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1516
AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS
ISSN: 2392 – 876X
Available online at: www.researchthoughts.us
http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m...
Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH
PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P...
Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH
PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P...
Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH
PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P...
Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH
PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P...
Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH
PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P...
Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH
PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P...
Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH
PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P...
Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH
PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P...
Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH
PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P...
Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH
PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P...
Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH
PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P...
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AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM)

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Abstract: The topic of rich picture building exercise (RPBE) comes from the Soft Systems
Methodology (SSM) of P.B. Checkland in the early 80s. Since then, it has been studied and reported
in the academic literature. The recent academic works inspires the writer to review this topic and
argues that the mainstream study on RPBE can be considered as a conventional RPBE. The paper
then points out that there is also an unconventional RPBE which has been neglected in the academic
community. It reasons that the unconventional RPBE is also useful to express the proble m situation,
which is what stage 2 of the conventional SSM is all about. The unconventional RPBE can be
conducted either solely or as a complementary exercise with the conventional RPBE. A number of
RPBE options are identified in the discussion. The paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical
development of the RPBE.

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AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM)

  1. 1. 1516 AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS ISSN: 2392 – 876X Available online at: www.researchthoughts.us http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1425133 Volume 1 │ Issue 7 │ May 2015 Impact Factor: 2.0178 (UIF) AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) Joseph Kim-Keung Ho Independent Trainer, Hong Kong, China Abstract: The topic of rich picture building exercise (RPBE) comes from the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) of P.B. Checkland in the early 80s. Since then, it has been studied and reported in the academic literature. The recent academic works inspires the writer to review this topic and argues that the mainstream study on RPBE can be considered as a conventional RPBE. The paper then points out that there is also an unconventional RPBE which has been neglected in the academic community. It reasons that the unconventional RPBE is also useful to express the problem situation, which is what stage 2 of the conventional SSM is all about. The unconventional RPBE can be conducted either solely or as a complementary exercise with the conventional RPBE. A number of RPBE options are identified in the discussion. The paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical development of the RPBE. Key Words: Problem situation; Relationship-managing organization; Rich picture building exercise (RPBE) options; Soft Complexity; System Complexity model; Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) INTRODUCTION The topic of rich picture building has been discussed since the first publication of P.B. Checkland’s seminal work on the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) (Checkland, 1981). In the 90s, the rich picture building exercise (RPBE) has also been explained by other writers’ works on Soft Systems Methodology, such as Checkland and Scholes (1990),
  2. 2. Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) 1517 AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 1 │ Issue 7│2015 Flood and Jackson (1991) and Bell and Wood-Harper (1998). In the present day, teaching materials on RPBE can be found on the Internet, e.g., Open University (2015), Gore (2009) and Oakden (2015). The research interest with the RPBE arises recently with a number of newly published academic works on the RPBE, i.e., Bell and Morse (2013a; 2013b), Berg (2015), Berg and Pooley (2013), Pain (2015), Walker et al. (2014) and Horan (2000). Specifically, the recent works on the RPBE cover the following topics:  Walker et al. (2014): The RPBE can be employed to evaluate project delivery.  Berg (2015): The work examines (i) how the RPBE can be employed to more comprehensively identify user requirements for an information system project in a complex situation and (ii) how to facilitate a collaborative group to conduct the RPBE.  Bell and Morse (2013a) studies the ‚group processes‛ and ‚diverse use of pictures‛ involved in the RPBE.  Bell and Morse (2013b) applies the RPBE to help a group of participants to perform ‚problem identification and action planning‛.  Berg and Pooley (2013) examines a set of generic ‚distinguishable icons and shapes for the RPBE, which reveals ‚a natural intrinsic grammar‛ within rich pictures. These recent works on the RPBE stimulate the writer to conduct an updated literature review on the RPBE to contribute intellectually to this topic. AN ACCOUNT OF THE CONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISE A rich picture is ‚a simplistic pictorial representation of the problem as perceived by those embroiled within the ‚problem situation‛.‛ (Walker et al, 2014). It heeds the wisdom of the adage that ‚a picture tells a thousand words‛. With regard to the conventional mode of SSM, which has seven stages, the rich picture building exercise (RPBE) is a technique employed in stage 2 (‚Problem situation expressed‛). This stage follows logically from SSM stage 1 (‚Problem situation considered problematic‛) (Checkland and Scholes, 1999). The RPBE follows a number of steps (Ho, 2012): Step 1: Formulate a problem theme. Step 2: On a piece of paper, do the following: Step 2.1: Draw the main stakeholders and clearly label them.
  3. 3. Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) 1518 AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 1 │ Issue 7│2015 Step 2.2: Relate the stakeholders to (i) intangible structures, e.g., organization charts or different forms of grouping and (ii) tangible structures, e.g., buildings and equipment. Step 2.3: Relate the stakeholders and structures to relevant processes, e.g., communication processes, workflow processes and business processes, etc. Step 2.4: Write down the main concerns of various stakeholders and use the ‚eye‛ symbols to indicate the directions of attention of stakeholders, if required. Step 2.5: Write down the main conflicts between stakeholders with the symbols of ‚swords‛. The following diagram (re: Figure 1) is an illustrative example of a rich picture on the theme of part-time teaching as an entertainer on accounting taken from Ho (2007), which (i) examines the teaching activity of part-time accounting students preparing for professional examination primarily from a teacher-cum-entertainer’s perspective and (ii) explores opportunities for employing hybrid learning methods in this education sector.
  4. 4. Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) 1519 AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 1 │ Issue 7│2015 From the rich picture of Figure 1, the main rich picture elements can be identified as follows: Element 1: Stakeholders and their concerns:  Teachers as entertainers; their concerns are: (i) It is unpleasant to try to make frequent quotations of past exam questions in lecturing, and (ii) How to make the teaching process enjoyable and make a reasonable income from this job?  Profit-making accounting educational institutes; their concerns are: (i) How to enroll more students to our courses, and (ii) How to gain market share in the accounting education sector?  Other higher educational institutes/ universities; their concern is: How to recruit accounting students to study for our programmes?  Accounting students; their concern is: How to pass the professional examinations, given the tremendous day-time workload and the substantial exam materials to master in a short period of time?  Students studying for other business disciplines; their concern is: Studying for professional accounting exam is tough for me!  Employers; their concern is: How to make sure that the employees will be dedicated to their daily work?  ACCA (a professional accounting body); its concerns are: (i) How to build up a competent group of members with a satisfactory size of membership worldwide and (ii) How to ensure that our professional qualification is recognized worldwide as a good accounting qualification?  IT vendors; their concern is: How to sell user-friendly IT-based solutions for hybrid learning to the education sector? Element 2: Directions of attention *the ‚eye‛ symbols+:  IT vendors pay attention to opportunities of selling IT-based solutions for hybrid learning to the marketplace.  Employers pay attention to how accounting students’ part-time study can affect their daily work performance.  Other higher educational institutes/ universities pay attention to the competitive activities from profit-making accounting educational institutes in the marketplace.
  5. 5. Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) 1520 AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 1 │ Issue 7│2015  Other professional accounting bodies pay attention to how ACCA’s activities affect their own member recruitment performance.  Students studying for other business disciplines pay attention to accounting students’ professional exam performance to gauge the accounting exam difficulties. Element 3: Tangible structures:  Examples are: (i) the Internet, (ii) Buildings with classrooms, and (iii) ACCA website. Element 4: Intangible structures:  No explicit examples; one can say that accounting students are student members of ACCA, so they belong to one professional group, which is an intangible structure. Element 5: Processes:  Examples include: (i) teachers and accounting students travel to classrooms, (ii) ACCA builds and maintains its website to serve its members, and (iii) the ACCA website delivers online services to its members. Element 6: Conflicts *the ‚swords’ symbols+:  Examples of conflicts and disagreements are those between: (i) teachers and accounting students, (ii) employers and their employees who are accounting students, and (iii) teachers and profit-making accounting educational institutes. The RPBE is similar to a brainstorming sesson (Flood and Carson, 1988). It is intended not only to express ‚emotion, human and soft issues‛ (Walker et al., 2014) and the stakeholder-participants’ ‚subconscious‛ and ‚conflicted understandings‛ (Bell and Morse, 2013a) of the problem situation but also, more importantly, to portray the situation’s soft complexity, i.e., as a number of interacting elements as well as differences in perceptions and conflicts among various stakeholders. Due to soft complexity, it is not imediately clear what can be done to improve the situation. Such soft complexity is considered to be prevalent in organizations that are perceived to be a relationship-managing organization (Ho, 2015) (re: the appendix). The nature and extent
  6. 6. Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) 1521 AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 1 │ Issue 7│2015 of soft complexity as manifested in the rich picture constructed for the problem situation can be further clarified by means of the System Complexity Model of Hoi (Ho, 1986; Ho, 2014a; Ho and Sculli, 1995). Subsequently, the rich picture informs the generation of insightful ideas which are relevant for producing ‚systemically desirable and culturally feasible change‛ (Checkland and Scholes, 1990) to impove the situation in a never-ending collective learning process that makes use of systems thinking. AN ACCOUNT OF THE UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISE Other than the conventional RPBE, it has been suggested by Ho in 1986 that there are other diagrammatic ways to express the problem situation besides using the pictorial cartoon format. Writings on such an unconventional RPBE are Ho (1986), Ho and Jackson (1987) and Ho and Sculli (1994). These published works have been around for 30 years but have been ignored by the academic community. The unconventional RPBE is prepared to make use of various management concepts and instruments, such as Mintzberg’s (1983) organization model of ‚structure in fives‛, Ansoff’s (1984) strategic management rating forms and Eden et al.’s (1983) cognitive mapping, to express the problem situation in diagrammatic forms. The rationale for doing so is explained by Ho and Jackson (1987) as follows: ‚Checkland suggests building a rich picture by examining a problem situation for elements of structure… and process… and looking at the relationship between the two – the climate… Checkland does not go into detail on how to study the relationship between structure, process, climate and environment. Two other theorists can be used to enrich Checkland’s thinking here. Henry Mintzberg’s approach …to describing organizations provides a way to study the interaction of structure, process, climate and environment…. Also, it can be argued that Igor Ansoff’s approach …is helpful… According to Ansoff… the more turbulent the external environment, the more aggressive the process be… ‛ A case study application of this unconventional RPBE is Ho (1986), which was subsequently reported in Ho and Jackson (1987) and its underlying rationale was i The System Complexity Model is made up of the following components: (i) the nature of the system under consideration, (ii) a particular system under consideration, (iii) the analyst’s/ decision-maker’s ability to cope with complexity, (iv) the analyst(s)/ decision-maker(s) with specific objectives and resources, (v) ability to observe and intervene, and, finally, (vi) real world situation (Ho, 2014a).
  7. 7. Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) 1522 AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 1 │ Issue 7│2015 further elaborated on by Ho and Sculli (1994). Table 1 compares the conventional and unconventional RPBE in a summarized way, based on Checkland and Scholes (1990), Ho and Sculli (1994), Ho (1996; 2014b; 2015) and Ho and Jackson (1987). The conventional RPBE The unconventional RPBE Applied in stage 2 of the conventional Soft Systems Methodology (Checkand and Scholes, 1990). Applied in stage 2 of the conventional Soft Systems Methodology (Checkand and Scholes, 1990). Use cartoons and pictures (Checkand and Scholes, 1990). Use management models, rating forms and cognitive maps (Ho, 1996; Ho and Jackson, 1987; Ho and Sculli, 1994)ii to produce diagrams as rich pictures. Avoid systems language in the diagram (Ho and Sculli, 1984). Does not avoid systems language and academic jargons in the diagrams (Ho and Sculli, 1984). In line with the soft systems version of the relationship-managing organization notion (Ho, 2014b). Also see the appendix. In line with the hard systems, soft systems, emancipator systems and post-modern versions of the relationship-managing organization notion (Ho, 2014b; 2015). Table 1: A comparison of the conventional and unconventional RPBE Both the conventional and unconventional RPBEs involve using diagrams and pictures of all sorts. For Bell and Morse (2013b), using diagrams and pictures as ‚a means to aid the thinking process is now a well-trodden path‛. Nevertheless, until now, this writer has been the primary proponent of the unconventional RPBE for stage 2 of the SSM in the academic community. All the recent works on the RPBE, e.g., Bell and Morse (2013a; 2013b), Berg (2015), Berg and Pooley (2013) and Walker et al. (2014), have all directed their attention to the conventional RPBE. It can also be said that the academic community is unfamiliar with the works on the unconventional RPBE though they have been around for many years. This is, in this writer’s view, not a satisfactory situation because the unconventional RPBE is also useful, by depicting the inter-relatedness of structures, processes, climate and the environment of a problem situation with management and other social science theories (Ho and Jackson, 1987). It can be ii It is possible that certain problem situations do not involve strategic management or organizational design issues. In this case, the unconventional RPBE is quite willing to apply other concepts and approaches to portray the structures, processes and the environment of the problem situation. Cognitive mapping remains useful for exploring these problem situations.
  8. 8. Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) 1523 AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 1 │ Issue 7│2015 employed to portray a complex problem situation either by itself or as a complementary exercise with the conventional RPBE. Table 2 makes explicit the options available for RPBE when both the conventional and unconventional RPBEs are recognized. Group-based learning Individual-based learning The conventional RPBE Option 1 Option 2 The unconventional RPBE Option 3 Option 4 Table 2: Options available for the rich picture building exercise Referring to Table 2, the RPBE can be conducted by a group of participants as a brainstorming session or by an analyst as an individual learning endeavour. This is indicated in the column labels of ‚Group-based learning‛ and ‚Individual-based learning‛. Sometimes, due to cultural and political reasons, it is not feasible to for a researcher to conduct a SSM/group-based collaborative learning process (i.e., group- based learning); nevertheless, the researcher is still able to employ SSM, including the RPBE, as a personal self-reflection tool, to facilitate an individual-based learning. Table 2 also covers the two types of RPBE, i.e., the conventional and the unconventional RPBE. With these two dimensions (group-based/ individual-based; conventional/unconventional), the following six RPBE options are distinguished: Option 1: Use the conventional RPBE for group-based learning Option 2: Use the conventional RPBE for individual-based learning Option 3: Use the unconventional RPBE for group-based learning Option 4: Use the unconventional RPBE for individual-based learning Option 5: Use options 1 and 3 together for group-based learning Option 6: Use options 2 and 4 together for individual-based learning The mainstream systems thinking literature on the RPBE primarily studies option 1 while the writings on the unconventional RPBE, e.g., Ho (1986) and Ho and Jackson (1987), mainly focus on options 3 and 4. Now, Table 2 reveals additional RPBE options that can be investigated in future research works and offers choices for RPBE practitioners.
  9. 9. Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) 1524 AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 1 │ Issue 7│2015 CONCLUDING REMARKS The substantial content about the conventional RPBE in the academic literature and on the Internet indicates that it has been a popular topic in both the academic world and the world of management practices. Nevertheless, it is regrettable that the unconventional RPBE has been neglected by the academic community - it actually has practical value in expressing a problem situation, which is the main task of stage 2 in the conventional SSM and is complementary to the conventional RPBE. In other words, the unconventional RPBE is able to enrich the whole RPBE. Furthermore, studying the unconventional RPBE can improve our knowledge of the conventional RPBE, because the two RPBEs are quite different in their practices and draw on different sources of ideas. By examining both the conventional and unconventional RPBEs, this paper creates a broader space of imagination to make theoretical development on the RPBE topic. BIBLOGRAPHY: 1. Ansoff, H.I. 1984. Implanting Strategic Management. Prentice/ Hall International. Englewood Cliffs. New Jersey. 2. Bell, S. and S. Morse. 2013a. ‚How People Use Rich Pictures to Help Them Think and Act‛ Systemic Practice and Action Research 26. Springer: 331-348. 3. Bell, S. and S. Morse. 2013b. ‚Rich Pictures: A Means to Explore the ‘Sustainable Mind’?‛ Sustainable Development 21. Wiley: 30-47. 4. Bell, S. and T. Wood-Harper. 1998. Rapid Information Systems Development: a non- specialist’s guide to analysis and design in an imperfect world 2/e. The McGraw-Hill Companies. London. 5. Berg, T. 2015. ‚Rich Picture: The Role of the Facilitator‛ Systemic Practice and Action Research 28. Springer: 67-77. 6. Berg, T. and R. Pooley. 2013. ‚Rich Pictures: Collaborative Communication Through Icons‛ Systemic Practice and Action Research 26. Springer: 361-376. 7. Checkland, P.B. 1981. Systems Thinking, Systems Practice. Wiley. Chichester. 8. Checkland, P.B. and J. Scholes. 1990. Soft Systems Methodology in Action. Wiley. Chichester.
  10. 10. Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) 1525 AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 1 │ Issue 7│2015 9. Eden, C., S. Jones and D. Sims. 1983. Messing about in Problems: An informal structured approach to their identification and management. Pergamon press. Oxford. 10. Flood, R.L. and E.R. Carson. 1988. Dealing with Complexity: An Introduction to the Theory and Application of Systems Science. Plenum. New York. NY. 11. Flood, R.L. and M.C. Jackson. 1991. Creative Problem Solving: Total Systems Intervention. Wiley. Chichester. 12. Gore, T. 2009. ‚Tom Gore Rich Picture‛ cipelcov November 4 (url address: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8TfRiC0ty8s) [visited at May 12, 2015]. 13. Ho, J.K.K. 1986. A study of problem contexts, problems, and attempted solutions using systems concepts at Harlands of Hull. MA in Management Systems thesis. Department of Management Systems and Sciences. The University of Hull. UK. 14. Ho, J.K.K. 2007. ‚Teaching information systems subjects to part-time accounting students in HK from an entertainer’s perspective‛ Proceedings of Symposium on Hybrid Learning 2007, on July 9 at Open University, HK, organized by HK Web Symposium Consortium: 66-77. 15. Ho, J.K.K. 2012. ‚Basic steps to construct a rich picture‛ Joseph KK Ho e-resources blog July 31. (url address: http://josephho33.blogspot.hk/2012/07/basic-steps-to- construct-rich-picture.html) [visited at May 12, 2015]. 16. Ho, J.K.K. 2014a. ‚An Elaboration of a Systems-based Housing Imagination Evaluation Framework for Research and Pedagogical Practices‛ European Academic Research 2(4) July: 5099-5121. 17. Ho, J.K.K. 2014b. ‚Using the Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong as an illustrative case study on the relationship-managing organization (RMO) notion in Soft Systems Thinking‛ European Academic Research 2(9) December: 11847- 11879. 18. Ho, J.K.K. 2015. ‚A Multi-perspective, Systems-based (MPSB) knowledge compilation exercise on the notion of relationship-managing organization (RMO)‛ European Academic Research 2(10) Jan..: 13113-13127. 19. Ho, J.K.K. and D. Sculli. 1994. ‚Organizational Theory and Soft Systems Methodologies‛ Journal of Management Development 13(7). MCB University Press: 47-58. 20. Ho, J.K.K. and D. Sculli. 1995. ‚System Complexity and the Design of Decision Support Systems‛, pp. 505-516, Systems Practice 8 (5). Plenum Press.
  11. 11. Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) 1526 AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 1 │ Issue 7│2015 21. Ho, J.K.K. and M.C. Jackson. 1987. ‚Building a ‚rich picture‛ and assessing a ‚quality management‛ program at Thornton Printing Company‛ Cybernetics and Systems: An International Journal 18: 381-405. 22. Horan, P. 2000. ‚Using Rich Pictures in Information Systems Teaching‛ Ist International Conference on Systems Thinking in Management. (url address: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-72/039%20Horan%20SSM.pdf) [visited at May 12, 2015]. 23. Mintzberg, H. 1983. Structure in Fives. Prentice-Hall International. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 24. Oakden, J. 2015. ‚Soft Systems Methodology: The Use of Rich Pictures from Evaluation‛ Fourth Webinar in the 2015 Series April 8. (url address: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q7CTREXtFuk) [visited at May 12, 2015]. 25. Open University. 2015. ‚Rich picture‛ Systems Thinking and Practice: Diagramming – T552. Open University, U.K. (url address: http://systems.open.ac.uk/materials/T552/) [visited at May 12, 2015]. 26. Pain, A. 2015. ‚Rich pictures‛ Sustainable sanitation and water management (SSWM) (url address: http://www.sswm.info/content/rich-pictures) [visited at May 12, 2015]. 27. Walker, D., P. Steinfort and T. Maqsood. 2014. ‚Stakeholder voices through rich pictures‛ International Journal of Managing Projects in Business 7(3). Emerald: 342- 361.
  12. 12. Joseph Kim-Keung Ho- AN UPDATED REVIEW ON THE CONVENTIONAL AND UNCONVENTIONAL RICH PICTURE BUILDING EXERCISES (RPBEs) IN P.B. CHECKLAND’S SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) 1527 AMERICAN RESEARCH THOUGHTS- Volume 1 │ Issue 7│2015 APPENDIX Underlying worldviews of the four versions of relationship-managing organization (RMO) RMO (Hard Systems version) [RMO-hsv] RMO (Soft Systems version) [RMO-ssv] RMO (Emancipatory Systems version) [RMO-esv] RMO (Postmodern Systems version [RMO-psv] Primary organizational concerns Efficiency, efficacy, viability, effectiveness Primary organizational concerns Effectiveness, elegance Primary organizational concerns Empowerment, emancipation, ethics Primary organizational concerns Exception, emotion engagement, fun, ethics Related theories of management The traditional model Human relations model Related theories of management Human resources model Related theories of management Human resources model Related theories of management Critical postmodern organization theory Organizational metaphors Machines, organisms Organizational metaphors Organisms, brains cultures, communities, Organizational metaphors Psychic prisons, political systems, coercive systems Organizational metaphors Carnivals Re: Ho (2015)

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