tasks & and assigning shorter deadlines
 Continually Update these lists – Planner, App, Outlook
Any Different Methods we haven’t mentioned?
Activity DeBrief
Strategies for Time Management
Setting
Goals
PrioritizingScheduling
S.M.A.R.T Goals
Goal Setting
Specific What are your goals?
Measurable How will you measure your
goals?
Attainable Are the goals achievable?
Realistic/ Relevant Are the goals realistic and
relevant?
Tangible/Time-Bound Are the goals tangible and
when will it be accomplished?
 Tasks
 Important and Urgent
 Important and Not Urgent
 Urgent but Not Important
 Busy Work
 Wasted Time
Priorities
Set prioritizes by:
Importance and
then urgency
What are the Priorities?
To Do List
Directions
Because you don't seem to be getting as much
accomplished as you would like, you decide to analyze your
activities for one day. You kept a record of your job routine
and personal activities in 15-minute segments. Following is a
summary of what you accomplished during the day.
Analyze the activities for the day and suggest some areas
in which you might save time.
Organizational Skills Activity
How would you save time?
Skip breaks?
 Skipping breaks will
actually hurt your
productivity
Different Ideas:
 Supplies
 One trip for all supplies
 Have them delivered
prior
 Organize in advance
 Not as many personal
calls
What else can help with managing
your time?
Breaking down large projects into smaller tasks
Setting a due date for yourself
What else can you do?
Traditional Management
Why are these skills important for managers?
Scheduling?
Organization?
Task management?
Discussion
Classical Functions of Management
1) Planning
2) Organizing
3) Coordinating
4) Commanding
5) Controlling
Henri Fayol (Istanbul, 29 July 1841 – Paris, 19 November 1925)
Mahoney, Jerdee, Carroll (1963, 1965)
P Planning 19%
R Representing 2%
I Investigating 26%
N Negotiating 07%
C Coordinating 21%
E Evaluating 9%
S Supervising 12%
S Staffing 5%
GE study (1957) Planning Organization Production
Stagner (1969) Organizational Planning Profitability
Boyatzis (1982) Goal setting Planning Effectiveness
Studies over the years
Hughes and Singler (1985)
Organizing
Planning
Successful vs Effective Managers
Luthans (1988)
Time Spent Daily
Traditional Management
 Planning
 Organizing
 Coordinating
Traditional Management
 Skills have been known as “threshold capabilities”,
Goleman, (1998)
 Managerial and Leadership-styled skills combined are
necessary
 Functional overlap between managers and leaders
 Cultural differences still prevalent
 Each is used to balance one another
Managers are Leaders
Cycle between Managers and
Leaders
Planning &
Budgeting
•Setting
Direction
Organizing &
Staffing
•Aligning Vision
Providing Control
& Problem Solving
•Motivating
Functional Overlap
Verma and Kamlesh (2001)
 Articulate that there is a
functional overlap based
off of two components:
Human Factors
• Managers
• Organizing &
Staffing
Interpersonal
Activity
• Leaders
• Motivating
• Richard
Nicolosi – P&G
 Managers and Leaders have taken different approaches to
organizing teams
 I.E Japanese managers seen as leaders, Ravichandran (2000)
 U.S, Japan, and China ,Weihrich (1990)
Cultural Differences
U.S.
•Emphasis on
the Individual
•Clearly Defined
Responsibilities
Japan
•Collective
Approach
•Informal
Organizational
Team Structure
China
•Emphasis on
the Individual
•Identify with
the company,
no team spirit
Skills Apply to
Both Managers
& Leaders
Strategies for
Being More
Organized &
Time
Management
Pitfalls of
Organization
Conclusions
“The real challenge is to combine strong leadership and
strong management and use each to balance the other”
Kotter, (1990)
21st Century Leadership
Adair, J., Allen, M. (2003). The Concise Time Management and Personal Development Guide. London: Thorogood.
Adams, S. (2014, June 16). Eight Ways Goofing Off Can Make You More Productive.
Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/susanadams/ 2014/06/16/eight-ways-goofing-off-canmake-you-more-productive-3/
Bliss, E. C. (1976). Getting things done: The ABCs of time management. New York: Scribner.
Carroll, S. J., & Gillen, D. I. (1987). Are the classical management functions useful in describing managerial work?. Academy of management review, 12(1), 38-51.
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Digital Nation [Online Video} (2010). Frontline-PBS-WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved From
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/digitalnation/view/
Goleman D. (1998). What Makes a Leader?, Harvard Business Review Press, 1-11.
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Iu5SUDF0XgShMytmiT71s5wKPOZ1b7Gu76idjFwKMCnQLjRSlMo_jknzMa5VRNLhmEiEbg14sTMGljs5QiByBlWtSgRY5T73ifEQhlNri5rKdgV1T6HXxG1T0fVeeZ6c1z
N06GjE0tCTWB6EHh55Pxf5BL1bCYF92JWNeA9VHMDnsF2wSPAC-nmkq8JOFT-TuHg%3D%3D&attredirects=0
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Organizational Skills Presentation

  • 1. Organizational Skills Emily Kates, Miguel Lara, Travis Dodge, Nichole Buck, Sarah Hamilton
  • 2. “Some people are naturally organized, but their habits which they adopt to become organized are not that difficult to learn” Mancini, (2003) Words of Wisdom
  • 3.  Pitfalls to Organization  Strategies for Being More Organized  Time management  Traditional Managers  Organization for Managers & Leaders Road Map
  • 4. What Prevents you from being Organized?
  • 6.  Task Management  Gathering Tasks  Defining Tasks  Preparation  Methods  Files  Folders  Planner  Technology Strategies for Getting More Organized
  • 7.  Finding Out what Needs to Be Done:  “Information flows at us continuously from email, voice mail, meetings, cellphones, mail, magazines, books, newspaper, Web, TV” → The trick knowing what information is valuable and what is not  Having a Method & Using it Consistently  Once you receive a task write it down, set an alarm, put it in your phone.  Whatever you do- Do it Consistently Gathering Tasks
  • 8.  When Does it Need to be Done by:  Deadlines  create a sense of urgency  help prioritize which tasks are most important  “Non-time targeted tasks don’t get done! Give every task a deadline. Until you set a deadline for a project, it’s more like a wish not an action” Someday is Not a Day of the Week! Gathering Tasks
  • 9.  Involves a written plan which specifies the steps needed to achieve a desired result  You cannot plan and work at the same time  “ Suppose you wanted to build a deck, you wouldn’t buy the lumber and start sawing the wood without planning how large the deck should be” Defining Tasks
  • 10.  Use your Question Words:  Who  Personal Tasks  Delegation - Do I have time? Would it be a better project for someone else?  When  Deadlines  What  What exactly needs to be done?  How  Break it down into smaller steps  Work Back from a deadline to identify the action that needs to be taken. Defining Tasks
  • 11.  At the End of the Day  Tidy Up  Take 5 Minutes to clear your desk for tomorrow  Evaluate the Day  What worked, what didn’t work, what would I do differently? Preparation
  • 12.  Creating a plan for Tomorrow Today  Define what needs to get done, and by when  Work in what will be done differently tomorrow  Example  Looking at schedule/planner before bed every night  Helps Determine:  What needs to be done, and when I am going to do it during the day. Preparation
  • 13. “With practice practitioners can improve their organizational skills through consistently following an organizational process and developing positive and helpful routines and habits” (Wicker, 2009) METHODS Lack of consistency results in a loss of information and time Pick a single reference tool
  • 14.  Help with awareness of where things are located.  Filing: File Systems Excessive “Is it conceivable I might want to refer to this file in the future?” Always a Yes Sensible “If I wanted this item again and I didn’t have it, what would I do?” Usually you’ll get along fine without it
  • 15.  Physical Record Keeping  Portable - Easy to Carry Essentials Folders Home Folder Pocket Files
  • 16.  Master List  “Reservoir or catchment basin in which you capture everything you have to do”  Daily List  “Each morning or night, create a new daily list for the day mostly including things from the master list, but also adding sporadic things that have just arisen”  Should be specific, limited, and timely Lists with Dates
  • 17. Benefits Planners Permanent Records Don't Need to be Recharged Ability to cross out once completed
  • 19. Benefits Technology Easy for simple routine tasks time after time Organizing lists of items & displaying in various ways Cloud Technology - Access anywhere, no need to bring a planner
  • 21.  No method is perfect  They all have different benefits & downfalls! Consistency is the key! Methods – Take Away
  • 22.  Instructions:  You will each receive a handout that contains a few different types of tasks to be organized for two months!  Use:  One of the techniques discussed  A hybrid technique  Your own method to organize these tasks  You can use the Calendar provided on the back, your planner, or any device you have with you!  Assume Today is November 1st!  Some Tasks Don’t have dates – Use your own judgment  You have 5 Minutes! Time: 5 Minutes Class Activity
  • 23.  Things to Note:  Not all tasks have dates – Emails, Phone calls, ASAP  Should use your judgment and assign a date yourself  Repetitive Tasks – Make sure you write-in for every date  Big Tasks – Start taxes, Organize personal Finances, Submit Quarter Reports  Probably require breaking into smaller tasks & and assigning shorter deadlines  Continually Update these lists – Planner, App, Outlook Any Different Methods we haven’t mentioned? Activity DeBrief
  • 24. Strategies for Time Management Setting Goals PrioritizingScheduling
  • 25. S.M.A.R.T Goals Goal Setting Specific What are your goals? Measurable How will you measure your goals? Attainable Are the goals achievable? Realistic/ Relevant Are the goals realistic and relevant? Tangible/Time-Bound Are the goals tangible and when will it be accomplished?
  • 26.  Tasks  Important and Urgent  Important and Not Urgent  Urgent but Not Important  Busy Work  Wasted Time Priorities Set prioritizes by: Importance and then urgency What are the Priorities?
  • 28. Directions Because you don't seem to be getting as much accomplished as you would like, you decide to analyze your activities for one day. You kept a record of your job routine and personal activities in 15-minute segments. Following is a summary of what you accomplished during the day. Analyze the activities for the day and suggest some areas in which you might save time. Organizational Skills Activity
  • 29. How would you save time? Skip breaks?  Skipping breaks will actually hurt your productivity Different Ideas:  Supplies  One trip for all supplies  Have them delivered prior  Organize in advance  Not as many personal calls
  • 30. What else can help with managing your time? Breaking down large projects into smaller tasks Setting a due date for yourself What else can you do?
  • 32. Why are these skills important for managers? Scheduling? Organization? Task management? Discussion
  • 33. Classical Functions of Management 1) Planning 2) Organizing 3) Coordinating 4) Commanding 5) Controlling Henri Fayol (Istanbul, 29 July 1841 – Paris, 19 November 1925)
  • 34. Mahoney, Jerdee, Carroll (1963, 1965) P Planning 19% R Representing 2% I Investigating 26% N Negotiating 07% C Coordinating 21% E Evaluating 9% S Supervising 12% S Staffing 5%
  • 35. GE study (1957) Planning Organization Production Stagner (1969) Organizational Planning Profitability Boyatzis (1982) Goal setting Planning Effectiveness Studies over the years
  • 36. Hughes and Singler (1985) Organizing Planning
  • 37. Successful vs Effective Managers Luthans (1988) Time Spent Daily Traditional Management
  • 38.  Planning  Organizing  Coordinating Traditional Management
  • 39.  Skills have been known as “threshold capabilities”, Goleman, (1998)  Managerial and Leadership-styled skills combined are necessary  Functional overlap between managers and leaders  Cultural differences still prevalent  Each is used to balance one another Managers are Leaders
  • 40. Cycle between Managers and Leaders Planning & Budgeting •Setting Direction Organizing & Staffing •Aligning Vision Providing Control & Problem Solving •Motivating
  • 41. Functional Overlap Verma and Kamlesh (2001)  Articulate that there is a functional overlap based off of two components: Human Factors • Managers • Organizing & Staffing Interpersonal Activity • Leaders • Motivating • Richard Nicolosi – P&G
  • 42.  Managers and Leaders have taken different approaches to organizing teams  I.E Japanese managers seen as leaders, Ravichandran (2000)  U.S, Japan, and China ,Weihrich (1990) Cultural Differences U.S. •Emphasis on the Individual •Clearly Defined Responsibilities Japan •Collective Approach •Informal Organizational Team Structure China •Emphasis on the Individual •Identify with the company, no team spirit
  • 43. Skills Apply to Both Managers & Leaders Strategies for Being More Organized & Time Management Pitfalls of Organization Conclusions
  • 44. “The real challenge is to combine strong leadership and strong management and use each to balance the other” Kotter, (1990) 21st Century Leadership
  • 45. Adair, J., Allen, M. (2003). The Concise Time Management and Personal Development Guide. London: Thorogood. Adams, S. (2014, June 16). Eight Ways Goofing Off Can Make You More Productive. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/susanadams/ 2014/06/16/eight-ways-goofing-off-canmake-you-more-productive-3/ Bliss, E. C. (1976). Getting things done: The ABCs of time management. New York: Scribner. Carroll, S. J., & Gillen, D. I. (1987). Are the classical management functions useful in describing managerial work?. Academy of management review, 12(1), 38-51. Coping With Stress at Work. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/work-stress.aspx Crisfield, P. (1994). Time Management: Balance, sport, work, and home more effectively. Leeds: National Coaching Foundation. Dalton State College. (n.d) Module 7 Organizational Skills (pgs. 13 & 14.). Retrieved from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:lsCWRfVHoO4J:https://www.daltonstate.edu/facultystaff/tstalling/work_ethics/Vol.%25202%2520%25 20Module%25207%2520Act.%2520ORGANIZATIONAL%2520SKILLS.doc+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us Digital Nation [Online Video} (2010). Frontline-PBS-WGBH Educational Foundation. Retrieved From http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/digitalnation/view/ Goleman D. (1998). What Makes a Leader?, Harvard Business Review Press, 1-11. Gorlick, A. (2009, August 24). Media Multitasks Pay A Price; Stanford Study Shows. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from https://01256631-a-62cb3a1a-s- sites.googlegroups.com/site/marcomacuccineurologo/igiene-del-sistema- nervoso/MULTITASKING.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7coGyXTfFNfUgyLlciLgdcaiEC3mQQEg1YJOeXzep5YEgPjQXvqfyBmUhezy8CjOz44xkPKwvBjCnHjhyZitL5QC9T0 Iu5SUDF0XgShMytmiT71s5wKPOZ1b7Gu76idjFwKMCnQLjRSlMo_jknzMa5VRNLhmEiEbg14sTMGljs5QiByBlWtSgRY5T73ifEQhlNri5rKdgV1T6HXxG1T0fVeeZ6c1z N06GjE0tCTWB6EHh55Pxf5BL1bCYF92JWNeA9VHMDnsF2wSPAC-nmkq8JOFT-TuHg%3D%3D&attredirects=0 Works Cited
  • 46. Herboli, K. (n.d.) Time Management. Saint Louis University Press (pgs. 8-11) Retrieved from: http://www.slu.edu/Documents/student_development/ TimeManagement1.ppt Henning, R., Jacques, P., Kissel, G., Sullivan, A., & Alteras-Webb, S. (2010). Frequent Short Rest Breaks From Computer Work: Effects On Productivity And Well-being At Two Field Sites. Ergonomics, 40(1), 78-91. Jackson, S. (1998). Organisational effectiveness within National Health Service (NHS) Trusts. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance. 11 (7): 216-22. Kotter, J. P. (1999). What Leaders Really Do. Harvard Business Review Press, 1-12. Kriegel, P. (2012, March 27). Taking Timeouts to Decrease Stress and Increase Creativity. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-j-kriegel-phd/unplugrecharge_b_1333126.html Luthans, F. (1988). Successful vs. effective real managers.The Academy of management EXECUTIVE, 2(2), 127-132. Mancini, M. (2003). Time Management. New York: McGraw-Hill MIT Human Resources. (n.d) Performance Development. MIT Press: (whole page.). Retrieved from: http://hrweb.mit.edu/performance- development/ goal-setting-developmental-planning/smart-goals Pollar, O. (1999). Organizing your Work Space: a Guide to Personal Productivity. Los Altos, California: Crisp Publications. Works Cited
  • 47. Ravichandran, T., & Nagabrahmam, D. (2000). Revisiting the Dichotomy: Managers versus Leaders. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 486-506. STRESS...At Work. (2014, June 6). Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/99-101/ Taylor, W. (2011). Booster Breaks: An Easy-to-Implement Workplace Policy Designed to Improve Employee Health, Increase Productivity, and Lower Health Care Costs. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 26(1), 70-84. Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15555240.2011.540991#.VG1oQIv4v8s Verma, D. P. S., & Jain, K. (2001). Leadership and Management: Emerging Consensus. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 479-491. Weihrich H. (1990). Management Practices in the United States, Japan, and the People's Republic of China. Industrial Management, 32(2), 3-10. Wickens, C., Larish I., Contorer, A. (1989). Predictive performance models and multiple task performance. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 96-100. Wicker, P. (2009). Organizational Skills and Tools. Open Learning Zone, 19(4), 136 141. Retrieved from http://clarkconnect.clarku.edu/file/Test2.pdf Winston, S. (2009). Getting organized. Hachette Digital, Inc.. Works Cited

Editor's Notes

  1. (Mancini, 2003)
  2.  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-j-kriegel-phd/unplug-recharge_b_1333126.html http://www.forbes.com/sites/susanadams/2014/06/16/eight-ways-goofing-off-can-make-you-more-productive-3/ Taking Breaks leads to a rejuvenated and clearer mind, which helps assist in making better decisions, being more organized, more creative, and more productive.   Even though you feel you are too busy, and you can’t take a break because you don’t have time.  It is often true that taking the break will leave you so refreshed your work output will increase in quantity as well as quality. When you are in a “time-out” you produce your best and most creative thinking. So plan ahead, make time for yourself, organization can lead to a healthier lifestyle. http://www.forbes.com/sites/susanadams/2014/06/16/eight-ways-goofing-off-can-make-you-more-productive-3/ MultiTasking is something we all do.   It is highly prevalent at MIT where professors acknowledge the change in atmosphere as a demand for a change in their teaching methods and a concern, while students feel very positive about their multitasking.   A groundbreaking study was then completed at Stanford to measure the effectiveness of multitasking.   Several students who were surveyed as the most intense multi-taskers (meaning they participate in 6 different tasks at minimum at most points throughout their day)  Despite the belief by these students that they were getting a lot more done this way, and were a lot more efficient the study proved that they were actually very bad at multitasking.   The concerns from the study grew to be that we have a lot of people who can not form complete thoughts, or are really absorbing in-depth concepts, or are effectively learning and thinking.   If tasks are planned out in advance the need to multitask can be avoided completely. Leading to better organization and higher productivity. http://clarkconnect.clarku.edu/file/Test2.pdf Discipline could be defined as gaining control by enforcing order, while procrastination is the act of habitually and intentionally putting off or delaying a task.  A person who is disciplined will be more likely to be organised. Procrastination is often the result of fear, for example fear of the inability to undertake the task, fear of the consequences of the task, fear of failure, or fear of the task itself. http://clarkconnect.clarku.edu/file/Test2.pdf The best way to reduce Job stress is to emphasize taking care of yourself by being self-aware and active towards healthier behaviors.   To help with stress it is important to organize and prioritize to proactively feel more confident in your work, your efforts and what lies ahead.   Don’t overcommit yourself, schedule breaks, create a balanced schedule, and leave early to be timely.  
  3. Bliss, (1976)
  4. Adair & Allen, (2003) Bliss, (1976)
  5. Adair & Allen, (2003) Bliss, (1976)
  6. Wicker, (2009)
  7. As a future business manager it will be your responsibility to not only stay organized yourself, but to organize and coordinate the activities of your team. The key organiizational skills that we have showcased for you will therefore be magnified in importance and crucial to your success. To see just how crucial these traditional organizational skills are for managers we will trace the literary evidence through the years, beginning with the great great grandfather of management theory, Henri Fayol.
  8. Most management textbooks for the last 60 years are in some way based on the original classical management functions first introduced by Henri Fayol (1949). Fayol's work was one of the first comprehensive statements of a general theory of management. He proposed that there were five primary functions of management; planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, and controlling. Planning, managers must plan for future conditions, develop strategic objectives and secure the achievement of future goals.  Therefore, mangers must evaluate future contingencies affecting the organization, and shape the future operational and strategic landscape of the company. Organizing, Managers must organize the workforce in an efficient manner and structure and align the activities of  the organization.  Managers must also train and recruit the right people for the job, and always secure a sufficiently skilled and educated workforce. Coordinating, Managers must harmonize the procedures and activities performed by the company, meaning that every activity of each organizational unit should complement and enrich the work of another. Commanding, Managers must supervise subordinates in their daily work, and communicate company goals. Controlling, Managers must control that company activities are in line with general company policies and objectives. It is also the responsibility of the manager to report deviations from plans and objectives, and to make initiatives to correct potential deviations. His work has been both elaborated upon and criticized over the years, however it is clear that they form the basis of the formula for management success. This set of basic managerial skills are what we have come to call threshold leadership skills, and have been the center of discussion in management literature for decades. Although the current literary discussion focuses on new leadership skills we will show you that practicing these key classical management skills in your daily life will make you a more effective leader.
  9. Mahoney, Jerdee, and Carroll (1963, 1965) reported that managerial time can be allocated to a set of eight basic managerial functions which can be called "PRINCESS" factors (Planning, Representing, Investigating, Negotiating, Coordinating, Evaluating, Supervising, Staffing). This study of 452 managers, in which Fayol's five function were expanded to eight, indicated that there appeared to be a minimum core of time spent in each of these functional responsibilities and that managers in various job and level categories had different tie patterns with respect to these responsibilities. See chart*
  10. Fayol (1949) and other classical writers said that not only do managers carry out the classical functions, but that their skill in such areas was related to managerial success. A number of studies indicate that time spent by managers on some of these classical functional areas and skill in performing them does result in higher organization and unit performance. (Miner, 1982) For example a GE study (1957) found that foremen with higher production records spent more time in long-range planning and organizing than did formen with poorer production records. Stagner (1969) found that the time 109 chief executives spent in organizational planning was related to the firm's profitability. Boyatzis (1982) also found a goal setting/planning skill of competence related positively to managerial effectiveness.
  11. Other studies also partly support the validity of Fayol's conceptualization of the manager's job. In a Hughes and Singler (1985) study , more than 700 managers were surveyed about the relative importance of various functions. They found that the importance of directing, controlling, and organizing was fairly constant from one level to another, but the importance of planning and staffing increased as managers progressed to higher levels.
  12. Successful vs Effective Managers University of Nebraska’s Fred Luthans found that although managers who are successful (that is, rapidly promoted) may be astute politicians, they are not necessarily effective. Indeed, the so-called successful managers may be the ones who do not in fact take care of people and get high performance from their units. Vs. Effective managers, the ones with satisfied, committed subordinates turning out quantity and quality performance in their units. Who are these managers? They are found at all levels and types of organizations with titles such as department head, general manager, store manager, marketing manager, office manager, agency chief, or district manager. In otherwords, maybe the answers to the performance problems facing organizations today can be found in their own backyards, in the managers themselves in their day-to-day activities. With grant from the Office of naval research, he observed detailed behaviors and activities of 44 real managers. Unlike Mintzbegr's and Kotter's managers, these managers came from all levels and many types of organizations (mostly in the services sector- such as retail, hospitals, corporate headquarters, railroad, government agenicees, insurance companies, newspapers office, financial institutions, a few manufacturing comanies.) Luthans found that effective managers engage more in traditional management, or the activities of planning, decision making, and controlling. The observed behaviors of traditional managemetn in this case include setting goals and objectives, defining tasks needed to accomplish goals, scheduling employees, assigning tasks, providing routine instructions, defining problems, handling day-to-day operational crises, deciding what to do, developing new procedures, inspecting work, walking around inspecting work, monitoring performance data, and doing preventative maintenance.