Kyoto Protocol (1995)
• 183 Countries.
• Legally committed themselves to
reducing CO2 and other harmful gases by
up to 15% of 2008 Levels.
•Has created the new commodity of
•Either take actions to reduce their own
levels or alternatively buy carbon credits.
Green House Gases
“The ICT industry is responsible for up to 3% of the
world’s greenhouse gas emissions” Telecom’s green future.
By Dawn Bushaus
Global Trends in GHG’s
“It cost less to reduce carbon, that’s why telecom companies
are getting serious about CO2 reductions” Telecom’s green future.
By Dawn Bushaus
Creating Carbon Credits
Industrialized countries can express their allowed emissions or assigned amounts
within the treaty as 'assigned amount units' (AAUs). Unused units can be traded
with other countries who have surpassed their own allowances and require
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
Industrialized countries can meet their emission targets/levels through investment
and/or co-operation in a emission reduction project in a non industrialized country
or developing country.
Joint Implementation (JI)
Emission reduction units (ERUs) can be earned by an industrialized country from a
project in another industrialized country. (Example: sharing of new technology
and/or foreign investment in a emissions reduction project)
Carbon market stands at $120 Billion
Expecting to exceed $1 Trillion within 10 years
CER & VER Credits
• Do not have to meet any targets for GHG reductions.
• Can sell credits to countries that do have Kyoto targets.
• These Projects typically will produce VER credits.
• Include OECD countries (the richest nations of the world) and
countries in transition from centrally planned to open market
• Can buy credits from developing countries.
• These projects typically will produce CER / ERU credits.
Certified and Verified Emission Reductions Credits
CER Spot Prices
1 CER credit = 1 Ton CO2
Carbon credit Valuations (approximations):
UN Certified Carbon Credit:
Approx. 25 Euro/ Ton of CO2
Voluntary Carbon Credit: 7 Euro/ Ton CO2
Rainforest Carbon VER project stages:
• National contracts
• Host country approval (DNA Office)
• Project Identification Note (PIN)
• Scientific forest reports
• International validation
• Verification of emissions reductions
• Certification and issuance of credits
• Commercialization of CERs
• Implementation and monitoring
• Agreement to trade rainforest emissions
• Choose forest area
• Appointment of Government contact
• Local project administration company
• Local forest co-ordination team
• Escorting Lawyer(s)
Annual power consumption against call minutes per
across Novatech Telecom service provider's network.
“Novatech Telecom's commitment to reducing carbon emissions
began in 2006
with the early adoption of IP based soft-switching in their core network,
Marking the first major initiative of its kind in the UK and reducing
consumption per minute by 30% within the first year.”
telecom industry impact:
actual ongoing CDM
ELYSIUM GHG Emission Reduction Projects
Renewable Energy: Wind Farm
Small-scale project to generate electricity
from wind instead of burning fossil fuels.
Location: Northern Israel
Status: Registered CDM Feb 11, 2007
Fuel Switching: Food Production Factory
Small-scale project to produce steam by
burning bio-mass instead of fossil fuels
at a food production facility.
Location: Galam Facility, Maanit, Israel
Status: Registered CDM Mar 9, 2007