Comments on
Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards
              for New Federal Buildings
     For the Office...
Federal Buildings Are
       Important
 Buildings are the largest emitters of
         CO2 on the planet*
 The federal gov...
RFI Comments from Elton Sherwin
                        • Elton Sherwin is a venture capitalist
                          ...
Four Recommendations
    Federal Building Construction and Remodels




Includes comments on:
Energy Efficiency and Sustai...
Recommendation #1
Recommendation #1



Disclose the Energy Consumption
   of All New Federal Buildings
      And post the data on the Intern...
Recommendation #1

              Disclose Utility Bills
  • Disclose the energy consumption of all new
    federal buildin...
Why Is Utility Bill Disclosure
             Important?
• Enables accurate calculations of
  lifecycle costs
• Enables comp...
When Utility Bills are Hidden
When data is secret
  – Harder to calculate true lifecycle
    costs
  – Less accountability...
Summary of Recommendation #1

Disclose the ongoing energy consumption
        of all new federal buildings

       Post th...
Recommendation #2
Recommendation #2


Label and Grade All New and
Remodeled Federal Buildings
Federal Building Energy Labels
  Recommended Format

                Relative grade
                – Graded versus peers
...
Post-occupancy Verification
This label meets the follow
criteria from the RFI:

(2) Include a verification system for post...
This Label Has Only Five Data Inputs

5 Input Data Items:
1) Electric bill
2) Gas or heating oil bill
3) Zip code
4) Size ...
Proposed Label
          Federal Construction

This is a simple system
 for post-occupancy
 verification
Automatically gen...
Peer Rating
    • Similar building types in
      similar climates
       – Office to office
       – Barracks to barracks...
National Rating
      • National standard
        – Intuitive: scores above
          80 are good, below 70
          are ...
How to Calculate
                                                 Source energy (per sq ft.)
                             ...
Recommendation #2
                Summary
Post-occupancy Verification
• Post this label on the lobby doors
• And on the In...
Recommendation #3
Recommendation #3



  Require Certain Best
  Practices Everywhere

The following items are frequently
 overlooked in fede...
Three Items Condemn Federal
   Buildings to Mediocrity:
          Lighting
          Windows
           HVAC
We Should Build a New
Generation of Federal Buildings
        With the Best:
           Lighting,
         Windows, and
  ...
Lighting Systems
    Good lighting systems have:
           – T5s, T8s, LEDs, and digital ballasts
    Great lighting syst...
In New Federal Buildings

    Require lighting systems to have:
           – Dimmers with daylight sensors
           – Oc...
Windows
  Good windows:
       – R4
  Great windows:
       – R8 or above
       – Extremely spectrally selective*
  Great...
In New Federal Buildings

   Require windows be:
        – R8 or above
             • An R20 wall with an R4 window
      ...
HVAC Systems
  Good HVAC Systems:
        – Efficient
  Great HVAC Systems also have:
        – A thermostat and occupancy...
In New Federal Buildings

Require great HVAC systems:
  –   Thermostat in every room
  –   Occupancy sensor in every room
...
Let’s Build a New Generation of
    Great Federal Buildings

           With great:
           Lighting,
         Windows,...
Recommendation #3
                    Summary
                                            These nine
Windows              ...
Recommendation #4
Recommendation #4



  Monitor Energy Consumption
       at a Room Level
                   Best way to
          Optimize...
Building Control Systems Should
 Organize and Report Data by Room
Case Study: Stanford University’s
  environmental showca...
Advantages of
     Room-by-Room Reporting
          for Electricity
• Speeds commissioning and
  recommissioning
• Lowers ...
Advantages of
     Room-by-Room Reporting
           for Water
• Identifies malfunctioning toilets
  and sprinkler control...
Advantages of
          Room-by-Room Reporting*
             for HVAC Systems

• Speeds recommissioning
• Helps identify m...
Advantages of
               Room-by-Room Reporting
                    of CO2 levels

                       Ensures indo...
Recommendation #4
                  Summary
Monitor at a Room Level

•   Electricity

•   Water
                          ...
Conclusion
Four Sets of Recommendations
Federal Building Construction and Remodels
Conclusion
  Four Sets of Recommendations
  Federal Building Construction and Remodels
1. Disclosure of utility bills
2. L...
Appendix




Some of this material was originally published in a:
Response to the National Energy Rating Program for
Homes...
Analyzed Nine Different Energy Labels
     and Their Associated Rating
           Methodologies


                        ...
Recommended Label
                   Displays Both Site and Source Data


                                                ...
Recommended Inverted Scale
               Progressive weighting
  Source
                        Formula:
BTU/sf/mo       ...
Why Zero to 125?
      Why not zero to 100?
      • Multiple reasons, subtle,
        but important
      • Americans know...
Green Building Certification
                Systems
This label meets the follow criteria from the RFI:

 "DOE is consider...
Why This Label
     • Simple
     • Easy to update monthly
     • Data-driven approach
     • Measures real
       improve...
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Federal Buildings Elton Sherwin comments on energy efficiency design standards for federal buildings

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Four recommendations on how to improve the efficiency of America's largest building owner - the Federal Government.

Comments on comments on Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings and Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings, EE–RM/STD–02–112 and RIN 1904–AC13

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  • Have to admit Federal buildings look nice. I still remember learning about geothermal energy use for commercial buildings. Everyone expects the government to step up. People usually view a whole nation by how well a government runs anyway.
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  • This PowerPoint presentation makes four recommendations on how to improve the efficiency of America's largest building owner - the Federal Government.

    These comments s were submitted to the DOE as part of its RFI process.

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Federal Buildings Elton Sherwin comments on energy efficiency design standards for federal buildings

  1. 1. Comments on Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings For the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy By Elton Sherwin Venture Capitalist and Author of Addicted to Energy
  2. 2. Federal Buildings Are Important Buildings are the largest emitters of CO2 on the planet* The federal government is one of the world’s largest owners of buildings Federal programs will have broad impact Important that federal rules be effective and cost effective *Includes CO2 from power plants generating electricity for buildings
  3. 3. RFI Comments from Elton Sherwin • Elton Sherwin is a venture capitalist investing in cleantech companies. • He is the author of Addicted to Energy • Addicted to Energy outlines fifty ways to reduce energy consumption and protect the climate, many involving building efficiency • His first book, The Silicon Valley Way is used by entrepreneurs and university programs around the world. He is an occasional guest speaker at Stanford University on energy policy and entrepreneurship. • He holds eight patents and currently serves on the boards of six companies including NRG Dynamix which designs hybrid drive trains and energy storage systems for cars and trucks
  4. 4. Four Recommendations Federal Building Construction and Remodels Includes comments on: Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings and Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings, EE–RM/STD–02–112 and RIN 1904–AC13 Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. DOE
  5. 5. Recommendation #1
  6. 6. Recommendation #1 Disclose the Energy Consumption of All New Federal Buildings And post the data on the Internet
  7. 7. Recommendation #1 Disclose Utility Bills • Disclose the energy consumption of all new federal buildings – Monthly disclosure – “Publish” utility bills on the Internet • Single website for all federal buildings • Disclose energy consumption of the previous structures for – Major remodels or – New structures replacing an older building • The energy consumption of the older building should be disclosed to enable comparisons
  8. 8. Why Is Utility Bill Disclosure Important? • Enables accurate calculations of lifecycle costs • Enables comparisons – Between buildings – Between design techniques • Identifies top performing buildings • Encourages occupants to manage their plug loads • Identifies problems • Maximizes reductions of CO2 and water
  9. 9. When Utility Bills are Hidden When data is secret – Harder to calculate true lifecycle costs – Less accountability – Harder to identify problems – Little motivation to improve in future years – Little or no motivation to manage plug loads
  10. 10. Summary of Recommendation #1 Disclose the ongoing energy consumption of all new federal buildings Post the data on the web
  11. 11. Recommendation #2
  12. 12. Recommendation #2 Label and Grade All New and Remodeled Federal Buildings
  13. 13. Federal Building Energy Labels Recommended Format Relative grade – Graded versus peers – Similar type buildings in similar climates National standard – Compares all federal buildings nationwide – Absolute score based on BTUs per square foot
  14. 14. Post-occupancy Verification This label meets the follow criteria from the RFI: (2) Include a verification system for post- occupancy assessment of the rated buildings to periodically demonstrate continued environmental benefits and energy savings.
  15. 15. This Label Has Only Five Data Inputs 5 Input Data Items: 1) Electric bill 2) Gas or heating oil bill 3) Zip code 4) Size of building 5) Type of building
  16. 16. Proposed Label Federal Construction This is a simple system for post-occupancy verification Automatically generate monthly updates from utility bills
  17. 17. Peer Rating • Similar building types in similar climates – Office to office – Barracks to barracks – Hospital to hospital • Per sq. foot comparison to existing federal buildings • Top 20% get As A+ reserved for net zero • Bottom 20% get Fs • Include + and –
  18. 18. National Rating • National standard – Intuitive: scores above 80 are good, below 70 are poor • 125 minus weighted EUI • Source energy (per sq ft.) – Combines natural gas, oil and electricity – All electricity weighted at national average
  19. 19. How to Calculate Source energy (per sq ft.) • 125 - weighted EUI For more information on this proposed building rating methodology see the appendix of this presentation and also see, Response to the National Energy Rating Program for Homes RFI by Elton Sherwin available from the author or at: http://www.slideshare.net/EltonSherwin Or Google ‘Elton Sherwin comments DOE RFI home rating’
  20. 20. Recommendation #2 Summary Post-occupancy Verification • Post this label on the lobby doors • And on the Internet
  21. 21. Recommendation #3
  22. 22. Recommendation #3 Require Certain Best Practices Everywhere The following items are frequently overlooked in federal buildings
  23. 23. Three Items Condemn Federal Buildings to Mediocrity: Lighting Windows HVAC
  24. 24. We Should Build a New Generation of Federal Buildings With the Best: Lighting, Windows, and HVAC systems
  25. 25. Lighting Systems Good lighting systems have: – T5s, T8s, LEDs, and digital ballasts Great lighting systems also have: – Dimmers with daylight sensors – Occupancy sensors – Users controls for individual work areas Great lighting systems – Save twice as much electricity as good systems The author has no relationship with any of the pictured products. Pictures are for illustration only
  26. 26. In New Federal Buildings Require lighting systems to have: – Dimmers with daylight sensors – Occupancy sensors – Users controls for individual work areas There is never a reason to omit these features They always pay for themselves The author has no relationship with any of the pictured products. Pictures are for illustration only
  27. 27. Windows Good windows: – R4 Great windows: – R8 or above – Extremely spectrally selective* Great windows – Cut air-conditioning and heating demand by 30% to 50% * Eliminate 90% of non-visible radiation and should be required on all windows that get direct sun in buildings using air conditioning.
  28. 28. In New Federal Buildings Require windows be: – R8 or above • An R20 wall with an R4 window makes no sense. How Spectrally Selective – Highly spectrally selective Windows Work • Require spectral selectivity on sunny windows in buildings that use air conditioning The author has no relationship with any of the pictured products. Pictures are for illustration only
  29. 29. HVAC Systems Good HVAC Systems: – Efficient Great HVAC Systems also have: – A thermostat and occupancy sensor in every room – Variable speed, variable output* – Thermal storage** Great HVAC Systems – Reduce energy consumption 40% to 70% * Boilers and furnaces are modulating ** Require thermal storage in buildings over 5,000 sq. ft. that use air conditioning more than 100 days/year
  30. 30. In New Federal Buildings Require great HVAC systems: – Thermostat in every room – Occupancy sensor in every room – Variable speed, variable output – Thermal storage Save taxpayers money Help the environment Better air quality in building The author has no relationship with any of the pictured products. Pictures are for illustration only
  31. 31. Let’s Build a New Generation of Great Federal Buildings With great: Lighting, Windows, and HVAC systems
  32. 32. Recommendation #3 Summary These nine Windows items pay for 1. R8 or above themselves 2. Spectrally selective Lighting systems 3. Dimmers with daylight sensors 4. Occupancy sensors 5. Enable users to control their work area HVAC systems 6. Thermostat in every room 7. Occupancy sensor in every room 8. Variable speed, variable output 9. Thermal storage Require them on all new federal buildings
  33. 33. Recommendation #4
  34. 34. Recommendation #4 Monitor Energy Consumption at a Room Level Best way to Optimize Energy Performance From the RFI: “The major sustainable design elements of the proposed rules are: …Optimize Energy Performance.”
  35. 35. Building Control Systems Should Organize and Report Data by Room Case Study: Stanford University’s environmental showcase Yang and Yamazaki (Y2E2) building • Used twice the predicted energy* • Audit found hundreds of problems* • Root cause was very difficult to identify because the building control system did not organize and report data at a room level * Energy analysis of the first year of Y2E2 and its relationship to the Sustainable Built Environment, John Kunz and coauthors. Also, see CIFE Technical Report #TR183. For a summary, see http://stanfordreview.org/article/y2e2-fails-to-meet- efficiency-expectations
  36. 36. Advantages of Room-by-Room Reporting for Electricity • Speeds commissioning and recommissioning • Lowers plug loads • Identifies malfunctioning equipment Best way to Optimize Energy Performance
  37. 37. Advantages of Room-by-Room Reporting for Water • Identifies malfunctioning toilets and sprinkler control systems • Separates indoor and outdoor consumption • Minimizes finger pointing between kitchen and maintenance staff Lowers Water Consumption
  38. 38. Advantages of Room-by-Room Reporting* for HVAC Systems • Speeds recommissioning • Helps identify many problems – Rooms that alternatively request heat and cooling – Malfunctioning VAV boxes * Monitoring temperature and requests for heat and cooling
  39. 39. Advantages of Room-by-Room Reporting of CO2 levels Ensures indoor air quality The author has no relationship with any of the pictured products. Pictures are for illustration only
  40. 40. Recommendation #4 Summary Monitor at a Room Level • Electricity • Water This will create • HVAC Better air quality Use less water • CO2 Save energy
  41. 41. Conclusion Four Sets of Recommendations Federal Building Construction and Remodels
  42. 42. Conclusion Four Sets of Recommendations Federal Building Construction and Remodels 1. Disclosure of utility bills 2. Label and grade new federal buildings based on their actual energy consumption 3. Require certain key efficiency improvements – Bellwether attributes that elevate a building from adequate efficiency to extraordinary efficiency – Universally cost effective 4. Measure energy consumption by room
  43. 43. Appendix Some of this material was originally published in a: Response to the National Energy Rating Program for Homes RFI by Elton Sherwin available from the author or at: http://www.slideshare.net/EltonSherwin Or Google ‘Elton Sherwin comments DOE RFI home rating’
  44. 44. Analyzed Nine Different Energy Labels and Their Associated Rating Methodologies Option #5 Option #9 (Recommended Option) Option #3 Option #1
  45. 45. Recommended Label Displays Both Site and Source Data Electricity** B+ Gas** C- 74 * *125 is highest score ** The energy grade is determined 1 is lowest comparing this building to other similar Compared to all federal buildings in buildings in similar climates America (See Inverted Scale with Progressive Weighting) Image from iStockphoto
  46. 46. Recommended Inverted Scale Progressive weighting Source Formula: BTU/sf/mo Score • 0-25 BTU: 125-BTU 0 (net zero) 125 • 25 to 75 BTU: 100- ½ BTU over 25 25 100 • 75 to 125 BTU: 75-1/4 BTU over 75 45 90 • And so on. 50 88 • Objective is to have a single national 65 80 metric (per sq. ft.) with efficient buildings over 80 and no negative 95 70 scores. 135 60 • All numbers are total source energy 175 50 including all plug loads, HVAC and hot water. 255 40 335 30 375 25
  47. 47. Why Zero to 125? Why not zero to 100? • Multiple reasons, subtle, but important • Americans know scores above 80 are good, below 70 are weak. • Need a scoring system that lets superior buildings get above 80, yet also rewards net zero – Scale of 0 to100 fails to do this
  48. 48. Green Building Certification Systems This label meets the follow criteria from the RFI: "DOE is considering a requirement for a Federal agency to demonstrate that the energy use, at a minimum, in the first year of a building's green building certification is consistent with the energy use identified as part of the certification process. If the building's energy use exceeded the target energy use identified under the green building rating system, DOE is considering the removal of the green building certification." “(2) Include a verification system for post-occupancy assessment of the rated buildings to periodically demonstrate continued environmental benefits and energy savings.” These are all excellent ideas and this label meets these criteria.
  49. 49. Why This Label • Simple • Easy to update monthly • Data-driven approach • Measures real improvements • Universal participation – Does not require audits • Fair: works for all sizes of buildings • Drive dramatic reductions in energy consumption

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