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Rabbit guineapig hamster

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Rabbit guineapig hamster

  1. 1. GUINEA PIG, HAMSTER, RABBIT By Dr.Elza Joy Munjely
  2. 2. GUINEA PIG
  3. 3. • Cavia porcellus • Suborder “Hystricomorpha” • Herbivorous-green foods,seeds & roots,readymade chow diet
  4. 4. • Very docile • Require vit C in diet • If greens -1 g/L of drinking water per week • If chow -200mg/L per day
  5. 5. BIOLOGICAL DATA PARAMETER DATA Mass 0.7 to 1.2 kg Length 20 to 25 cm Lifespan 4 to 8 years Gestational period 59 to 72 days
  6. 6. • Best mated after 3 months of age • Sensitive to various diseases & infections  so suitable for diagnostic tests
  7. 7. GUINEA PIG AS EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL Ideal model for • Enteric amoebiasis • Hypersensitivity • Immune response • Anaphylactic shock • Encephalomyelitis • Tuberculosis • Bronchial asthma • COPD • Ascorbic acid metabolism • Screening of local anaesthetics • Bioassay of digitalis
  8. 8. • Highly sensitive to HISTAMINE & PENICILLIN • Serum contain Asparaginase Antileukaemic action
  9. 9. HANDLING TECHNIQUE Can be easily handled • Way 1By using both hands, calmly grasp it with one hand under the chest & use your other hand to support its hindquarters
  10. 10. • Way 2Handle guinea pig with one hand , by holding its hind quarter
  11. 11. SEX DETERMINATION • Female-detectable pink nipple on either side • Male-Penis & testes are palpable in adults
  12. 12. Bleeding & I.V injection • Small quantities from marginal ear vein • Heart puncture after anaesthesia or Carotid A after stunning/inducing anaesthesia • Males penile Vs
  13. 13. INTRAGASTRIC ADMINISTRATION • Similar to rat • 15 to 16 gauge hypodermic needle of 7.5 to 10 cm length is blunted
  14. 14. HAMSTER
  15. 15. • Mesocricetus auratus • Different strains –Syrian hamsters-most commonly used,rapid development & short life cycle –Chinese hamster-lowest number of chromosomes(22)used for cytogenesis research –European hamstersuitable for smoke inhalational studies –Armenian hamsterspecific for carcinogenic & mutagenic agents
  16. 16. BIOLOGICAL DATA Parameter Data Mass 20-40g Lifespan 3 years Gestational period 22 days
  17. 17. • Cheek pouchcollection & transport of food materials,lack intact lymphatics. • Whiskersfound on face & side of the body to navigate the surroundings & object around them esp. at night,= “vibrissae” • Small tail & very loosely packed skin
  18. 18. Hamsters as experimental animals Spontaneous model of human diseases such as • Diabetes mellitus due to deficiency of β cells/presence of defective β cells in the pancreas • Syrian hamster dystrophy • Cholesterol cholelithiasis • Polycystic diseases • Dental caries
  19. 19. • Slow virus type C,Oncovirus,influenza virus,respiratory syncytial virus studies & vaccine production • Cheek pouches lack lymphatic drainage, so ideal site for tissue transplants,such as tumours & grafts,pouch can be pulled out under anaesthesia & can be stretched over an illuminated surface for observation • Strips cut from cheek pouchassay for prostaglandins E & F • Invivo & invitro diagnostic techniques for infectious agents i.e Clostridium spp,Leptospirosis spp
  20. 20. HANDLING TECHNIQUES • Way 1Hold the complete body by grabbing at the nap of neck by thumb & index finger& grasp the complete body by using rest of fingers
  21. 21. • Way 2Hold the complete body by grabbing back by using complete palm
  22. 22. RABBIT AS AN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL & INJECTION TECHNIQUES IN IT
  23. 23. Rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus) • Rabbits are very docile animals (2n =44 ) • FamilyLeporidae OrderLagomorpha • Domestic - Oryctolagus cuniculus • Wild - Sylvilagus, Coprolagus, Nesolagus, Brachylagus
  24. 24. Common Strains • Newzealand white rabbits most commonly used • Dutch • Flemish Giant • 1916 - WS Preshaw bred first litter of Newzealand white rabbits
  25. 25. StrainsNewzealand white Dutch Flemish Giant Wild
  26. 26. ANATOMICAL PECULIARITIES • Simple cardiac conductive tissueAnimal of choice for many cardiac studies • No adrenergic vasodilator nerves No Vasomotor reversal phenomenon • Dopamine - fall in BP • Histamine - rise in BP • Very sensitive to histamine
  27. 27. ANATOMICAL PECULIARITIES • Cannot vomit • Genetic relationship b/w atropine esterase & black pigmentation of the fur • Wide field of vision • Long ears-heat regulation • Cytochrome 3A4 is absent
  28. 28. Reproductive cycle • Non spontaneous ovulation • Coitus induced Ovulation • LH release 10 hrs after coitus • Progesterone inhibits ovulation • No seasonal anoestrum • Short gestation period --31 days • Duration sexual life - 36 months • No of litters per year - 4
  29. 29. Biological Data PARAMETER DATA Adult weight 1.5-5 kg Average life span 4-6 years Age suitable for experiment 6 months Age of first mating 6-7 months Breeding habits (no of females to 1 male) 1 Gestation period 31 days No of litters per year 4
  30. 30. Guidelines for animal handling • Pet or soothe the animal by slow deliberate movement on their body. • Overcrowding near animal cage to be avoided. • Noise - minimum as possible. • Do not hold the animal too hard • Agitation - lead to violent behavior for self protection
  31. 31. Handling techniques---- By using single hand ,hold the pelvic region By using both hands ,calmly grasp it with one hand supporting back of neck & the other hand supporting its hindquarters
  32. 32. Handling techniques--- By using both the hands, hold the complete hindquarter
  33. 33. Sex differentiation FEMALEFEMALE MALEMALE
  34. 34. Rabbit as an experimental animal • Pyrogen testing in IV fluids • To test toxic effects of cosmetics & pharmaceuticals • Good model for production of antibodies & antiserums • Study of agents affecting capillary permeability
  35. 35. Contd- • Screening of drugs for TB, diabetes, diphtheria, cancer, heart disease,embryotoxic drugs • Study of topical irritants • Insulin & other antidiabetic drugs • Curare & sex hormones • Studying circadian rhythmicity -
  36. 36. Contd - • Suitable for research in reproductory studies - no seasonal anoestrum - ovulation non spontaneous - short gestation period - semen easily collected
  37. 37. Contd - • Widely used in eye experiments  Underdeveloped tear mechanisms  Very clear eyes , effects easily visualised • Biomedical research studies Immunology, Genetics, Nutrition, Toxicology, Physiology
  38. 38. Isolated tissues Tissue Assay Effect Heart Adr,NA,Hist,Ach Contraction Duodenum Adr,NA Relaxation Ileum Barium,Ach Spasms Jejunum ,, ,, Ear artery NA,Hist,5HT Constriction
  39. 39. Zoonotic diseases spread while handling rabbits • Ring worm infection • Mites • Allergens Glycoprotein in fur proteins found in urine and saliva
  40. 40. Diet • An average 1kg rabbit can be given 40g concentrated feed and 40g green fodder. • Concentrated feed available as pellets
  41. 41. INJECTION TECHNIQUES
  42. 42. Precautions before injection 1. Injection site to be cleaned with a suitable disinfectant/antiseptic(75% alcohol/betadine) 2. Sterile syringes and needles to be used. 3. Always select smallest possible gauge to limit tissue trauma. 4. Aspiration technique is an important aspect before pushing injection solution at the site. 5. Ensure no air bubble in syringe
  43. 43. Intravenous injection • Marginal ear vein preferred • Restrain the rabbit • Lateral margin of ear is shaved & swabbed with disinfectant • 22-24G needle used
  44. 44. Insert needle into the ear vein with the bevel up
  45. 45. • Maximum volume that can be injected iv in rabbit is 10ml
  46. 46. Subcutaneous injection • Easy due to laxity of skin • Not to be done on neck • 22 G needle used • Not more than 5 ml/site
  47. 47. Intra muscular injection • Mainly for antibiotics • Less than 1.5 ml injected • Lateral thigh and buttocks preferred • 21 -22G needle used
  48. 48. Methods of blood collection Sites Marginal ear vein Central ear artery Cardiac puncture
  49. 49. Marginal ear vein- Bruising and hemorrhage can occur 22-24 G needle used
  50. 50. Central ear artery • Large quantity can be collected(5-50 ml) • 24-26 Gauge needle used
  51. 51. Cardiac puncture • Terminal method • 19-2l G needle used • Base of sternum under xiphoid at 30-45 degree angle lateral to midline
  52. 52. Intragastric administration Wooden gag with a small hole is placed in the mouth No.12 french catheter or No 9 soft rubber catheter used

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