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39245147 intro-es-i

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39245147 intro-es-i

  1. 1. Microprocessor Systems: –A Brief Run Down
  2. 2. At the high end of the scaleProcessor: Intel Pentium 4Frequency: 3.2GHzPower consumption: 103 Wmax.*Process: 90nm*Intel document no. 300561-002
  3. 3. At the low end of the scaleProcessor can consume no morethan 250-300mWEmbedded Devices
  4. 4. Where are the embedded devices?
  5. 5. Computer Technology  DramaticChange° Processor• 2X in speed every 1.5 years;100X performance in last decade° Memory• DRAM capacity: 2X / 2 years; 64X size in lastdecade• Cost per bit: improves about 25% per year° Disk• capacity: > 2X in size every 1.0 years• Cost per bit: improves about 100% per year• 250X size in last decade
  6. 6. Computer Technology  DramaticChange!° State-of-the-art PC when you graduate:(at least…)• Processor clock speed: 5000 MegaHertz(5.0 GigaHertz)• Memory capacity: 4000 MegaBytes(4.0 GigaBytes)• Disk capacity: 2000 GigaBytes(2.0 TeraBytes)• New units! Mega => Giga, Giga => Teralo, Mega, Giga, Tera, Peta, Exa, Zetta, Yotta = 10Kilo, Mega, etc. are incorrect Terminologies!
  7. 7. Challenges° Post PC Era will be drivenby 2 technologies:1) Mobile Consumer Devices• e.g., successor tocell phone, PDA,wearable computers2) Massive I/O interfacing v/s RAWcomputational power
  8. 8. Programming Levels ofRepresentationHigh LevelLanguageProgram (e.g., C)Assembly LanguageProgram (e.g.ARM)Machine LanguageProgram (ARM)Control SignalSpecificationCompilerAssemblerMachineInterpretationtemp = v[k];v[k] = v[k+1];v[k+1] = temp;ldr r0 , [r2, #0]ldr r1 , [r2, #4]str r1 , [r2, #0]str r0 , [r2, #4]1110 0101 1001 0010 0000 0000 0000 00001110 0101 1001 0010 0000 0000 0000 01001110 0101 1000 0010 0001 0000 0000 00001110 0101 1000 0010 0001 0000 0000 0100°°ALUOP[0:3] <= InstReg[9:11] & MASK
  9. 9. SOC (System on a Chip) Example° Hand Held PC
  10. 10. 5 Classic Components of a ComputerControlDatapathMemoryProcessorInputOutputControlDatapathMemoryProcessorInputOutputNetwork/Bus
  11. 11. An Expanded View of the Memory SystemsControlDatapathHard disk(VirtualMemory)ProcessorRegisterMainMemory2ndCacheCacheFastest SlowestSmallest BiggestHighest LowestSpeed:Size:Cost:•Cache is handled by hardware•Virtual memory is handled by and Operating System•Programmer sees only one memory and the registers
  12. 12. Fetch Decode Execute CycleInstructionFetchInstructionDecodeOperandFetchExecuteResultStoreNextInstructionObtain instruction from program storageDetermine required actionsLocate and obtain operand dataCompute result value or statusDeposit results in storage for later useDetermine successor instructionControlDatapathMemoryProcessorInputOutputALU Registers
  13. 13. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.13 Saeid NooshabadiA BRIEF INTRODUCTION TOEMBEDDED SYSTEM
  14. 14. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.14 Saeid NooshabadiTOPICS TO COVER° DEFINITION° KEY FEATURES° DESIGN ISSUES/CHALLENGES° TOOLS OF THE TRADE° FUTURE DIRECTION
  15. 15. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.15 Saeid NooshabadiWHAT IS AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM° An embedded system is an applied computersystem, as distinguished from other types ofcomputer systems° Embedded systems are embedded withinanother sophisticated (electronic) system, whichcould be any system for any kind of application.The ES do not directly interact with theenvironment/users.° An embedded system is a very special computersystem designed to perform a dedicatedfunction.° An embedded system is a computer system withhigher quality and reliability requirements thangeneral- purpose computer systems.
  16. 16. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.16 Saeid NooshabadiDEFINITION (Continued)° A very special (often tailor made)computer system put inside anyEngineering product to make the finalproduct more:• Reliable• Accurate/Precise• Feature reach
  17. 17. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.17 Saeid NooshabadiKEY FEATURESOF AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM° Real Time in nature (RTOS)° Employs very specific types of components. Specific interms of• Quantity (Memory)• Available Feature (DVS, Watch Dog Timer)• Operating System (Application commands the OS)° Developed in an environment which is totally different fromthe actual.° Power Requirement, Size & Cost are considered with greatdetail along with the application.° Highly focused on Application, Business Plan and Cost.Selects Hardware, Software components and DesignProcess based on A,B & C.
  18. 18. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.18 Saeid NooshabadiEmbedded Systems and their MarketsMarket Embedded DeviceAutomotive Ignition System, Engine Control, BrakeSystemConsumer Electronics Digital Televisions, Set-Top Boxes, KitchenAppliances, Toys/Games, Telephones/CellPhones/Pagers, CamerasIndustrial Control Robotics, Process and ManufacturingControlsMedical Equipment ECG Machine, Dialysis Machines, CardiacMonitorsOffice Automation Fax Machine, Photocopier, Printers,Scanners, UPSNetworking ( Spl. Application) Routers, Hubs
  19. 19. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.19 Saeid NooshabadiA Very Special ApplicationA FOOTBALL
  20. 20. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.20 Saeid NooshabadiDESIGN ISSUES/CHALLENGES° CRYSTAL CLEAR PRODUCT SPECIFICATION TO BE DECIDED/GIVENAND BE ADHERED TO. THIS INCLUDES H/W AS WELL AS S/WCOMPONENTS (PROCESS TIME).° SELECTION OF THE PROCESSOR:• GENERAL PURPOSE ; MICRO PROCESSORS• APP. SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION SET (ASIP); DSP,N/W PROCESSORS,MICRO CONTROLLER• APP. SPECIFIC INTERATED CIRCUIT (ASIC)° CODE SIZE (COMPACT CODE) – IN RELATION WITH THE PROCESSORUSED.° LANGUAGE USED:• ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE ( USEFUL BUT TIME CONSUMING & ERRORPRONE)• HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE (REQUIRES COMPLICATED AND COSTLYTOOLS AND COMPILER)• BALANCED DECISSION TO BE TAKEN LOOKING INTODEVELOPMENT COST, AVAILABLE DEVELOPMENT TEAM AND TIMETO MARKET
  21. 21. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.21 Saeid NooshabadiDESIGN ISSUES/CHALLENGES (CONT..)° POWER REQUIREMENT – ONE MAJOR ISSUE IN THISWORLD OF MOBILE DEVICES.° SIZE SPECIFICATION – THIS MAY BE VERY IMPORTANTIN SOME CRITICAL APPLICATION.° RELIABILITY – AND COST TO BE INCURRED FOR THAT(REDUNDANT SYSTEM). VERY APPLICATION SPECIFICISSUE.° BUSINESS PLAN° DESIGN ENVIRONMENT• (HOST PROCESSOR / TARGET PROCESSOR)
  22. 22. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.22 Saeid NooshabadiTOOLS OF THE TRADEEmbedded System Life CycleRequirementAnalysisSpecificationArchitecturalDesignComponent DesignIntegrationTestingS/W ArchitectureH/W ArchitectureTop Down Model
  23. 23. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.23 Saeid NooshabadiTOOLS OF THE TRADESOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TOOL CHAIN FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMDEVELOPER EDITORSOURCEPROG.PRE PROCESSORORMACRO PROCESSOREXPANDEDSOURCE CODECOMPILEROR ASSEMBLEROBJECTFILELOADER EXE FILE LINKERCODEFORTARGETTARGETPROGRAMMER OUTPUTALL THE COMPONENTS MENTIONED INRECTANGULAR BOXES – ARE SYSTEMSOFTWARE
  24. 24. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.24 Saeid NooshabadiTOOLS OF THE TRADEDEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT ; HOST & TARGETC /C++ ASSEMBLYLANGCROSS COMPILER CROSS ASSEMBLEROBJ 1 OBJ nLOCATORCODETARGET PROGRAMMER OUT PUTTHEENLARGEDCOMPONENTSARE PARTS OFTHE HOSTSYSTEM
  25. 25. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.25 Saeid NooshabadiFUTURE DIRECTIONS° More and more embedded systems will be full systemson a single chip (SoC). This implies that the softwareand hardware designs will merge.° As systems on chip become more complex, softwaredistributed over multiple processors and running overdifferent memory spaces will become common
  26. 26. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.26 Saeid NooshabadiFUTURE DIRECTIONS….° Embedded systems will be developed in unusualapplications. Products will be powered and accessed byRF beams. This will lead to convergence in our real life..° Existing applications will become far more sophisticatedwith standardized user interfaces – such as webinterfaces with XML.
  27. 27. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.27 Saeid NooshabadiFUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR DEVELOPERS° More and more multi-disciplinary expertise will berequired. For example – biology-chemistry-electronicsand VLSI for bio-sensors.° Fields of micro-processors, VLSI, communications etc.would merge for developing embedded systems.
  28. 28. EELC2041 lec01-Intro.28 Saeid Nooshabadi° GOOD LUCKWITH THISCOURSE

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