How to lead by serving your followers
A Presentation Tool Crafted by
Leaders As Servants
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•  This presentation will explore the following topics:
•  History of Servant Leadership
–  Roots of the concept
•  T...
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Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
Introduc...
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Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
Historic...
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Historical Roots
•  Of the Theory of Servant Leadership
The Journey to the East (1956) is Herman Hesse’s
mystical, poeti...
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Historical Roots
•  Of the Theory of Servant Leadership
Greenleaf connected the moral of Hesse’s novel to the
need of ...
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Greenleaf’s Theory
•  Of Servant Leadership: The Basics
•  “The natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first....
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Greenleaf’s Theory
•  Of Servant Leadership: The Role of the Servant-Leader
“Servant-leaders need to possess “psycholo...
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Greenleaf’s Theory
•  Of Servant Leadership: Communication Strategies
“A true natural servant automatically responds t...
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Greenleaf’s Theory
•  Of Servant Leadership: Working with Team Members
“Pacing oneself by appropriate withdrawal ...
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Greenleaf’s Theory
•  Of Servant Leadership: Foresight as Leadership Power
“Foresight - The central ethic of l...
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Greenleaf’s Theory
•  Of Servant Leadership: Institution through Intuition
Institutions must transform them...
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Greenleaf’s Theory
•  Of Servant Leadership: Persuasion and Vision
“Leadership by persuasion has the ...
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Greenleaf’s Theory
•  Of Servant Leadership: The Historical Figure of Jesus
Greenleaf refers to the stor...
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Greenleaf’s Theory
•  Of Servant Leadership: Self-Care through Service
Servant leaders engage in “hea...
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Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
Ten C...
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Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
Te...
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Case Study
•  Jesus of Nazareth as a historical figure
Jesus was born during a very tough period of history. He k...
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Case Study
•  Jesus of Nazareth as a historical figure
Centers his ministry on serving people – especially tho...
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Case Study
•  Jesus of Nazareth as a historical figure
One of the central principles in the philosophy of J...
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Case Study
•  Jesus of Nazareth as a historical figure
The essence of all Jesus’ teachings is serving ot...
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Case Study
•  Starbucks and the Servant Leadership Model
Starbucks is a company with a business model...
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Case Study
•  Starbucks and the Servant Leadership Model
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Commonalities:
Caring for persons,...
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Case Study
•  Captain “Brown” – Servant Leadership in Action
Who: A Quiet, soft-spoken pilot
Married,...
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Case Study
•  Captain “Brown” – Servant Leadership in Action
How/Why: Serve them, because somebody...
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Case Study
•  Southwest Airlines – Servant Leadership in Action
Founded in 1967 by Herb Kellehe...
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Case Study
•  Southwest Airlines – Servant Leadership in Action
Leadership Leads to Fantasti...
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Criticisms
•  Of Servant Leadership: Contradiction and Concern
Servant leadership “appears contradictory…fanciful…impli...
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Criticisms
Of Servant Leadership: Lacking Grounded Methodology
“Study of organizational behavior employs the scienti...
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Criticisms
Of Servant Leadership: Lacking Grounded Methodology
“Study of organizational behavior employs the scie...
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Servant leadership is also criticized for being “religious in nature”
(Smith, December 5, 2005)
Smith, Montagno & Kuzme...
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There is a lack of clarity “why conceptualizing is included as one of
the servant leadership behaviors” (Northouse, ...
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Leader Centered
 Follower Centered
Organizational
success from:
The success of the
leader and
organizational
goals. Top...
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Participative
 Servant
 Transformational
Emphasis
 Team
 Followers
 Followers
Decision-making
Leader, but
accepts input...
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Servant Leadership is the idea that one leads best by putting the
interests of subordinates first
When the leader...
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Gergen, D. ( June 11, 2006). Bad news for bullies. In P. G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.) (p. 23...
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Maslennikova, L. (n.d.). Leader-Centered Versus Follower-Centered Leadership Styles. Leadership Advance Online, School ...
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Stone, A. G., Russell, R. F., & Patterson, K. (2003). Transformational versus servant leadership: a difference in leade...
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Starbucks Corporation. (n.d.). Starbucks Community Service Web site, Retrieved November 16, 2013 from
http://community....
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Leaders as Servants: How to Lead by Serving Your Followers

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Servant Leadership is an amazing, powerful method for effecting change and making a strong impact - discover the basics through this set of slides. Presentation by Team Hex, Leading Teams Course of Fall 2013. Northeastern University: College of Professional Studies.

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Leaders as Servants: How to Lead by Serving Your Followers

  1. 1. How to lead by serving your followers A Presentation Tool Crafted by Leaders As Servants 1
  2. 2. 2 2 •  This presentation will explore the following topics: •  History of Servant Leadership –  Roots of the concept •  Theoretical Approaches –  As developed by Robert Greenleaf •  Characteristics –  Servant Leadership: The Concept –  Servant Leaders: The People •  Criticisms of Servant Leadership •  Case Studies: Servant Leadership in Action •  Comparisons to Other Leadership Models ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers Overview
  3. 3. ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers Introduction •  How can a person be both a leader and a servant? “Servant leadership is a paradox” (Northouse, 2013) “Servant leaders put followers first, empower them, and help them develop their full personal capacities” (Northouse, 2013) “Servant leaders are ethical… and lead in ways that serve the greater good of the organization, community, and society at large” (Northouse, 2013) 3 3
  4. 4. ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers Historical Roots •  Of the Theory of Servant Leadership •  After forty full years as an employee of AT&T, •  Greenleaf was interested in spending his years during retirement exploring how institutions could be more socially responsible. “Greenleaf was intrigued by issues of power and authority and how individuals in organizations could creatively support each other. Decidedly against coercive leadership, Greenleaf advocated using communication to build consensus in groups” (Northouse, 2013). 4 4 ((Kanold, 2013)
  5. 5. 5 Historical Roots •  Of the Theory of Servant Leadership The Journey to the East (1956) is Herman Hesse’s mystical, poetic novel that served as Greenleaf’s inspiration for developing servant leadership. Hesse’s text creatively explores the journey of a protagonist with a cohort of legendary and fictional heroes from a secret society on a quest for the discovery of ultimate truth. Throughout a mythical journey, the group is served by a spiritual creature who, despite providing renewing energy and support for the travelers, is blamed for all of the real and imagined failures of the group. Little do the characters know that the servant is in fact the disguised, omnipotent president of the secret society. 5 5 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  6. 6. 6 6 Historical Roots •  Of the Theory of Servant Leadership Greenleaf connected the moral of Hesse’s novel to the need of leadership in the form of seeking consensus, supporting a team in the pursuit of common goals through a selfless approach. The novel demonstrated to Greenleaf how creative approaches could overthrow the focus of leadership on coercive, forceful, top-down styles of leading. 6 6 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  7. 7. 7 Greenleaf’s Theory •  Of Servant Leadership: The Basics •  “The natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first.” Only after, “conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead.” This is distinct from “the person who is leader first” either to acquire “power” or “material possessions” although they too may later make a “choice to serve.” Servant-leaders “care…to make sure that other people’s highest priority needs are being served.” Servant-leaders “best test”: “Do those served grow as persons; do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves become servants? 7 7 (Greenleaf, 2008) ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  8. 8. 8 8 Greenleaf’s Theory •  Of Servant Leadership: The Role of the Servant-Leader “Servant-leaders need to possess “psychological self-insight” and perseverance. Servant-leaders must have goals that “elicit trust.” Servant-leaders must generate “confidence” in their values “values” and “competence” and a “sustaining spirit that will support the tenacious pursuit of a goal.” Servant-leaders must always remember that “behind every great achievement is a dreamer of great dreams.” “Leaders…must be more creative than most; and creativity is largely discovery…Able leaders have their own inner serenity” which facilitates the operation of their creative process. 8 8 (Greenleaf, 2008) ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  9. 9. 9 9 Greenleaf’s Theory •  Of Servant Leadership: Communication Strategies “A true natural servant automatically responds to any problem by listening first.” “Non-servants” must travel “through a long arduous discipline of learning to listen.” We must always “ask ourselves, first, are we really listening?” Prayer of St. Francis: “Lord, grant me that I may not seek so much to be understood as to understand” “Many attempts to communicate are nullified by saying too much.” Potential leaders “forfeit the opportunity to lead” by becoming trapped in…closed verbal worlds.” 9 9 (Greenleaf, 2008) ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  10. 10. 10 10 10 Greenleaf’s Theory •  Of Servant Leadership: Working with Team Members “Pacing oneself by appropriate withdrawal is one of the best approaches to making optimal use of one’s resources” Servant-leaders ask, “how I can I use myself to serve best?” “The servant as leader always empathizes, always accepts the person but sometimes refuses to accept some of the person’s effort or performance as good enough.” “Acceptance, though, requires a tolerance of imperfection.” “Enigma of human nature:” imperfect people are “capable of great dedication and heroism if…wisely led” 10 10 (Greenleaf, 2008) ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  11. 11. 11 11 11 11 Greenleaf’s Theory •  Of Servant Leadership: Foresight as Leadership Power “Foresight - The central ethic of leadership.” Foresight allows a leader to be “in every moment of time, historian, contemporary analyst, and prophet…everyday of life… Foresight is the lead the leader has. Once he loses this lead and events start to force his hand, he is leader in name only”. Unethical leadership is “the failure to foresee and the consequent failure to act constructively when there was freedom to act”. Awareness is “value building and value clarifying and it armors one to meet the stress of life by helping build serenity in the face of stress and uncertainty”. 11 11 (Greenleaf, 2008) ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  12. 12. 12 12 12 12 12 Greenleaf’s Theory •  Of Servant Leadership: Institution through Intuition Institutions must transform themselves from “people using to people building.” These “people building” institutions begin “on a course toward people-building with leadership that has a firmly established context of people first.” Greenleaf suggests leaders aim to lift people so that team members “grow taller than they would otherwise.” The leader must have “a sense for the unknown and be able to foresee the unforeseeable,” bridging information gaps, differences, and ideas among team members. “The art of leadership rests, in part, on the ability to bridge that gap by intuition, that is, a judgment from the unconscious process. “Intuition is a feel for patterns, the ability to generalize based on what has happened previously”. 12 12 (Greenleaf, 2008) ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  13. 13. 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 Greenleaf’s Theory •  Of Servant Leadership: Persuasion and Vision “Leadership by persuasion has the virtue of change by convincement rather than coercion.” Great leaders “know who they are and resolve to be their own - and will accept making their way to their goal by one action at a time, with a lot of frustration along the way.” “Conceptualizing - the prime leadership talent” offering “vision” and a “fresh creative response to here-and-now opportunities.” “It is terribly important that one know, both about himself and about others, whether the net effect of one’s influence on others enriches, is neutral, or diminishes and depletes There is no certain way to know this, one must turn to the artist for illumination” - The character Leo in Herman Hesse’s novel, Journey to the East. 13 13 (Greenleaf, 2008) ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  14. 14. 14 14 14 14 14 14 Greenleaf’s Theory •  Of Servant Leadership: The Historical Figure of Jesus Greenleaf refers to the story of Jesus facing the mob that is going to stone an adulterous women. “Jesus has a goal - to bring compassion into the lives of people…Jesus must give the right answer…that sustains his leadership toward his goal.” In responding, he uses a “withdrawal device” by writing in the sand relying on his own awareness, or “inner serenity” in order to allow the “creative insight to function.” Jesus’ response: “Let him that is without sin among you cast the first stone.” 14 14 (Greenleaf, 2008) ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  15. 15. 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 Greenleaf’s Theory •  Of Servant Leadership: Self-Care through Service Servant leaders engage in “healing and serving” in order to also heal themselves. When considering the leader and those who are led, we can see that a “search for wholeness is something they share.” The servant, by definition, is fully human. The servant-leader is functionally superior because he is closer to the ground”. The servant-leader is “dependable and trusted”. “Only community can give the healing love that is essential for health” 15 15 (Greenleaf, 2008) ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  16. 16. 16 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers Ten Characteristics •  Of Servant Leadership As Interpreted by Spears (2002) Spears (2002) has observed “10 Characteristics in Greenleaf’s writings that are central in the development of servant leadership” (Northouse, 2013, p. 221): 1. Listening: “Communication between leaders and followers is an interactive process” (as cited in Northouse, 2013, p. 221). 2. Empathy: “Standing in the shoes of another person” (as cited in Northouse, 2013, p. 221). 3. Healing: “To heal means to make whole” (as cited in Northouse, 2013, p. 222). 4. Awareness: “acutely attuned and receptive to…physical, social, and political environments” (as cited in Northouse, 2013, p. 222). 5. Persuasion: “Clear and persistent communication that convinces others to change” (as cited in Northouse, 2013, p. 222). 16 16
  17. 17. 17 17 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers Ten Characteristics •  Of Servant Leadership As Interpreted by Spears (2002) 6. Conceptualization: “Individual’s ability to be a visionary for the organization” (as cited in Northouse, 2013, p. 222). 7. Foresight: “ability to predict what is coming based on what is occurring in the present…what has happened in the past (as cited in Northouse, 2013, p. 222). 8. Stewardship: “taking responsibility for the leadership role entrusted to the leader” (as cited in Northouse, 2013, p. 222). 9. Commitment to the growth of people: “treating each follower as a unique person with intrinsic value” (as cited in Northouse, 2013, pp. 222-222). 10. Building Community: “fosters the development of community” (as cited in Northouse, 2013, p. 223) 17 17
  18. 18. 18 18 18 Case Study •  Jesus of Nazareth as a historical figure Jesus was born during a very tough period of history. He kicks off his ministry preaching blessings for the poor, meek, and suffering Advocates charity and help for others, serves the underserved Challenges his followers: What use is there in only being good to people who are already good to you? In a period of strict laws and legalistic theology, teaches not to judge (unless one is ready also to be judged) Heals a lot of people – especially unpopular, disadvantaged ones - Lepers - Servants - Common folk Healing people is serving them, not being served by them (Matthew, NRSV) 18 18 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  19. 19. 19 19 19 19 Case Study •  Jesus of Nazareth as a historical figure Centers his ministry on serving people – especially those with little hope, who could never possibly repay him - Women and girls - Man with crippled hand - Blind men “Great crowds” started coming to him for healing – he cured them all No favoritism, and didn’t just say “that’s enough for me” and quit Jesus frequently uses parables, or metaphoric stories, to teach: - The Unforgiving Servant: Don’t be hypocritical, forgive when you have been forgiven - The Good Samaritan: Serve and help all in need, even when they look down on you - The Prodigal Son: Forgive even those who hurt you deeply, long ago (Matthew, NRSV) 19 19 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  20. 20. 20 20 20 20 20 Case Study •  Jesus of Nazareth as a historical figure One of the central principles in the philosophy of Jesus: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself” (Matthew 22:39, NRSV). When you give a banquet, invite the poor and injured. That they can never repay you just makes the blessing all the greater. Jesus performs great services to society’s marginalized, ostracized and the disenfranchised. When criticized for sitting at dinner with sinners, he responds “Those who are well have no need of a physician.” In another key example, Jesus lauds the poor widow who gives an offering of only two small coins, because she has served others with all she has. . Jesus is unequivocal in his condemnation of hypocrisy in the exercise of faith and the centrality of compassion in human relations. The story of the “Woman Caught in Adultery”: Jesus stands resolute when faced even by a killing mob (Matthew, NRSV). 20 20 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  21. 21. 21 21 21 21 21 21 Case Study •  Jesus of Nazareth as a historical figure The essence of all Jesus’ teachings is serving others: Great or small Wealthy or poor Powerful or destitute Safe and secure or imperiled and suffering “Whoever wishes to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wishes to be first among you must be slave of all.” 21 21 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  22. 22. 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 Case Study •  Starbucks and the Servant Leadership Model Starbucks is a company with a business model and mission that carefully follows much of Greenleaf’s thesis. 22 22 STARBUCKS COMPANY MISSION STATEMENT Our mission: to inspire and nurture the human spirit – one person, one cup and one neighborhood at a time…When we are fully engaged, we connect with, laugh with, and uplift the lives of our customers – even if just for a few moments. Sure, it starts with the promise of a perfectly made beverage, but our work goes far beyond that. It’s really about human connection. When our customers feel this sense of belonging, our stores become a haven, a break from the worries outside, a place where you can meet with friends. It’s about enjoyment at the speed of life – sometimes slow and savored, sometimes faster. Always full of humanity. Every store is part of a community, and we take our responsibility to be good neighbors seriously. We want to be invited in wherever we do business. We can be a force for positive action – bringing together our partners, customers, and the community to contribute every day. Now we see that our responsibility – and our potential for good – is even larger. The world is looking to Starbucks to set the new standard, yet again. We will lead.” GREENLEAF’S CENTRAL THESIS “This is my thesis: caring for persons, the more able and the less able serving each other, is the rock upon which a good society is built. Whereas, until recently, caring was largely person to person, now most of it is mediated through institutions – often large, complex, powerful, impersonal; not always competent; sometimes corrupt. If a better society is to be built, one that is more just and more loving, one that provides greater creative opportunity for its people, then the most open course is to raise both the capacity to serve and the very performance as servant of existing major institutions by new regenerative forces operating within them.” - Robert Greenleaf, "The Institution as Servant" (1972) ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  23. 23. 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 Case Study •  Starbucks and the Servant Leadership Model 23 23 Commonalities: Caring for persons, person to person: underscoring the importance of belonging to a community, and eschewing any impersonal attributes of the stores Removing (or masking) the mediation from "large, complex, powerful, [and] impersonal” institutions: being “good neighbors,” contributing to the community through various projects and outreach while creating a meaningful meeting place within a community over quality coffee Providing greater creative opportunity for its people: fostering an artistic, creative atmosphere with focus on providing ambience (and WiFi for customers)
  24. 24. 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 Case Study •  Captain “Brown” – Servant Leadership in Action Who: A Quiet, soft-spoken pilot Married, with a newborn daughter Experienced Combat Rescue Pilot Graduate of Air Force Weapons School Incredibly selective and extremely demanding program Highest level an Air Force pilot can reach What/When: Flight Lead, Afghanistan, 2011 Middle of peak insurgent fighting season Daughter just learning to crawl Rescue squadron flying 1-2 missions per day, every day “Hours of boredom broken by moments of sheer terror” Rest of formation has already been there 2 months Under a flight lead who added a lot of stress to everyone 24 24 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  25. 25. 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 Case Study •  Captain “Brown” – Servant Leadership in Action How/Why: Serve them, because somebody needs to Doesn’t change up everything set up under the last, less-experienced flight lead, Humble Doesn’t relax and watch movies like the rest of the formation, instead studies constantly His greatest fear is that someday, we will be needed – and he or his formation won’t be ready to do what they have to for somebody else. 25 25 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  26. 26. 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 Case Study •  Southwest Airlines – Servant Leadership in Action Founded in 1967 by Herb Kelleher and Rollin King in Dallas, TX The company started flying only in Texas and is now flying all over the US and internationally. Company Slogan: “If it matters to you, it matters to us” "Our people are our single greatest strength and most enduring longterm competitive advantage.“ - Gary Kelly, CEO Southwest Airlines The Mission of Southwest Airlines: “Dedication to the highest quality of Customer Service delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride, and Company Spirit” To Our Employees: “We are committed to provide our Employees a stable work environment with equal opportunity for learning and personal growth. Creativity and innovation are encouraged for improving the effectiveness of Southwest Airlines. Above all, Employees will be provided the same concern, respect, and caring attitude within the organization that they are expected to share externally with every Southwest Customer.” 26 26 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers (Southwest Airlines 2011, 2013)
  27. 27. 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 Case Study •  Southwest Airlines – Servant Leadership in Action Leadership Leads to Fantastic Company Results Southwest Airlines Reports Increase in Annual Profits; 40th Consecutive Year Of Profitability swamedia.com One of the World’s Most Admired Companies, #3 among airlines, #4 among all industries FORTUNE, 2011 People’s Choice Stevie Award Winner for Company of the Year in Transportation International Business Awards, 2011 Airline Environmental Rankings, #1 in North America, #4 in the World GREENHORIZON Aviation, 2011 FORTUNE 500 Green Power Partners, #372 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011 Airline Customer Satisfaction Leader Consumer Reports, 2011 Airline Customer Satisfaction, #1 American Customer Satisfaction Index, 2011 Top 30 401(k) Plans for Southwest Airlines Pilots’ Retirement Savings Plan, #1 Brightscope.com, 2011 Sponsor of Year African American Women’s Leadership Network Institute, 2011 27 27 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  28. 28. 28 Criticisms •  Of Servant Leadership: Contradiction and Concern Servant leadership “appears contradictory…fanciful…implies following…the opposite of leading” (Northouse, 2013, pp. 234-235). “The mechanism of how influence functions as a part of servant leadership is not fully explained” (Northouse, 2013, p. 235). van Dierendonck (2011) observes that “researchers have been unable to reach consensus on a common definition or theoretical framework for servant leadership” (as cited in Northouse, 2013, p. 235). Servant leadership has a “prescriptive overtone” (Northouse, 2013, p. 235). Gergen (2006) argues that servant leadership is not in line with “other principles of leadership such as directing, concern for production, goal setting, and creating a vision” (as cited in Northouse, 2013, p. 235). 28 28 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  29. 29. 29 29 Criticisms Of Servant Leadership: Lacking Grounded Methodology “Study of organizational behavior employs the scientific method and requires empirical validation.” “Leadership theories must be translated into functional models.” “Models serve as the basis for forming hypotheses…tested and verified.” “Validated models can be used reliably to describe, predict and recommend leader behavior in applied settings”. Some observe that servant leadership is an approach to leadership “grounded in philosophical theory…lacking empirical substantiation.” Stone, Russell & Patterson (2003) argue that servant leadership is “lacking in empirical support” (as cited in Smith, December 4, 2005). Sendjaya & Sarros (2002) observe that servant leadership related literature “is filled with anecdotal evidence” (as cited in Smith, December 4, 2005). 29 29 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  30. 30. 30 30 30 Criticisms Of Servant Leadership: Lacking Grounded Methodology “Study of organizational behavior employs the scientific method and requires empirical validation.” “Leadership theories must be translated into functional models.” “Models serve as the basis for forming hypotheses…tested and verified.” “Validated models can be used reliably to describe, predict and recommend leader behavior in applied settings”. Some observe that servant leadership is an approach to leadership “grounded in philosophical theory…lacking empirical substantiation.” Stone, Russell & Patterson (2003) argue that servant leadership is “lacking in empirical support” (as cited in Smith, December 4, 2005). Sendjaya & Sarros (2002) observe that servant leadership related literature “is filled with anecdotal evidence” (as cited in Smith, December 4, 2005). 30 30
  31. 31. 31 Servant leadership is also criticized for being “religious in nature” (Smith, December 5, 2005) Smith, Montagno & Kuzmenko (2004) note that “some authors have attempted to couch servant leadership in spiritual and moral terms” (as cited in Smith, December 5, 2005) “Some researchers question the practicality and applicability of the theory to real world scenarios” (Smith, December 5, 2005). Lloyd (1996) wonders if the “aspirations of servant leadership are compatible with today’s emphasis on individual effort and performance” (as cited in Smith, December 5, 2005). Lee & Zemke (1993) argue that servant leadership is unrealistic (as cited in Smith, December 5, 2005). 31 31 Criticisms Of Servant Leadership: Religious, or Real-World Application? 31 31 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  32. 32. 32 32 There is a lack of clarity “why conceptualizing is included as one of the servant leadership behaviors” (Northouse, 2013, p. 235). Some questions remain unanswered: “Is conceptualizing actually a behavior, or is it a cognitive ability?” (Northouse, 2013, p. 235). “What is the rationale for identifying conceptualizing as a determinant of servant leadership?” (Northouse, 2013, p. 235). Why is conceptualizing “a defining characteristic of servant leadership?” (Northouse, 2013, p. 235). 32 32 Criticisms Of Servant Leadership: Conceptualization and Clarity 32 32 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
  33. 33. 33 Leader Centered Follower Centered Organizational success from: The success of the leader and organizational goals. Top-down hierarchy. The development and investment in its employees. Leaders and employees treated equally. Examples 1. Authoritarian Leadership 2. Transactional Leadership 3. Charismatic Leadership 1. Participative Leadership 2. Servant Leadership 3. Transformational Leadership (Maslennikova, 2013) Comparison Of Leader-Centered and Follower-Centered Models ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers 33 33 33 33 33 33
  34. 34. 34 Participative Servant Transformational Emphasis Team Followers Followers Decision-making Leader, but accepts input from team Leader and followers combined Leader Objective Organizational goals while also developing its followers Success of followers Organizational goals by changing its followers Best for Creativity and innovation are needed Needs of shareholders are valued above profits Organizations that need change (Maslennikova, 2013) Comparison Of Different Follower-Centered Leadership Models 34 34 34 34 34 34 34
  35. 35. 35 35 35 Servant Leadership is the idea that one leads best by putting the interests of subordinates first When the leader serves his subordinates, he builds trust and loyalty The supportive and constructive environment this creates brings out the best in everyone – both behavior and performance There are many examples of exemplary servant leaders who achieved excellent results The results speak for themselves: Servant leadership is a powerful philosophy for the betterment of people and organizations around the world 35 35 Summary Servant Leadership: How Leaders Can Best Serve the Group 35 35 ______________________________________________________ Leaders as Servants: How to lead by serving your followers
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  37. 37. 37 Maslennikova, L. (n.d.). Leader-Centered Versus Follower-Centered Leadership Styles. Leadership Advance Online, School of Business & Leadership, Regent University, Virginia Beach, Virginia. Retrieved November 21, 2013, from http:// www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/lao/issue_11/maslennikova.htm Meuser, J. D., Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Henderson, D. J. (2011, August). Is servant leadership always a good thing? The moderating influence of servant leadership prototype. Paper presented at the meeting of the Academy of Management, San Antonio, TX. Northouse, P. G. (2013). Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Sendjaya, S., & Sarros, J. C. (2002). Servant leadership: its origins, development, and applications in organizations. In C. Smith (December 4, 2005), Servant leadership: The leadership theory of Robert K. Greenleaf, (p. 7). Retrieved November 11, 2013, from http://carolsmith.us/downloads/640greenleaf.pdf . References
  38. 38. 38 Stone, A. G., Russell, R. F., & Patterson, K. (2003). Transformational versus servant leadership: a difference in leader focus. In C. Smith (December 4, 2005), Servant Leadership: The leadership theory of Robert K. Greenleaf (p. 7). Retrieved November 11, 2013, from http://carolsmith.s/downloads/640greenleaf.pdf Smith, C. (December 4, 2005). Servant leadership: The leadership theory of Robert K. Greenleaf. Retrieved November 11, 2013, from http://carolsmith.us/downloads/640greenleaf.pdf. Southwest Airlines 2011 One Report. (n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2013, from http://www.southwestonereport.com/2011/ Southwest Airlines Newsroom. (n.d.). Southwest Airlines Newsroom. Retrieved November 20, 2013, from http:// www.Swamedia.com Spears, L.C. (2002). Tracing the past, present, and future of servant-leadership. In P. G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.) (pp. 221-223). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Starbucks Corporation. (n.d.). Our Starbucks Mission Statement, Retrieved November 16, 2013 from http://www.starbucks.com/about-us/company-information/mission-statement References
  39. 39. 39 Starbucks Corporation. (n.d.). Starbucks Community Service Web site, Retrieved November 16, 2013 from http://community.starbucks.com/index.jspa. Starbucks Corporation. (n.d.). Starbucks Community Service Web site, Retrieved, November 16, 2013 from http://community.starbucks.com/groups/metro-toy-drive-sort-day. The Harper Collins Study Bible: With the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books, New Revised Standard Version. Wayne A. Meeks, gen. ed. New York, NY: Harper Collins Publishers, Inc., 1993. Print. van Dierendonck, D. (2011). Servant leadership: A review and synthesis. In P. G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.) (p. 219). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. van Dierendonck, D. (2011). Servant leadership: A review and synthesis. In P. G. Northouse, Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.) (p. 235). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. References
  40. 40. 40 Questions?

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