Op grammar for teachers

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Op grammar for teachers

  1. 1. 1 English for Teachers Sentence PatternFormal Label- Noun Phrase Verb Phrase Adjective Phrase Adverb Phrase Preposition PhraseFunctional Label- (SVOCA) Subject Object Verb Complement Adjunct.The optional constituents of a sentence are called Adjuncts.The verbs that take complements are-be, have, appear, feel, look, remain, seem, become, grow, get, turn taste, smelletc.Basic Pattern 1. SV 2. SVC 3. SVO 4. SVOO 5. SVOCIdentify the Elements of the following sentences 1. Many intelligent students don’t read any book in the library. 2. Henry James was a very good writer. 3. Film stories are often based on very flimsy ground. Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  2. 2. 2 4. The stories we heard are horrible. 5. To be with her is a punishment. 6. My dear old sister gave me two beautiful pots as a present. 7. I love these extremely naughty young children. 8. The teacher chose Mayank secretary of the class. 9. I won’t do what I dont understand. 10. My children have never been any trouble for me. 11. Shashi was a very intelligent boy of the class. 12. She gave me a book yesterday. 13. In winter the weather is cold. 14. He became the president of India. 15. One of my friends showed me her painting last week. 16. Honesty is the best policy. 17. The pretty girl in the corner is Maya. 18. Mr. Das is an excellent teacher. 19. She learnt the story with a great difficulty. 20. I find grammar boring. 21. The man on the roof is my uncle. 22. You shouldn’t take more than two minutes over this. 23. I don’t know what his name is. 24. The boy who lives near my house is very intelligent. 25. What you say is correct Verb PhraseIdentify the Verb Phrase 1. To eat is human, to digest is divine. 2. You can only take the mare to the pond, you can’t make it drink. 3. I saw ten thousand daffodils at a glance, tossing their heads in sprightly dance. 4. Sachin was out, caught at midwicket. 5. They saw him return to the pavilion slowly. 6. He stopped to talk to her. 7. He stopped talking to her. 8. Don’t force me to do things I don’t like doing. 9. Taste the milk and find out for yourself. 10. She gave me an interesting story book to read. Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  3. 3. 3 11. I opened my eyes and saw a gorilla standing before me. 12. I see what you mean. 13. A little learning is a dangerous thing. 14. I like swimming but I didn’t swim in the swimming pool. Time and TenseIdentify the Verb Phrase. State the Tense.Say what time reference (present/ past/ future) the VP has. 1. I am writing and my wife is watching TV. 2. I wrote an essay yesterday. 3. He is going to Kota tomorrow. 4. I have read the book. 5. If you walk round the campus, you will see a lot of peacock. 6. The nine o’clock news reports three bombings. 7. The sun rises in the east. 8. I wish I were a king. 9. Could you help me with these exercise? 10. How do you go to work everyday. 11. The former minister has been arrested. 12. I may be visiting Chennai next week. 13. If it rains this evening, we will stay at home. 14. Beggars can’t be choosers. 15. Do you know where he lives. 16. She is making some ‘chat’ item for the party. 17. I might come late for the meeting this afternoon. 18. If you go in time, tell him I’ll be late. 19. I wondered if I could ask you for a favour. 20. In Hamlet, Ophelia goes mad when she hears about the death of his father.Say whether the underlined verb forms are right in the context. 1. Water boils at 100 degree Celsius. 2. Hurry up! Everyone waits for you. 3. I am usually going to work on my bicycle. 4. Why are you being so nasty today? 5. Gopal is living in Chennai but he stays at Hyderabad now. Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  4. 4. 4 6. Vidhya is interested in politics but he is not belonging to any political party. 7. I am thinking of selling my car. 8. Air is consisting mainly of Nitrogen and Oxygen. 9. Don’t put the dictionary away. I use it. Passive VoiceExpand the following newspaper headlines using passivee.g. Golden Peacock for Chinese Film ‘Blus’(The Chinese film ‘Blush’ was awarded the Golden Peacock.)37 Teachers selected for state awardTreasurer arrested.Ex MP’s brother shot at.Result declared. Non-finite verbs Infinitive‘To’ Infinitive 1. To say is easy. 2. It is easy to say. 3. I want to play football. 4. I want him to play. 5. Mangoes are good to eat. 6. I have a book to read. 7. I am to help him. 8. I have to help him. 9. The train is about to come. 10. He did nothing but laugh. 11. He is too weak to pass. 12. He is intelligent enough to pass. 13. Tell me what to do. 14. We seem to have lost it. (perfective)Infinitive ‘without to’ Modals (I can solve it easily.) Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  5. 5. 5 bid, let, make, help, know (She made me work hard.) Verbs of perception feel, hear, see, watch, notice, listen, observe, Phrases like would rather, had better. ParticiplePresent Participle I saw him crossing the road. (I saw him cross the road.) It being a hot day, we remained in our home. Seeing the policeman, the thief began to run.Past Participle I am surprised/ tired. I saw a fallen tree. (I saw a falling tree.)Perfect Participle Having finished my work, I went to bed. Gerund Walking is good for health. He stopped smoking. (He stopped to smoke.) I am fond of swimming. Our duty is teaching. Determiners1. Articles: a, an ,the2. Possessive: my, your, his, her…3. Quantitative: some, any, much, many, all, few, little, less4. Numerals: Cardinals: one, two, three… Ordinals: first, second….5. Distributives: each, every,6. Demonstratives: this, that, these, those…7. Interrogatives: what, which, whose…8. Genitive Possessives: `s Adverb Clause Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  6. 6. 6 1. Time- When he arrived, he saw them playing. 2. Place-You can play wherever you like. 3. Purpose-Work hard so that you may pass. 4. Reason- I was punished because I was late. 5. Condition-I won’t go out if it rains. 6. Result- When they saw a snake they were so frightened that they all ran away. 7. Degree- He work hard as much as he could. 8. Manner- He played with the children as if had been one of them. 9. Concession or Contrast- Though he was an old man, he never felt like an old man. Causative Verbs Have something done Get something doneI had my room cleaned.I get my hair cut every month.I had the roof repaired last week.When will you have your clothes washed?Get your work done. Have someone do something (engage/ employ) Make someone do something (force) Get someone to do something (request)I had him type the letters.He made the servant clean the room.She got her mother to cook food.Who made you clean the board?You will never get him understand. Noun Phrase(Pre modifiers + Noun + Post Modifiers)Pre modifiers-Pre determiner, Determiner, Adjective Phrase, Ordinal, Quantifier, ClassifierPost modifiers – Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  7. 7. 7Prepositional Phrase, Relative Clause, That clause, Adverb phrase, Adjective,AppositionThe first five books (Det+Ord+Quant+N)All the first absolutely ripe mangoes (Adj PhInt+Adj)A science student (classifier+N)Relative clauseMy brother who lives in Mumbai has come.(Restrictive/Defining)I have several brother and one who lives in Mumbai has come.My brother, who lives in Delhi, has come. (Nonrestrictive)I have one brother, he lives in Mumbai and he has come.My friend, Shashi, is a teacher. (Apposition)The girl from Delhi (Prep Ph Prep+ Noun)The shop behind the publication unit (NPDet+Class+N)A road ahead (Det+N+Adv Ph) Function of Noun PhraseSubject, Object, Complement, Adjunct, Form a part of the other NP (ThePrincess’s white shoe), Object of prepositionLabel the following sentences 1. An extremely terrifying tale 2. The first five exciting ideas 3. The most beautiful Miss universe 4. Which five remarkable women 5. A magnificent holiday retreat 6. Her first two PHD students 7. Her first ring 8. All those big fat dolphins 9. A couple of baby elephants 10. Such a pretty dress 11. We, all went to the meeting 12. My friend, Kalpana, is a good doctor. 13. The word, music, is an abstract noun. 14. The man on the roof Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  8. 8. 8 15. The two girls behind the tree 16. The people outside 17. The weather tomorrow 18. The room there 19. The house above 20. The people involved 21. The men present 22. The men entertaining 23. The post master concerned 24. Something different 25. The five most beautiful girls from the beauty pageant who are coming to India 26. The first forty teachers who have volunteered for the Course 27. The girl I wanted to meet 28. He married the woman I had suggested. Phrase and ClauseA phrase is a group of words making a sense but not complete.A clause is a group of words which make sense. It forms part of a sentence,and has a subject and predicate of its own.Point out the NP/ Adj Ph/ Adv Ph in the following sentences 1. Good people like to help their fellow men. 2. I read an interesting story. 3. We enjoyed climbing the mountain. 4. He refused to answer the question. 5. Reading in poor light will harm your eyes. 6. Swimming is a good habit. 7. The children want to dance in the lawn. 8. To win a scholarship is my ambition. 9. Early to bed is a good maxim. 10. Saluting senior officers is a rule in the army. 11. He is a man of word. 12. He is wearing a shirt of green colour. 13. She is a girl with blue eyes. 14. He has a ring made of gold. Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  9. 9. 9 15. The horses of Arabia are fine. 16. Even a single man in the street cannot be ignored. 17. That was an act of sheer of madness. 18. He told the tale of his work. 19. The police have arrested a man with a scar on his face. 20. A stitch in time saves nine. 21. He spoke to me in a polite manner. 22. Read these sentences with care. 23. The teacher was writing at that time. 24. Grains of wheat sprouted and grew at that place. 25. That man talked in a rude way. 26. He does his work with great care. 27. I left my book on this spot. 28. The meeting will be held at this very moment. 29. I was a student in those days. 30. She writes in a beautiful style. ClausePoint out the Noun Clause, Adj Clause and Adv Clause 1. Where he dined is not known to me. 2. What he said is true. 3. My answer is that I don’t know. 4. I don’t know what he wants. 5. The rumour that he is dead is untrue. 6. I asked him if he could swim. 7. I don’t know whether he will come or not. 8. What pleased us most was his good behaviour. 9. I don’t know why he cheated me. 10. Please listen to what the manager says. 11. He stood up thinking that the film was over. 12. Life is what we make it. 13. It is a fact that he is dishonest. 14. The boy, who is reciting the poem, is my brother. 15. This is the same story that he told me last night. 16. All that glitters is not gold. Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  10. 10. 10 17. This is the place where he was born. 18. The reason why he participated in the debate is clear. 19. This is the book I wanted. 20. Those whom God loves die young. 21. The telegram he sent us was about his success in I.A.S. 22. Do you like the coat Geeta is wearing. 23. I want to go where no one can meet me. 24. Ram could not go to school as he was unwell. 25. Work hard lest you should fail. 26. Unless you work hard, you cannot good marks. 27. However hard you may try, you can’t catch the train. 28. As far as I know, Geeta is a sincere lady. 29. While I was bathing, the door bell rang. 30. Speak loudly so that I may hear you. 31. He won the election because he was popular. 32. Geeta helps me whenever I ask her. SynthesisSentence formed after transformation or synthesis must convey the samemeaning as the individual sentences taken together.Combine each set of sentences into one simple sentence: 1. He got up early. He went to station. 2. Mother lit the fire. She had to cook dinner. 3. The teacher entered the classroom. The students became silent. 4. I gave my mother some money. She was to go to Mumbai. 5. ‘The Postmaster’ is a famous story. It was written by Tagore. 6. He bought a new alarm clock. He paid Rs. 250 for it. 7. The rose is the sweetest of all flowers. This is certain. 8. Winter will come. Days will be pleasant. 9. I have many books. I have to read them all. 10. It was his birthday. I congratulated him.Combine each set of simple sentences into a compound sentence: 1. Tell the truth. You will not be punished. Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  11. 11. 11 2. I was angry. I did not express my anger. 3. He did not work hard. He failed in the examination. 4. You may go there by bus. You may go there by train. 5. The handwriting was bad. I was able to read the letter. 6. All desire wealth. Very few acquire it. 7. The boy hurt himself. He did not cry. 8. We wanted to enjoy the morning walk. We rose early. 9. We could not play the match. It was raining. 10. Take care of pennies. The pounds will take care of themselves.Combine each set of simple sentences into a complex sentence: 1. When will the train come? Can you tell me that. 2. France won the World Cup in football. We all know it. 3. The bird sings sweetly. Listen to it. 4. I want to meet your father at 10 o’clock. Kindly tell him so. 5. He hasn’t approved my plan. I don’t know the reason. 6. We reached a cottage. A Shepherd lived there with his family. 7. I find the book very interesting. I bought it yesterday. 8. A gentleman wishes to go abroad. He has a car to sell. 9. The started early. They wanted to reach the station. 10. He got home. He went into his study immediately. 11. The bird sang very sweetly. The children stopped making enquiries. 12. He ran round the garden very fast. He could not have run faster. 13. The two friends quarreled. I want to know the reason. 14. The silver teapot was highly priced. Yet she decided to buy it. 15. An old banyan tree stands there. The friends often meet there. Phrases for Everyday UseAll are not alikeTruth is bitterHave a nice daySee youBest of luckAll the bestYes, please Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  12. 12. 12No, thanksThank youIt’s all rightIt’s my pleasureNo mentionYou are welcomeExcuse mePardonI beg your pardonMay I help you?Would you mind--I seek your blessingsWish you a happy---It’s really sadSame to youIt was God’s willHave faith in GodMay luck smile at youHave patienceAll will be wellDo your bestDon’t worryNever mindI don’t careCome what mayBe braveBe carefulI am quite wellI am afraidAnything elseBe frankBravoExcellentIt was all by mistakeTouch woodJust coming Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  13. 13. 13Rest assuredI say stopI need your blessingsIt was to beCan I be of any help?Are you in your sense?A drop in the oceanMany men many mindsIt goes without sayingHard work always paysCourtesy costs nothingWell doneIt’s wonderfulYou deserve a prizeHow nice you are!It was not my intentionI couldn’t followI was just jokingYou are not to blame for thisNot at allNot the leastDon’t be sillyLeave me aloneDon’t interrupt meBe briefMend your waysLet it goI have no objectionAs you wishIt will be soLet’s goThere is no such thingI never said soDon’t cheatWhy not?We are always with you Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  14. 14. 14It doesn’t matter muchCertainlyWith pleasureWhat a shame!BewareIt is all your doingTime is great healerI got a little lateNever under estimate the enemyThere goes the last busLet me ask you certain questionsWhat a wonder!You’re of the same name and looksDo one thingWhat about Shimla?I can’t helpAll praise would fall short of youHow long will you take to get readyMoney begets moneyMake castles in the airA good word costs nothingPractice makes a man perfectI am grateful to youLadies firstBe seatedWow!God bless youAny doubtHow lovely!How dare you?Thank GodAt lastLet me seeI am so soYou are at faultHow are you? Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  15. 15. 15How do you do?Off you goI am extremely busySo you areMy work is not yet overMay I have your attention please?Do as I sayRemind me of itIt is all because of youI got duped by himSink your differencesMay beThis is not properDon’t try my patienceWho knowsMight is rightHaste is wasteAfter youAll rightWe live in deedsSilence is goldA fair face needs no paintTruth is ever greenA friend in need is friend indeedLet me knowYou had better goIt is rather coldWhat can be the reasonAny howSo what?It dependsIs it so?How is it possible?Make the bed, pleaseThread the needleUnlace your shoes and sit at ease Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  16. 16. 16Peel off the orangeKeep to the leftGo and enjoy yourselfSet the alarm at 5Don’t shirk workPare your nailsDon’t spit on the floorBolt the doorWrite with a penWrite in inkDon’t beat about the bushFeel at homeWhat is up there?Such excuses will not do hereThis is the talk of the townHe is no match for meWe miss you very muchWhat brings you hereEnough is enoughReally I didnt know itIm sorry.I can’t stand this nonsenseThere was a pin drop silence in the hallIt is not worthwhile going thereIt is beyond my controlI am out of pocketHe is only a yes-manHe always stands in my wayHe is true to his wordThis house is to letDoctors are in great demand in rural areasPhotography is a paying professionHe is hard of hearingSurprise to see you hereSo nice of you.Lets go in Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  17. 17. 17You have a sharp memoryHold on pleaseI am damn bus.Its quite close to marketI must make a move Must you go so soon?How are you?Perfectly in one pieceThat looks manCan you spare this weekend?The sooner the betterThats greatLets celebrate itI dont find you around these days?Its a nice modelKeep it upWhat happened?May I speak to Peter, Please? Peter speakingWho is there?I am RickyWhat makes you ring me up?Thank you-(To Senior)No mention, please(To friends) Welcome(To a younger/junior) Its alrightWelcome homeHow was the trip?Where else did you go?I thought you didnt like my ideaNo, its not soRather I supported it stronglyDon’t make hasteWhat sort of changes? Minor onesIm not in mood to lunch. Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  18. 18. 18How to tell you, we needed it badlyI think he left the exerciseThere may be the reasonNo problem I can wait for some timeBy the way, whatll be the menu for lunch?Well decide it there That sounds goodLets proceedI ask, wholl give me company in doing it?Ask your friends, not us Hey, Im not asking you but themI tell you, I am not with youMay I ask you one question?Go ahead, pleaseHello Ruchi!Mind my asking you a favour?Not at allIts my pleasureI cant say yesHow is it possible, tell me? Its out of questionAnything important?As usualNothing so important.He is confident of his success.Do it off-Finish it upYou are on the wrong sideCollect it from my clerkIts up to you to help the needyIs this bus for Delhi?We enjoyed your companyWho is he to say soI have been to DelhiI am in a fixWill you do me a favour Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  19. 19. 19What does it meanPrevention is better than cureI am highly obligedI will set you rightTime waits for noneIt happens sometimes.He told me to make some changes.That’s enough English for Classroom Communication Self IntroductionT: May I introduce myself, I am… I am your English teacherSs: How do you do? Pleased to meet you. GreetingT: Good morning/evening/afternoon. How are you?Ss: Very well/ Fine, thank you. Informal talkT: Why is Leela absent today?St: She is not well, sir.T: Oh, I’m sorry to hear that. Leave takingT: See you tomorrow/see you later. Getting things doneT: Excuse me. What is your name?St: Ravi.T: Please run to the office room and get me some chalks. Beginning a new lessonT: Today I’m going to teach a new lesion. Are you interested in poetry? Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  20. 20. 20Ss: Yes, madam.T: Anyone without the text book?Ss: We all have brought our books, madam.T: Good. Open your books at page 56, will you? What is the title of the poem, Radha? Checking LearningT: Let me ask you some questions. Are you ready?Ss: Yes, madam.T: The first question, then. Those who know the answer, raise your hands…. Where was Dr Ambedkar born? Kamala will answer. T: Ravi, would you like to answer the first question?St: Sorry, madam. I don,t know the answer. T: That’s all right. Please sit down. Kamala, why don’t you try? Getting instructions T: Close your books, everybody…. Good. Put them down. I’m going to write two questions on the black board… Lakshmi, read the first question.T: Good. I shall read the first paragraph in your textbook. You will listen to me carefully. Is it clear?Ss: Yes madam.T: Here’s something I want you to do. Listen well and find the answers to those two questions. Have I made myself clear? Asking pupils to read silently T: Open your books. Now you will read the second paragraph silently. Remember don’t mutter. Off you go. I asked you to read silently, didn’t I? Remember no lip movement. Telling pupils to improve their hand writing T: I’m afraid I can’t make out what you have written. St: Shall I read it out madam? T: Don’t bother, but learn to write neatly otherwise you’ll lose marks in the exam. Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  21. 21. 21 Error correction T: Those are the words you have misspelt. Write each word five times, will you? See that you don’t make mistake again. Look here. What the plural of child? Correcting pronunciation errorsT: Look at those two words on the blackboard. Let’s learn how to say them. After me, then,….together: WOman Good. The second word, now; opporTUnity Round your lips more and say ‘WOman’ Well done. Raju, read the second word. You didn’t say it correctly. You must say ‘TU’ a little louder. That’s better. Say it again. Giving a textT: Tomorrow you will take a text. Read Lesson 15 well.Ss: Tests are difficult, madam.T: Don’t worry. This test will be easy.T: I’m sorry to say you haven’t done well in the test. You have made manymistake. When you want to praise a pupilT: Your reading is good, keep it up. What’s the matter, Shashi? You seem totake it easy these days. You’re quite intelligent but rather lazy.St: My mother is in hospital, madam.T: I’m sorry to hear that. When you notice that someone is not in his seatT: Excuse me, who sits here?St: Aziz, sir. Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  22. 22. 22T: Can you tell me where he has gone?St: To the office, sir. He has gone to pay his fees. When you talk to a student who looks unwellT: You’re looking rather pale. Aren’t you feeling well?St: I didn’t sleep very well, madam. I’ve got a headache.T: Have a little rest. You’ll feel better afterwards. When you want to borrow something from a pupilT: I’ve left my pen at home. Can you lend me yours? /I need a pen. Have yougot one?St: Here you are, madam. When a pupil answers hurriedly at the expense of clarityT: Will you answer this question?St: (answers hurriedly)T: If you speak slowly, I can understand you. Asking for permissionSt: Excuse me, sir.T: What’s it?St: I must go to toilet, May I go?T: Yes, of course. Saying sorrySt: Sorry, I’m late, madam.T: That’s all right. Do come in and take your seat quietly. When you have given your class a long writing taskSs: Madam, we’re tired.T: Oh! Are you? All right. Have a little rest. A pupil may wish to consult you in your roomSt: May I come in, sir?T: Hello, do come in.St: I hope I’m not disturbing you. Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  23. 23. 23T: Not at all.St: Thank you for your advice, sir.T: It’s my pleasure/That’s all right/ Don’t mention it. When your students tell you to speak upSt: We can’t hear you, Madam.T: I am sorry. I will speak up. While teaching, you may be interruptedSt: sorry to interrupt you, madam. I don’t understand you. Notions and ConceptsIntention I mean to go. We are going to buy a new house. I intend to return early tonight.Permission May I leave the room? Can I use your phone? Are we allowed to park here?Suggestion Shall we go to the theatre? Let’s go to the theatre? How about going to the theatre? Why don’t you use both your hands? I suggest that we go to the zoo?Advice You should see the doctor? Why don’t you give up smoking? I advice you to use this toothpaste.Agreement Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  24. 24. 24 That’s right. Of course. That’s fine. Absolutely.Disagreement I don’t think so. This is not possible. This cannot be arranged.Obligation You must come and see me. I have to do it today.Possibility Perhaps she has gone to school. It may rain tonight. She is very likely to late.Certainty I’m sure that she will come. I certainly think that she is a doctor. I believe that he is abnormal.Ability She can bake very well. He is able to do it easily. He has ability to do it.Purpose I have come to play cards with you. Work hard so that you may pass. I went there to meet her.Determination Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  25. 25. 25 I will do what I like. I have made up my mind to learn English.Comparison My house is as big as yours. Nothing is more rewarding than to be honest.Preference I prefer walking to cycling. I would rather stay at home. I like coffee better than tea.Concession Although they are sisters, they look so different. However hard she may try, she will not pass. Come what may, we will stay together.Inquiry How far is the station? Who broke the glass? What time does the bus leave?Warning Mind the traffic. Be careful. Take care when you cross the road.Greeting I’m pleased to meet you. How do you do? How are you? Glad to meet you. It’s good to see you again.Apologizing Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  26. 26. 26 I’m sorry. Please forgive me. I do apologize. Excuse me please. It’s my fault.Consolation We were sorry to hear this. It was God’s will. It’s really very sad. May his soul rest in peace.Wish/Congratulation May luck smile on you. My good wishes are ever with you. May success be yours.Likes/Dislikes I’m crazy/mad about…. Wow/Lovely! I’m fond of…. Oh, no! I don’t think so.Introduction Allow me to introduce. Let me introduce. I’m quite in a hurry too. I think I’d better to now.Thanking Thank you very much. It’s so kind of you. Thanks for your present. Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com
  27. 27. 27 I’d like to thank….Request Will you pass the butter please? Could you lend me the pen? Do you mind opening the window? I would be extremely grateful if you would give me this book. Ram Gopal Sharma, Chief Resource Person in ELT, ELTI, Bikaner : 09460305331 eltirajasthan@gmail.com

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