What is anorexia nervosa?
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that
occurs when you are obsessed about being
fat, as a result you eat as little as possible. If
you suffer from anorexia, you see yourself as
being fat when you are not.
This condition is both a physical and a mental
illness. Your body functions change as a result
of low levels of body fat. In young women
This illness occurs most often in young
women. However, about 5% to 10% of people
with anorexia nervosa are men.
Anorexia nervosa is a very severe illness.
Death may occur from starvation or suicide.
How does it occur?
The cause of anorexia nervosa is not clear.
In many cultures, including ours, being thin
is considered beautiful and this could be one
of the causes of anorexia.
You may be at risk of developing anorexia
nervosa if you:
• have a family history of anorexia
nervosa or other eating disorders
• have a family or personal history of
disorders, such as depression,
anxiety , or obsessive-compulsive
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms may include:
• Loosing lots of weight
• Binge eating (eating a lot in a short period of time) and/or purging (using laxatives
or making yourself vomit)
• Feeling dizzy and weak
• Feeling depressed or anxious
• If you are a woman, not menstruating
• Eating very little or almost nothing
• Seeing yourself as being fat when you are not
• Too much exercise
• Thinking about food all the time.
How is it diagnosed?
Your doctor will do a physical examination and will also ask your medical history. Your doctor
will ask about your eating and other behaviour habits, such as:
• Always choosing low calories food
• Binge eating
• Taking laxatives and vomiting
• Strange eating habits
• Saying you are not hungry and that you have no problem at all with food.
What can be done to prevent acne?
• Wash your skin twice a day and
after exercise. Use a soft soap.
• Shampoo your hair daily.
• Don’t touch the spots.It causes
bleeding into the skin , infection
and more spots.
How is it treated?
This can be a very difficult condition to treat.
Your doctor will help you to start eating again.
You will also probably need individual
psychotherapy and family therapy. Your
doctor may prescribe some medicine to:
• help reduce your fear of becoming
• help reduce depression and anxiety
• help you gain weight.
You may need to be hospitalised if your
condition is severe and dangerous four your
What can be done to prevent anorexia
nervosa and maintain good
Accepting yourself and your body can help
prevent this problem. In addition you can:
• See your doctor.
• Eat all your meals.
• Don’t use laxatives.
• Don’t over exercise.
• Don’t drink alcohol.
• Don’t smoke.
What is acne?
Acne occurs when the oil glands in your skin
become blocked. More than 90% of teenagers
have acne. Acne you causes 3 types of
spots: blackheads, whiteheads (pimples), and
red bumps on your face, neck, and shoulders.
• Blackheads:A blackhead results when dead skin cells and sebum block a hair
follicle near the skin.
• Whiteheads (pimples): These are tiny, white spots and are caused by the
accumulation of sebum or oil in the pores of the skin.
• Red bumps: These are the result of the infection which has spread beyond the
How is it treated?
• Benzoyl peroxide 5% lotion or gel: This lotion helps to open pimples and clean
blackheads. It also kills bacteria. Apply the lotion once a day at bedtime.
• Pimple opening the safe way: Never open a pimple before it has a yellow
centre. Wash your face and hands first. Use a needle that has been
sterilised. Open the surface of the yellow pimple with the tip of the needle.
The pus should run out. Clean away the pus and wash the area with soap and
water. Don't "pop" pimples by squeezing.
• Large red bumps mean the infection has spread beyond the oil gland. If you
have several red bumps, you probably also need an antibiotic. Antibiotics
come as solutions for the skin or as pills. Arrange an appointment with your
What is asthma?
Asthma is a respiratory disorder, often of allergic origin, characterized by difficulty in breathing,
wheezing and a sense of constriction in the chest.
Asthma is a chronic illness that requires close follow-up by a doctor who co-ordinates your
treatment. It is important that you have your doctor confirm that you have asthma.
The bronchial tubes go into spasm and become narrow when allergic or irritating substances enter them. Viral
respiratory infections (colds) cause most attacks. If the asthma is due to pollens, it flares up only during a particular
season. Asthma often occurs in people who have other allergic reactions such as eczema or hay fever. Emotional
stress can occasionally cause an attack but emotional problems are not the cause of asthma.
What are the symptoms?
• wheezing (a whistling or musical sound while breathing out).
• attacks of wheezing, coughing, and difficulty in breathing.
• sneezing and a runny nose.
Usually there is no fever with asthma.
What medicines will I need?
You may need more than one type of medicine.
One is usually for preventing attacks and another
is to help stop an attack once it has started
(rescue medicine). Ask your doctor when each
medicine should be used.
• Preventive Medicine
• Rescue Medicine
After asthma attacks are over, your
rescue medicine is stopped or used less
often. Check with your doctor about when
and how much to reduce this medicine.
• Oral steroids or other asthma medicine
• Continuous asthma medicine
Most people with asthma need medicines only during attacks but people with severe asthma
need to take medicines every day to allow them to engage in normal activities
How can I take care of myself?
Try to drink one glass of fluid every 2 hours during waking hours. Fluids keep the normal
lung mucus from becoming sticky. Clear fluids such as water are best.
• Exercise-induced asthma
Most people with asthma also get 15- to 30-minute attacks of coughing and wheezing when
they exercise strenuously. Running, especially in cold air, is the main cause.
This problem should not interfere with participation in most sports nor require a gym
excuse. The symptoms can be prevented by using an oral
asthma medicine 90 minutes before exercise or an inhaler 10
minutes before exercise. Teenagers with asthma usually have
no problems with swimming or sports not requiring rapid
• Going to school
Asthma is not contagious. You should go to school during mild
asthma attacks but avoid gym on these days. Arrange to have your asthma medicines
available at school. If you use an inhaler, get permission to keep it with you so you can use it
whenever you need it.
If you are wheezing all the time, you should be seeing your doctor daily.
Finally, don't let asthma restrict your activities, sports, or social life.
How can I prevent it?
o Try to discover and avoid the substances that cause your asthma attacks.
o Avoid common causes such as feather pillows and tobacco smoke.
o Keep pets outside or at least out of your bedroom.
o Learn how to make your bedroom dust-proof.
o Shower, wash your hair, and put on clean clothes if you wheeze after any contact
with grass, pollen, weeds, or animals.
What is an ankle sprain?
An ankle sprain is an injury that causes a stretch or tear of one or
more ligaments in the ankle joint. Ligaments are strong bands of
tissue that connect bones at the joint.
Sprains may be graded I, II, or III depending on their severity:
• grade I sprain: pain with minimal damage to the ligaments.
• grade II sprain: more ligament damage and the joint is quite
• grade III sprain: complete tearing of the ligament and the joint is
very loose or unstable.
Sometimes sprains are just classified as mild or severe, depending on
the amount of ligament damage.
Most sprains occur on the outside part of the ankle, but they can occur on the inside as well.
A sprain is caused by twisting your ankle. Your foot usually turns in or under but may turn to the outside.
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms of a sprained ankle include:
• inability to move the ankle properly
How it is treated?
Treatment may include:
• Applying ice to your ankle for 20 to 30 minutes
every 3 to 4 hours for the first 2 to 3 days.
• Elevating your ankle by placing a pillow
underneath your foot for 1 day. Try to keep your
ankle above the level of your heart.
• Wrapping an elastic bandage around your ankle
to stop the swelling getting worse. Keep it on for
• Putting your ankle in plaster.
• Using crutches until you can walk without pain.
• Taking anti-inflammatory pain medication.
• Doing ankle exercises to improve your ankle
strength. The exercises will help you return to
your normal activity or sports.
How can I help prevent an ankle sprain?
To help prevent an ankle sprain, follow these
• Use well-fitting shoes when you exercise.
• Warm up and stretch gently before and after
• Avoid turning suddenly and quickly changing
direction and movement.
• Put a bandage or brace for sports, especially if
you have a previous injury.
Parasites (Head lice)
What are parasites?
Head lice are small, six-legged wingless
insects, pin-head size when they hatch, less
than match-head size when fully grown and
grey/brown in colour. They are difficult to
detect in dry hair. They very often cause
Head lice cannot fly, jump or swim, but
spread by clambering from head to head.
Anyone with hair can catch them, but children who have head to head contact, either at school or
during play, are most commonly affected.
Head lice feed by biting and sucking blood through the scalp of their host. The female louse lays
eggs in sacs (nits) which are very small, dull in colour, and well camouflaged.
These are securely glued to hairs where the warmth of the scalp will hatch
them out in 7-10 days. Empty egg sacs are white. Lice take 6-14 days to
become fully grown, after which they are capable of reproduction.
Head lice are not fussy about hair length or condition. Clean hair is therefore
no protection, although regular ( weekly) hair washing and combing sessions
offer a good opportunity to detect
head lice, and arrange treatment if discovered.
Nit: Nits are head lice eggs. They are hard to see. Nits
are found firmly attached to the hair. They are oval and
usually yellow to white. Nits take about 1 week to hatch.
Nymph: The nit hatches into a baby louse called a nymph.
It looks like an adult head louse, but it is smaller. Nymphs
mature into adults about 7 days after hatching. The nymph
feeds on blood.
Adult: The adult louse is about the size of a sesame seed.
It has six legs, and it is tan to greyish-white. In persons
with dark hair, the adult louse will look darker. Females lay
nits; they are usually larger than males. Adult lice can live
up to 30 days on a person's head. Adult lice needs to feed
on blood. If the louse falls off a person, it dies within 2 days.
• Tickling feeling of something moving in the hair.
• Itching, caused by the an allergic reaction to the bites. I
• Sores on the head caused by scratching. These sores can sometimes become infected.
1. Apply conditioner to dry hair covering each hair from root to tip.
2. Detangle the hair using an ordinary comb.
3. Immediately comb the hair with a fine nit comb.
4. Wipe the conditioner off the fine tooth comb onto a paper tissue and
look for lice and eggs.
5. Repeat the combing for every part of the head at least 5 times.
Also examine the comb for lice and eggs.
There are specific lotions and
shampoos to treat head lice infections.
1. Apply the product to all areas of the head and cover all hairs from roots
2. If you are using lotions, apply the product to dry hair. For shampoos, wet
the hair, but use the least amount of water possible.
3. Leave the preparation on the hair for at least 20 minutes.
4. Cover the child's eyes while the treatment is being applied. Ask them to
hold a towel against their eyes.
1. Do not share personal hair decorations/clips/headbands, hats or clothing.
Lice are not nice to share!
2. Hang coats/hats/backpacks separately. Coats should not be piled up.
Stuff hats into coat/jacket sleeves. Coats and backpacks should be hung
on the backs of chairs. Place possessions in individual cubbies, lockers
or plastic bags. Lice are hitchhikers!
3. Do not lie down or place their heads on the carpet. Vacuum daily.
4. Towels, smocks and gym clothes brought from home should be stored in separate cubbies, boxes, or plastic
bags and sent home frequently for washing.
5. Detect lice and treat them as soon as possible.
What is a sore throat?
When your throat hurts it is often a symptom of an illness, such as a cold. When someone
looks at the throat with a light, it will be bright red.
What is the cause?
Most sore throats are caused by viruses and are part of a cold. About 10% of sore throats
are caused by bacteria. A throat culture or test is the only way to know whether a sore
throat is caused by bacteria or a virus.
Tonsillitis (temporary swelling and redness of the tonsils) is usually present with any
throat infection, viral or bacterial.
Teenagers who sleep with their mouths open often wake in the morning with a dry mouth
and sore throat. It feels better when they drink something. Use a humidifier to help
prevent this problem.
How long does it last?
Sore throats caused by viral illnesses usually last 3 or 4 days.
They responds well to penicillin or other antibiotics. After you have been taking medication
for 24 hours, it is no longer contagious. You can then return to school if your fever is gone
and you are feeling better.
- Temperature (fever)
- Painful throat
• Throat pain relief
- Gargle with warm saltwater (1/4 teaspoon of salt per glass) or an antacid solution.
- Suck on hard candy.
Swollen tonsils can make some foods hard to swallow. Eat a diet of soft foods for a
• Fever and pain relief
Take acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil) for the sore throat or for fever
over 102°F (39°C).
• Common mistakes in treating sore throat
o Avoid expensive throat sprays. They are not effective, but many also contain an ingredient
(benzocaine) that may cause an allergic reaction.
o Do not use leftover antibiotics from siblings or friends.
What is a backache?
A backache is pain and stiffness in the back. The middle or lower back is the most common
area to have pain. Backaches are most common during adolescence.
With a backache:
• The pain is worsened by bending.
• The muscles on either side of the spine are tender or in spasm.
What causes backaches?
Backaches are usually caused by straining some of the 200 muscles in the back that allow
us to stand upright. Often the strain is caused by carrying something too heavy, lifting
from an awkward position, or overexertion of back muscles (for example, from digging).
How can I take care of myself?
• Pain-relief medicines
Take acetaminophen or ibuprofen four times a day. Continue this until 24 hours have
passed without any pain. This medicine is the most important part of the therapy
because back pain causes muscle spasm and these medicines can reduce both the
spasm and the pain.
• Local heat
A heating pad or hot water bottle applied to the most painful area for 20 minutes
helps to relieve muscle spasm.
• Sleeping position
The most comfortable sleeping position is usually on your side. The mattress should
be firm or reinforced with a board.
Avoid lifting, jumping, horseback riding, motorcycle riding, and exercise until you are
completely well. Complete bed rest is unnecessary.
How can I prevent backaches?
The only way to prevent future backaches is to keep your back muscles in excellent
physical condition. This will require 5 minutes of back and abdominal exercises every day.
Helpful exercises are:
• Cat and camel: Get down on your hands and knees. Let your stomach sag, allowing your back to
curve downward. Hold this position for 5 seconds. Then arch your back and hold for 5 seconds.
Do 3 sets of 10.
• Pelvic tilt: Lie on your back with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor. Tighten your
abdominal muscles and push your lower back into the floor. Hold this position for 5 seconds, then
relax. Do 3 sets of 10.
• Partial curl: Lie on your back with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor. Tighten your
stomach muscles and flatten your back against the floor. Tuck your chin to your chest. With your
hands stretched out in front of you, curl your upper body forward until your shoulders clear the
floor. Hold this position for 3 seconds. Don't hold your breath. It helps to breathe out as you lift
your shoulders up. Relax. Repeat 10 times. Build to 3 sets of 10. To challenge yourself, clasp your
hands behind your head and keep your elbows out to the side.
• Prone hip extension: Lie on your stomach with your legs straight out behind you. Tighten up
your buttocks muscles and lift one leg off the floor about 8 inches. Keep your knee straight. Hold
for 5 seconds. Then lower your leg and relax. Do 3 sets of 10.
Repeat the exercise with your other leg.
• Try to lift objects with your leg muscles and not by bending or twisting the back.
When should I go to the doctor?
Go immediately if:
• The pain becomes very severe AND persists more than 2 hours after taking a pain medicine.
• You can't walk.
• You start feeling very sick.
• The pain is no better after 3 days of treatment.
• The pain is still present after 2 weeks.
• You have other concerns or questions.
Why Do Kids Use Drugs?
Kids may take drugs for many reasons. They may see older kids using them
and want to be more like them. They may try drugs because they're curious.
Others may feel sad, scared, or bored. They may think drugs can help them
forget their problems. Many kids just want to fit in with their friends. They may
What Are Drugs?
Drugs are chemicals that change the
way our bodies work. If you've ever been
sick and had to take medicine, you
already know some kinds of drugs. A
medicine is a drug that a doctor gives
people who are sick, but even medicines
can be dangerous if they're not taken
according to a doctor's instructions.
Cigarettes and alcohol are also drugs,
but they are legal. (In the United States,
adults 18 and over can buy cigarettes
and those 21 and over can buy alcohol.)
But smoking and excessive drinking are
bad for adults and totally off limits for
kids. Other kinds of drugs are dangerous
all the time. These are drugs that aren't
given by doctors. Most of them are
illegal and include substances like
ecstasy, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, and
think drugs will make them cool. Lots of kids say they use drugs to get their
The truth is, drugs don't solve problems. Drugs just hide feelings. When a drug
wears off, those feelings of being sad or lonely are still there. And you just feel
Why Are Drugs Bad for
Anything you take too much of - even cough medicine or soda - can be bad for
your body. And even small amounts of drugs kill your brain cells. Unlike your
hair or fingernails, once a brain cell dies, it never grows back.
Drugs also interfere with your ability to think clearly. People can do really dumb
or dangerous things that could hurt them - or other people - when they use
drugs. Keeping up with school becomes even harder for kids on drugs. Drugs
can also prevent your body from growing properly and can make you look sick
all the time.
Some drugs make kids angry when they use them. These kids get into fights
with their parents, teachers, and friends. And using drugs even one time may be
all it takes to permanently damage your body - or kill you. One hit of crack or
cocaine can give you (yes, even a kid!) a heart attack and kill you. Sniff glue or
some other inhalant just once and you could go blind. You'd never be able to
see again - forever.
Kids who use drugs may become dependent on them, or addicted. They have
become so used to a drug that their bodies need it to function. Once you have
an addiction, it's very hard to stop taking drugs. Stopping drug use brings on
withdrawal symptoms - vomiting (throwing up), sweating, tremors (shaking),
even hallucinations (say: ha-loo-sin-ay-shunz) - which continue until the
body gets used to being without the drug. Hallucinations are when a person
thinks she hears or sees things that in reality aren't there.
How Can I Tell if My Friend Is Using Drugs?
Here are some of the more common warning signs of someone who is using
• stops showing interest in school
• suddenly changes friends (hangs out with kids who use drugs)
• becomes negative, cranky, or worried all the time
• doesn't want to go out anymore or play
• asks to be left alone a lot
• is always tired (maybe even sleeps in class)
• has many accidents
• becomes involved in a lot of fights
• changes moods a lot
• has sudden changes in appearance (red or puffy eyes, weight changes,
lots of headaches or stomachaches, shaking, coughing that won't quit,
brown stains on fingertips, stumbling, or a constant runny nose)
• loses interest in hobbies or sports
• has poor judgment
• can't concentrate
Fight Back Against Drugs
Drugs are easy to get and easy to take. That's why it's hard for some people to say no.
Friends who use drugs may want you to try them, too, but it's better to find friends who
don't use drugs and don't want you to, either. Stop and think about what could happen
if you use drugs. Remember that you will pay a long-term price - even death
- for a short-term high. Find other kids who feel the same as you do about drugs
and stick together. Most kids don't mess with drugs because drugs really mess you up.
What Is a Fungal Infection?
Fungi (say: fun-guy), which is more than one fungus, can be found on different parts
of the body. Here are some common types of fungal infections:
Tinea (say: tin-ee-uh) is a type of fungal infection of the hair, skin, or nails. When it's
on the skin, tinea usually begins as a small red area the size of a pea. As it grows, it
spreads out in a circle or ring. Tinea is often called "ringworm" because it may look like
tiny worms are under the skin (but of course, they're not!).
Athlete's foot is another type of fungal infection that usually appears between the
toes but can also affect the bottom or sides of the feet. It has symptoms that include
dry, cracked, and itchy skin between the toes. Some people also have red,
scaly blisters on the bottoms and sides of their feet. There may also be a watery
discharge from the blisters.
Jock itch is a fungal infection of the groin and upper thighs. (This usually occurs only
in boys and men.). It appears as a rash with elevated edges. It too is itchy and
fungus is a type of germ that lives on all of us?
This germ is harmless most of the time, but
sometimes it can cause a problem. The
problem is called a fungal infection (say:
fun-gal in-fec-shen). It does sound gross, and
some people are embarrassed when they get
this type of infection. But remember, a fungus
rarely spreads below the skin and it's usually
easy to treat, so it doesn't stick around for long.
often feels like it is burning. It's pretty common, especially if you play sports
where you sweat and wear athletic equipment.
Candida (say: can-did-uh) is a yeast-like fungus which causes the skin around the
infected area to itch. The skin may also be red and swollen This fungus most
often affects the skin around the nails or the soft, moist areas around body openings
Farewell to Fungus!
Getting rid of a fungal infection is not all that difficult. Your doctor may decide to
scrape a small amount of the irritated skin or clip off a piece of hair or nail and
look at it under a microscope. Once your doctor knows what kind of infection
you have, there are special antifungal creams and shampoos that can help to
get rid of it.
Why Do We Get Fungal Infections?
Lots of kids get fungal infections. Some of these infections are
extremely contagious (say: con-tay-juss), which means they
easily spread from person to person. Touching someone that has
tinea, or doing something as simple as sharing a comb or hairbrush,
can spread the fungus from one person to another. Because fungi
need a warm, dark, and humid place to grow, public showers, pools,
locker rooms, and even the warmth of shoes and socks can give
fungi the perfect opportunity to strike. When a kid walks around
barefoot or doesn't change sweaty socks, there's also a chance of
Taking antibiotics can also cause some kids to get a fungal
infection. Antibiotics get rid of germs that make us sick, but they can
also kill many of the "harmless" bacteria in our body. These
harmless bacteria normally fight with the fungus for a place to live,
but when antibiotics kill them, the fungus is free to grow. That's why
it's important to listen to your doctor about antibiotics.
How To Prevent Fungal Infections.
• Wash your feet everyday.
• Dry your feet completely, especially between your toes.
• Wear sandals or shower shoes when walking around in locker rooms,
public pools, and public showers.
• Wear clean socks and if they get wet or damp, be sure to change them
as soon as you can. Use a powder (talcum or antifungal) on your feet to
help reduce perspiration.
When doing Sports:
• Wear clean, cotton underwear and loose-fitting pants.
• Keep your groin area clean and dry.
• Don't hang out in wet swimsuits;
• change as soon as possible.
Diarrhea--loose, watery stools occurring more than three times in one day--is a
common problem that usually lasts a day or two and goes away on its own
without any special treatment. However, prolonged diarrhea can be a sign of
Diarrhea can cause dehydration, which means the body lacks enough fluid to
What causes diarrhea?
Diarrhea may be caused by a temporary problem, like an infection, or a chronic
problem, like an intestinal disease. A few of the more common causes of
• Bacterial infections Several types of bacteria, consumed through
contaminated food or water, can cause diarrhea.
• Viral infections. Many viruses cause diarrhea.
• Food intolerances. Some people are unable to digest a component of
food, such as lactose, the sugar found in milk.
• Parasites. Parasites can enter the body through food or water and settle
in the digestive system.
• Reaction to medicines, such as antibiotics.
• Intestinal diseases, like inflammatory bowel disease or celiac disease.
• Functional bowel disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, in which
the intestines do not work normally.
In many cases, the cause of diarrhea cannot be found. As long as diarrhea
goes away on its own, an extensive search for the cause is not usually
People who visit foreign countries are at risk for traveler's diarrhea, which is
caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with bacteria, viruses, or,
sometimes, parasites. Traveler's diarrhea is a particular problem for people
visiting developing countries.
What are the symptoms?
Diarrhea may be accompanied by abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, or an
urgent need to use the bathroom. Depending on the cause, a person may have
a fever or bloody stools.
What is the treatment?
In most cases, replacing lost fluid to prevent dehydration is the only treatment
Dehydration occurs when the body has lost too much fluid and electrolytes (the
salts potassium and sodium). The fluid and electrolytes lost during diarrhea
need to be replaced promptly
Although water is extremely important in preventing dehydration, it does not
contain electrolytes. To maintain electrolyte levels, you could have broth or
soups, which contain sodium, and fruit juices, soft fruits, or vegetables, which
Wash your hands!!!
When to wash your hands:
• After using the toilet.
• After handling pets, pet cages or other pet objects.
• After sneezing, coughing or blowing your nose.
• After playing outside or with shared toys.
• Immediately before or after eating.
• After touching any portion of your body.
• Before touching their eyes or face.
• When hands are visible dirty.
What is influenza?
Influenza (flu) is a viral infection of the nose, throat, trachea, and bronchi that occurs in epidemics
every 3 or 4 years (for example, Asian influenza). The main symptoms are a stuffy nose, sore throat,
and nagging cough. There may be more muscle pain, headache, fever, and chills than colds usually cause.
For most people, influenza is just a bad cold and bed rest is not necessary. The dangers of influenza
for healthy people are overrated.
• Fever or aches
• Cough or hoarseness
• Sore throat
• Stuffy nose
How can I prevent influenza?
The influenza vaccine gives protection for only
1 or 2 years. In addition, the vaccine itself can
cause fever in 20% of the people who get the
shots and a sore injection site in 10%.
Therefore, the vaccine is not recommended for
healthy people (unless an especially severe
form of influenza comes along). Only those with
chronic diseases (for example, asthma) need to
come in for yearly influenza boosters. Talk
with your doctor or parents if you think you
should have flu shots.
How can I take care of myself?
The treatment of influenza depends on your main
symptoms and is no different from the treatment
for other viral respiratory infections. Bed rest is
• Contagiousness: Spread is rapid because the
incubation period is only 24 to 36 hours and the
virus is very contagious. You may return to
school after the fever is gone and you feel up to
When should I call my health care provider?
Call during office hours if:
• You develop any complications such as an earache, sinus pain or pressure, or a fever lasting over 3 days.
• You have other questions or concerns.
What is a toothache?
A toothache is a painful tooth. Sometimes it is
just a temporarily sensitive tooth, but usually it
means decay or a cavity is present.
What are the symptoms?
- a gum boil just below the gum line
- a swollen cheek (if the infections spreads)
How can I take care of myself?
First use dental floss on either side of the painful tooth. The removal of a
jammed piece of food may bring quick relief.
• Pain relief medicine
Treat your toothache with acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil). If the
pain lasts more than a day or becomes severe, call your dentist. An ice cube
on the tooth or ice pack on the jaw for 20 minutes will also help.
• Oil of cloves for severe toothache
If you cannot see a dentist for several days and an open cavity is visible, clean
all food out of the cavity with a toothpick, Water-Pik, or water in a syringe. Put
in a few drops of oil of cloves (80% eugenol). You won't need a prescription to
get oil of cloves. If the cavity is large, pack it with a small piece of cotton
soaked with oil of cloves. Try to keep the oil of cloves off the tongue because
it stings. The cavity can also be temporarily sealed with melted candle wax.
How can I prevent toothaches?
Brush your teeth, especially the back molars, after every meal. Be sure to use a
When should I call my dentist?
Call IMMEDIATELY if:
• The pain is very severe.
• You have a fever (over 100°F, or 37.8°C).
• Your face is swollen.
• You are feeling very sick.
Call during office hours if:
• You have had the pain for more than a day.
• You have other concerns or questions.