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cyclone

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cyclone, occurrence, formation, types, impacts

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cyclone
If the storm occurs in the Atlantic Ocean
and North-east Pacific, it's called a
hurricane.
If the exact same type of storm occurs in
the North-west Pacific, this is a typhoon.
And if we find those same storms in the
South Pacific and Indian Ocean, these are
called tropical cyclones.
cyclone
• Cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm
system characterized by a low pressure
center, a closed low level atmospheric
circulation, strong wind and a spiral
arrangement of thunder storms and heavy
rain
What are cyclones?
Where do they occur?
When do they occur?
How do they form?
How do they occur?
Three stages:
1. Formation and initial development
2. Maturing
3. Modification and decay
How do they occur?
To form a cyclone, warm, moist air over the ocean
rises upward .
As this air moves up and away from the ocean
surface, it leaves is less air near the surface.
 So basically as the warm air rises, it causes an
area of lower air pressure below.
Air from surrounding areas with higher air
pressure pushes in to the low pressure area.
Then this new “cool” air becomes warm and
moist and rises, too. And the cycle continues…

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cyclone

  • 2. If the storm occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and North-east Pacific, it's called a hurricane. If the exact same type of storm occurs in the North-west Pacific, this is a typhoon. And if we find those same storms in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean, these are called tropical cyclones.
  • 3. cyclone • Cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low pressure center, a closed low level atmospheric circulation, strong wind and a spiral arrangement of thunder storms and heavy rain
  • 4. What are cyclones? Where do they occur? When do they occur? How do they form?
  • 5. How do they occur? Three stages: 1. Formation and initial development 2. Maturing 3. Modification and decay
  • 6. How do they occur? To form a cyclone, warm, moist air over the ocean rises upward . As this air moves up and away from the ocean surface, it leaves is less air near the surface.  So basically as the warm air rises, it causes an area of lower air pressure below. Air from surrounding areas with higher air pressure pushes in to the low pressure area. Then this new “cool” air becomes warm and moist and rises, too. And the cycle continues…
  • 8. • As the warmed, moist air rises and cools the water in the air forms clouds • As the cycle continues, more air rises up and cloud becomes thick • Condensation then releases the latent heat of energy stored in the water vapour ( power for cyclone)
  • 9. • The whole system of clouds and wind spins and grows, fed by the ocean’s heat and water evaporating from the ocean surface • The system spins due to the coriolis effect The Coriolis effect makes storms swirl clockwise in the Southern hemisphere and counter clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. • As the storm system rotates faster and faster, an eye forms in the centre. – It is very calm and clear, with very low air pressure. Higher pressure air from above flows down into the eye.
  • 10. • When the winds in the rotating storm reach 39 mph (63 kmph), the storm is called a “tropical storm”. • And when the wind speeds reach 74 mph (119 kmph), the storm is officially a “tropical cyclone” or hurricane. • Tropical cyclones usually weaken when they hit land, because they are no longer being “fed” by the energy from the warm ocean waters. • However, they often move far inland, dumping many centimeters of rain and causing lots of wind damage before they die out completely
  • 12. Types of cyclone Tropical cyclone Extra tropical cyclone ( temperate cyclone) Polar lows or artic hurricanes Polar cyclones Mesocyclones
  • 13. Tropical cyclones • Occur over tropical ocean regions. • Hurricanes and typhoons are types of tropical cyclones. • Major tropical-cyclone basins are – North Atlantic (including the Caribbean), – Eastern Pacific – Western Pacific – North Indian Ocean – Southwest Indian Ocean – Southern Pacific – Australian region
  • 14. • Tropical cyclones develop within 5 and 30 degrees of latitude. :Because they require ocean waters of 80 degrees Fahrenheit or so to form cyclone. ( primary condition for the formation of tropical cyclone) How dose it occur?
  • 16. • Classified further based on their wind speeds. (mph- Miles per hour)
  • 17. Midlatitude or Extratropical Cyclones • The cyclonic storms that develop in the middle latitudes. (between 30° and 60° latitude from the equator) • These cyclones develop where sharp temperature gradients exist between adjoining air masses. • extratropical cyclones produce rapid changes in temperature and dew point along broad lines, called weather fronts, about the center of the cyclone. • Extra tropical cyclones form as waves along weather fronts before occluding later in their cycle as cold core cyclones
  • 18. • The winds are generally weaker. Formed by:  Cyclogenisis: development of cyclonic circulation in atmosphere.  Extra tropical transistion:  process by which a tropical cyclone upon encountering with a baroclinic environment and reduced sea surface transforms into an extra tropical cyclone
  • 19. Polar cyclones • Polar cyclones are 1000 to 2000 km wide in which the air is moving in a spiral counter clockwise in Northern hemisphere. • Occur in Polar Regions like Greenland, Siberia and Artic ,Antarctica and northern canada. • Usually stronger in winter months. • Damages are usually minimal, as they occur in areas that aren't very populated
  • 20. Polar Lows or Arctic Hurricanes • Forms over Arctic and Antarctic seas. • Sparked by frigid air moving over somewhat warmer ocean waters. • Their energy source – heat transfer from water to air and latent heat released by cloud condensation. • Often form quickly, sometimes in less than 24 hours, and can be difficult to forecast.
  • 21. Mesocyclone • Is when part of a thunderstorm cloud starts to spin, which may eventually lead to a tornado. • Tornadoes all come from thunderstorm clouds, but not all thunderstorm clouds make tornadoes. • Rotating “wall clouds” may descend from mesocyclones and ultimately form a funnel cloud, which, if it contacts the ground, becomes a tornado.
  • 23. How mesocyclone and Tornado forms?  Primary requirement - A wind shear, where wind blows faster in one spot than another (A blanket of air is flowing over another one).  This sets up a rolling vortex, a horizontally rotating mass of air (like the way a wave breaks when it gets to a beach)  This spinning vortex in the middle is called a mesocyclone.
  • 24. An updraft then lifts that vortex, which then spins vertically.( Updraft happens when moist air moves upwards) Rotating “wall clouds” may descend and ultimately form a funnel cloud, which, if it contacts the ground, becomes a tornado
  • 28. • More cyclone occur in bay of Bengal than in Arabian sea and the ratio is 4:1 • Indian Ocean is one of six major cyclone prone regions of the world • There are two definite seasons of tropical cyclones in the North Indian Ocean. One is from May to June and the other from mid- September to mid-December
  • 30. Impacts of cyclone Impact mainly depends upon: intensity its size its location
  • 31. Classified into three: • Primary hazard : involves destructive winds, debris and storm surge. • Secondary hazards: include flooding and fires. • Tertiary hazards: include spikes in prices of food and other necessities, as well as long term hazards like water-borne diseases.
  • 32. Upon landfall The most significant effects of a tropical cyclone occur when they cross coastlines, making landfall (destroys ships and lives) 1. Strong winds 2. Storm surge 3. Heavy rainfal 4. Tornados
  • 33. Effects on natural resources • Geomorphology: – reshape the geology near the coast by eroding sand from the beach as well as offshore, rearranging coral, and changing dune configuration onshore • Coastal ridges – erode undersea sands, shell deposits, break off corals from shore reefs, and carry all this detritus landwards in a rolling wave of material that is deposited onshore
  • 34. • Limestone cave – When tropical cyclones cross land, thin layers of calcium carbonate of 'light' composition (i.e. unusual isotopic ratio of Oxygen-18 and Oxygen-16) are deposited onto limestone caves up to 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the cyclone's path • Landscapes