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Nerd Nite03.08.2018

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Slides from Tokyo Nerd Nite Presentation.

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Nerd Nite03.08.2018

  1. 1. DEMOCRATIZING THE DIGITAL ECONOMY PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM: EMI DO, MAg PhD CANDIDATE TOKYO UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE
  2. 2. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES ▸ IoT, AI, algorithms can help solve anything ▸ Platforms: ★labour: get hired! (uber, taskrabbit) ★goods: find stuff! (amazon) ★asset: monetize your stuff! (airbnb) ★social: grow your network! (facebook)
  3. 3. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM DISRUPTING TECHNOLOGIES (EX: ASSET PLATFORM) ▸ Hilton: ▸ 93 years in operation1 ▸ Valuation: >$23 billion USD1 ▸ Staff: 169,0001 ▸ Airbnb: ▸ 10 years in operation ▸ Valuation: >$30 billion USD ▸ Staff: 7,939 856,000 ROOMS 105 COUNTRIES2 4,000,000 LISTINGS 191 COUNTRIES3
  4. 4. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM A LITTLE TOO DISRUPTIVE? ▸ Airbnb: ▸ 10 years in operation ▸ Valuation: >$30 billion USD ▸ Staff: 7,939 4,000,000 LISTINGS 191 COUNTRIES3 •0.4% INCREASE IN RENT PER 10% INCREASE IN LISTINGS/ AREA4 •CIRCUMVENTING URBAN REGULATORY FRAMEWORK •INCREASE IN TOURISTVS RESIDENT POPULATION •PROFITS FUNNELLED FROM COMMUNITY TO SILICON VALLEY
  5. 5. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM A LITTLE TOO DISRUPTIVE? •38% SAY THAT THE PLATFORM WORK IS THEIR MAIN SOURCE OF INCOME •$1-$5.50/HOUR •18 MINUNPAID WORK/ HOUR WORKED5 •$2-$5/HR EXPENSES •DRIVERS ARE ‘FIRED’ IF THEY DO NOT ACCEPT 80% OF RIDE REQUESTS •15 SECONDREQ’D RESPONSE TIME6 1/3 OF AMERICANS ARE FREELANCERS7 [40% BY 2020 HEALTH CARE? PENSION? MINIMUM WAGE? WORKER SAFETY? STABILITY/SECURITY? CONTROL?
  6. 6. WHAT IS BEING “SHARED” IN THE SHARING ECONOMY? NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM
  7. 7. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM WHAT IS BEING SHARED IN THE SHARING ECONOMY? WHITE BLACK ASIAN HISPANIC AIRBNB: •NON-BLACK HOSTS CAN CHARGE ~12% MORE THAN BLACK HOSTS9 HOLDING LOCATION, RENTAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND QUALITY CONSTANT. UBER •LONGER WAIT TIMES FOR “BLACK SOUNDING” NAMES10 •WOMEN EARN 7% LESS THAN MEN TASK RABBIT •WOMEN RECEIVE LESS REVIEWS THAN MEN $1 0% 75% 150% 225% 300% 1948 1955 1962 1969 1976 1983 1990 1997 2004 2011hourly compensation productivity 241.8% 115.4% 1948-1973: 96.7% vs 91.3% 1973-2016: 73.7% vs 12.3% Economic Policy Institute, data from BLS8 WORKERS WHO DESCRIBE THE INCOME THEY EARN FROM PLATFORMS AS ‘ESSENTIAL’ OR ‘IMPORTANT’ ARE MORE LIKELY TO COME FROM: •LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLD •BE NON-WHITE •NOT ATTENDED COLLEGE11
  8. 8. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM WHAT ABOUT JAPAN? 30% NON REGULAR WORKFORCE12 70% PART TIME 7% TEMP 14% CONTRACT 9% OTHER STAGNATING WAGES, DECREASE IN EARNINGS, DESPITE LOW UNEMPLOYMENT RATE 60% JOB OPPORTUNITIES ARE FOR IRREGULAR POSITIONS IRREGULAR POSITIONS = 60% OF PAY OF FULL TIME WORKERS ANNUAL INCOME OF PERMANENT STAFF VS. NON PERMANENT STAFF: ¥4.87 MILLION VS. ¥1.72 MILLION13
  9. 9. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM SIDEBAR: I’VE GOT BAGGAGE (BIAS ALERT?)
  10. 10. FARM: YUMMY YARDS CO-OP: FARMCITY CO-OP EARTH APPLE FARM24 AVENUE FARM FARMERS ON 57TH BAREFOOT FARMS URBAN EDIBLESURBAN DIGS
  11. 11. HARVEST BOX Details for 2014: Financials Overview
  12. 12. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM SIDEBAR: DID YOU KNOW JAPAN IS ONE OF THE MOST ‘CO-OPERATIVE’ COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD?
  13. 13. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM JAPAN AGRICULTURE FEDERATION OF CO-OPERATIVES LARGEST AGRICULTURAL CO-OP $40 BILLION USD IN 2016 9 MILLION MEMBERS CONSUMER CO-OP UNION 621 AFFILIATED CO-OPS $28 MILLION USD IN 2015 24.2 MILLION MEMBERS =1/3 HOUSEHOLDS16 UNIVERSITY CO-OP 224 MEMBER CO-OPS ¥ 184.3 BILLION 1.5 MILLION MEMBERS15 http://jccu.coop/eng/aboutus/coopsjapan.php
  14. 14. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM CO-OP 101 ▸ Co-operative Values ✴ self help ✴ self responsibility ✴ democracy ✴ equality ✴ equity ✴ solidarity ▸ 7 Co-operative Principles 1. voluntary and open membership 2. democratic member control 3. member economic participation 4. autonomy and independence 5. education, training and information 6. co-operation among co-operatives 7. concern for community
  15. 15. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS? COMMON POOL RESOURCES (ELINOR OSTROM, NOBEL LAUREATE) •FISHERY IN ALANYA, TURKEY ✴CO-OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT ✴ALLOCATION OF FISHING SITES •SHAMILAAT FORESTS, PAKISTAN ✴ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION •WATER IN NISHIKAMBARA, JAPAN ✴IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT •ALPINE PASTURE IN SWITZERLAND ✴COMMUNAL GRAZING14
  16. 16. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM PRISONER’S DILEMMA? TIT FOR TAT (CO-OPERATIVE GAME THEORY) •CO-OPERATE UNLESS OTHER DEFECTS •RETALIATE IF OTHER DEFECTS •FORGIVE PAST ACTIONS =OPTIMAL STRATEGY
  17. 17. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM FREE RIDER Whenever one person can not be excluded from the benefits that the others provide, each person is motivated not to contribute to the joint effort but to free ride on the efforts of others.14 “I DON’T TRUST THAT OTHERS WON’T CHEAT”
  18. 18. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN OF COMMONS MANAGEMENT ▸ clearly defined boundaries ▸ monitoring ▸ graduated sanctions ▸ conflict resolution mechanisms ▸ collective choice arrangements + CO-OP PRINCIPLES
  19. 19. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM GOVERNANCE: THE CO-OPERATIVE DIFFERENCE ▸ Does OWNERSHIP = CONTROL ? ▸ Potentiality of using new technologies and AI for good! ✴ algorithms can be used to determine: ✤ expertise ✤ relevant issues, topics that will affect you ✴ engaging owners/users into collaborative circles ✴ blockchain technology for transparency/ accountability
  20. 20. : ALTERNATIVE TO “GOODS” PLATFORM NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM 25% 25% 25% 25% CO-OP SHARES: DISTRIBUTED TO MEMBERS PROPORTIONALLY BASED ON # OF CO-OP SHARES THEY OWN FAIR FOUNDING POINTS: COMPENSATION SCHEME FOR FOUNDERS; 200 POINTS FOR EVERY HOUR OF UNPAID WORK NPO DONATION: USERS DECIDE ON WHICH NPOS TO SUPPORT UPSCALING FAIRMONDO: GROWING FAIRMONDO’S VISION 4/4 MODEL OF PROFIT DISTRIBUTION UNCOMPROMISING TRANSPARENCY: ALL EXPENDITURES OPEN TO MEMBERS (OPENBANK PROJECT) EMPLOYEE ASSEMBLY GENERAL ASSEMBLY SUPERVISORY BOARD MANAGING BOARD WORKING GROUPS DEMOCRATIC ACCOUNTABILITY TO STAKEHOLDERS https://www.fairmondo.de/
  21. 21. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM STOCKSY: A NEW WORKERS CO-OP ▸ Multistakeholder co-op ▸ executives ▸ staff (25) ▸ artists (1,000) ▸ Artists get 50-70% of sales (vs. 15-45% industry standard) ▸ 90% of profits distributed as dividends to members: $200,000 ▸ $4.3 million1 paid in royalties to artists 1: Based on data from 2016 https://www.stocksy.com/
  22. 22. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM FAR FROM PERFECT, BUT LET’S TALK ABOUT IT! ▸ Skeptical? GOOD! ▸ not a one model fits all solution ▸ how can the model serve your function? ▸ what concerns need to be addressed in order for you to become an adopter? ▸ how can you embed values of equality and accountability into your life?
  23. 23. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM JAPAN (PCJ) ▸ Connects key stakeholders of the emerging platform economy ecosystem to create synergies in the pursuit of increased shared value, ownership, and governance. ▸ What we do: ▸ Advocate for the role of platform cooperativism ▸ Work with partners to develop a local research agenda for the sector ▸ Share impactful stories of platform cooperativism’s potential ▸ Help platform cooperatives get started
  24. 24. READER? PODCAST ADDICT? SOCIAL MEDIA MAVEN? SOCIAL.COOP INSTASERFS I, II, III WANT MORE? NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM
  25. 25. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM LET’S CONTINUE THE CONVERSATION! ALSO ON APRIL 21ST
  26. 26. NERD NITE: PLATFORM CO-OPERATIVISM LET’S CONTINUE THE CONVERSATION! ▸ Platform Co-operativsm Japan: ▸ platformjpcoop.wordpress.com [ platformjp.coop ▸ facebook: /platformcoopjp ▸ loomio: Platform Cooperativism Japan ▸ Emi Do ▸ social.coop: /@emi ▸ emido.weebly.com ▸ instagram: /@do.emi
  27. 27. REFERENCES ▸ 1: https://www.forbes.com/companies/hilton/ ▸ 2: http://www.hiltonworldwide.com/about/ ▸ 3: https://press.atairbnb.com/fast-facts/ ▸ 4: Lee, Dayne. "How Airbnb short-term rentals exacerbate Los Angeles's affordable housing crisis: Analysis and policy recommendations." Harv. L. & Pol'y Rev. 10 (2016): 229. ▸ 5: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---travail/documents/publication/wcms_479693.pdf ▸ 6: Hall, Jonathan V., and Alan B. Krueger. "An analysis of the labor market for Uber’s driver-partners in the United States." ILR Review (2015): 0019793917717222. ▸ 7: Sara Horowitz, "Freelancers in the U.S. workforce," Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, October 2015, https://doi.org/10.21916/ mlr.2015.37. ▸ 8: https://www.epi.org/productivity-pay-gap/ ▸ 9: https://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/digital-discrimination-the-case-of-airbnb-com ▸ 10: https://www.technologyreview.com/s/602832/is-the-gig-economy-rigged/ ▸ 11: http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/11/17/gig-work-online-selling-and-home-sharing/ ▸ 12: Labour Force Survey (Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications) (http://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/roudou/results/ annual/ft/index.htm) (accessed on 2018/03/07) ▸ 13: https://mainichi.jp/english/articles/20171127/p2a/00m/0na/016000c ▸ 14: Ostrom, Elinor. Governing the commons. Cambridge university press, 2015. ▸ 15: http://www.univcoop.or.jp/coop/report/report14-08.html
  28. 28. RESOURCES ▸ Fairmondo: https://www.fairmondo.de/ ▸ https://www.shareable.net/blog/qa-with-felix-weth-of-fairmondo- the-platform-co-op-thats-taking-on-ebay ▸ Stocksy: https://www.stocksy.com/ ▸ Scholz, Trebor, and Nathan Schneider, eds. Ours to hack and to own: The rise of platform cooperativism, a new vision for the future of work and a fairer internet. OR books, 2017. ▸ Theory of Everything Podcast: https://toe.prx.org/ ▸ Sharing Cities: https://www.shareable.net/sharing-cities

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