Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

P6 u1 part 3 h.3.1 dossier

294 views

Published on

Differente illnesses

Published in: Education
  • A professional Paper writing services can alleviate your stress in writing a successful paper and take the pressure off you to hand it in on time. Check out, please ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Crush food cravings with "ODD" water hack. watch video... ●●● https://url.cn/5yLnA6L
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • The community has truly come to feel like a family, somewhere I can be open, honest and myself. For me it has taken the battle out of my head and instead to somewhere I can get advice or simply tell about my daily struggles and triumphs. And be understood! Shaye's guide and her support and advice on the site are invaluable tools in this recovery journey, for which I am truly grateful :-) ●●● http://t.cn/A6Pq6ilz
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • I would HIGHLY recommend the bulimia recovery program. Shaye and the girls on the site are beyond amazing. Without even meeting anyone, I have felt kindness, love, and incredible support. For that reason alone it is worth it. But the guides, information, meal planning tools, binge tracker, blog, forums, and vidoes are more reasons to join. I truly think that if you struggle with an eating disorder this program will help you overcome it and change your life for the better.  http://scamcb.com/bulimiarec/pdf
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Thankfully this community blesses you with the right information and tools to get through the inevitable tough times and the joy of having people who are in the same situation and helping you as you go. I'm forever thankful for having the irreplaceable support to fight for what is best for me with all force and knowledge and much love! Shaye and other girls did it, I'm doing it and do can anyone struggling from this, no matter how deep and dark it seems! One step at a time, TOGETHER! ◆◆◆ http://t.cn/A6Pq6ilz
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

P6 u1 part 3 h.3.1 dossier

  1. 1. 133 Anorexia Nervosa What is anorexia nervosa? Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that occurs when you are obsessed about being fat, as a result you eat as little as possible. If you suffer from anorexia, you see yourself as being fat when you are not. This condition is both a physical and a mental illness. Your body functions change as a result of low levels of body fat. In young women menstruation stops. This illness occurs most often in young women. However, about 5% to 10% of people with anorexia nervosa are men. Anorexia nervosa is a very severe illness. Death may occur from starvation or suicide. How does it occur? The cause of anorexia nervosa is not clear. In many cultures, including ours, being thin is considered beautiful and this could be one of the causes of anorexia. You may be at risk of developing anorexia nervosa if you: • have a family history of anorexia nervosa or other eating disorders • have a family or personal history of disorders, such as depression, anxiety , or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.
  2. 2. 134 What are the symptoms? Symptoms may include: • Loosing lots of weight • Binge eating (eating a lot in a short period of time) and/or purging (using laxatives or making yourself vomit) • Feeling dizzy and weak • Feeling depressed or anxious • Insomnia • If you are a woman, not menstruating • Eating very little or almost nothing • Seeing yourself as being fat when you are not • Too much exercise • Thinking about food all the time. How is it diagnosed? Your doctor will do a physical examination and will also ask your medical history. Your doctor will ask about your eating and other behaviour habits, such as: • Always choosing low calories food • Binge eating • Taking laxatives and vomiting • Strange eating habits • Over-exercising • Saying you are not hungry and that you have no problem at all with food.
  3. 3. 135 What can be done to prevent acne? • Wash your skin twice a day and after exercise. Use a soft soap. • Shampoo your hair daily. • Don’t touch the spots.It causes bleeding into the skin , infection and more spots. How is it treated? This can be a very difficult condition to treat. Your doctor will help you to start eating again. You will also probably need individual psychotherapy and family therapy. Your doctor may prescribe some medicine to: • help reduce your fear of becoming fat • help reduce depression and anxiety • help you gain weight. You may need to be hospitalised if your condition is severe and dangerous four your life. What can be done to prevent anorexia nervosa and maintain good physical health? Accepting yourself and your body can help prevent this problem. In addition you can: • See your doctor. • Eat all your meals. • Don’t use laxatives. • Don’t over exercise. • Don’t drink alcohol. • Don’t smoke. Acne What is acne? Acne occurs when the oil glands in your skin become blocked. More than 90% of teenagers have acne. Acne you causes 3 types of spots: blackheads, whiteheads (pimples), and red bumps on your face, neck, and shoulders. Symptoms: • Blackheads:A blackhead results when dead skin cells and sebum block a hair follicle near the skin. • Whiteheads (pimples): These are tiny, white spots and are caused by the accumulation of sebum or oil in the pores of the skin. • Red bumps: These are the result of the infection which has spread beyond the oil gland.
  4. 4. 136 How is it treated? • Benzoyl peroxide 5% lotion or gel: This lotion helps to open pimples and clean blackheads. It also kills bacteria. Apply the lotion once a day at bedtime. • Pimple opening the safe way: Never open a pimple before it has a yellow centre. Wash your face and hands first. Use a needle that has been sterilised. Open the surface of the yellow pimple with the tip of the needle. The pus should run out. Clean away the pus and wash the area with soap and water. Don't "pop" pimples by squeezing. • Large red bumps mean the infection has spread beyond the oil gland. If you have several red bumps, you probably also need an antibiotic. Antibiotics come as solutions for the skin or as pills. Arrange an appointment with your doctor.
  5. 5. 137
  6. 6. Asthma What is asthma? Asthma is a respiratory disorder, often of allergic origin, characterized by difficulty in breathing, wheezing and a sense of constriction in the chest. Asthma is a chronic illness that requires close follow-up by a doctor who co-ordinates your treatment. It is important that you have your doctor confirm that you have asthma. The bronchial tubes go into spasm and become narrow when allergic or irritating substances enter them. Viral respiratory infections (colds) cause most attacks. If the asthma is due to pollens, it flares up only during a particular season. Asthma often occurs in people who have other allergic reactions such as eczema or hay fever. Emotional stress can occasionally cause an attack but emotional problems are not the cause of asthma. What are the symptoms? • wheezing (a whistling or musical sound while breathing out). • attacks of wheezing, coughing, and difficulty in breathing. • sneezing and a runny nose. Usually there is no fever with asthma. 138
  7. 7. What medicines will I need? You may need more than one type of medicine. One is usually for preventing attacks and another is to help stop an attack once it has started (rescue medicine). Ask your doctor when each medicine should be used. • Preventive Medicine • Rescue Medicine After asthma attacks are over, your rescue medicine is stopped or used less often. Check with your doctor about when and how much to reduce this medicine. • Oral steroids or other asthma medicine • Continuous asthma medicine Most people with asthma need medicines only during attacks but people with severe asthma need to take medicines every day to allow them to engage in normal activities How can I take care of myself? • Fluids Try to drink one glass of fluid every 2 hours during waking hours. Fluids keep the normal lung mucus from becoming sticky. Clear fluids such as water are best. • Exercise-induced asthma Most people with asthma also get 15- to 30-minute attacks of coughing and wheezing when they exercise strenuously. Running, especially in cold air, is the main cause. This problem should not interfere with participation in most sports nor require a gym excuse. The symptoms can be prevented by using an oral asthma medicine 90 minutes before exercise or an inhaler 10 minutes before exercise. Teenagers with asthma usually have no problems with swimming or sports not requiring rapid breathing. • Going to school Asthma is not contagious. You should go to school during mild asthma attacks but avoid gym on these days. Arrange to have your asthma medicines available at school. If you use an inhaler, get permission to keep it with you so you can use it whenever you need it. If you are wheezing all the time, you should be seeing your doctor daily. Finally, don't let asthma restrict your activities, sports, or social life. How can I prevent it? o Try to discover and avoid the substances that cause your asthma attacks. o Avoid common causes such as feather pillows and tobacco smoke. o Keep pets outside or at least out of your bedroom. o Learn how to make your bedroom dust-proof. 139
  8. 8. o Shower, wash your hair, and put on clean clothes if you wheeze after any contact with grass, pollen, weeds, or animals. 140
  9. 9. Ankle Sprain What is an ankle sprain? An ankle sprain is an injury that causes a stretch or tear of one or more ligaments in the ankle joint. Ligaments are strong bands of tissue that connect bones at the joint. Sprains may be graded I, II, or III depending on their severity: • grade I sprain: pain with minimal damage to the ligaments. • grade II sprain: more ligament damage and the joint is quite loose. • grade III sprain: complete tearing of the ligament and the joint is very loose or unstable. Sometimes sprains are just classified as mild or severe, depending on the amount of ligament damage. Most sprains occur on the outside part of the ankle, but they can occur on the inside as well. A sprain is caused by twisting your ankle. Your foot usually turns in or under but may turn to the outside. What are the symptoms? Symptoms of a sprained ankle include: • swelling • discoloration • inability to move the ankle properly • pain How it is treated? 141
  10. 10. Treatment may include: • Applying ice to your ankle for 20 to 30 minutes every 3 to 4 hours for the first 2 to 3 days. • Elevating your ankle by placing a pillow underneath your foot for 1 day. Try to keep your ankle above the level of your heart. • Wrapping an elastic bandage around your ankle to stop the swelling getting worse. Keep it on for 2 days. • Putting your ankle in plaster. • Using crutches until you can walk without pain. • Taking anti-inflammatory pain medication. • Doing ankle exercises to improve your ankle strength. The exercises will help you return to your normal activity or sports. How can I help prevent an ankle sprain? To help prevent an ankle sprain, follow these guidelines: • Use well-fitting shoes when you exercise. • Warm up and stretch gently before and after exercising. • Avoid turning suddenly and quickly changing direction and movement. • Put a bandage or brace for sports, especially if you have a previous injury. 142
  11. 11. Parasites (Head lice) What are parasites? Head lice are small, six-legged wingless insects, pin-head size when they hatch, less than match-head size when fully grown and grey/brown in colour. They are difficult to detect in dry hair. They very often cause itching. Head lice cannot fly, jump or swim, but spread by clambering from head to head. Anyone with hair can catch them, but children who have head to head contact, either at school or during play, are most commonly affected. Head lice feed by biting and sucking blood through the scalp of their host. The female louse lays eggs in sacs (nits) which are very small, dull in colour, and well camouflaged. These are securely glued to hairs where the warmth of the scalp will hatch them out in 7-10 days. Empty egg sacs are white. Lice take 6-14 days to become fully grown, after which they are capable of reproduction. Head lice are not fussy about hair length or condition. Clean hair is therefore no protection, although regular ( weekly) hair washing and combing sessions offer a good opportunity to detect head lice, and arrange treatment if discovered. Nit: Nits are head lice eggs. They are hard to see. Nits are found firmly attached to the hair. They are oval and usually yellow to white. Nits take about 1 week to hatch. Nymph: The nit hatches into a baby louse called a nymph. It looks like an adult head louse, but it is smaller. Nymphs mature into adults about 7 days after hatching. The nymph feeds on blood. Adult: The adult louse is about the size of a sesame seed. It has six legs, and it is tan to greyish-white. In persons with dark hair, the adult louse will look darker. Females lay nits; they are usually larger than males. Adult lice can live up to 30 days on a person's head. Adult lice needs to feed on blood. If the louse falls off a person, it dies within 2 days. Symptoms: • Tickling feeling of something moving in the hair. 143
  12. 12. • Itching, caused by the an allergic reaction to the bites. I • Irritability. • Sores on the head caused by scratching. These sores can sometimes become infected. Detection: 1. Apply conditioner to dry hair covering each hair from root to tip. 2. Detangle the hair using an ordinary comb. 3. Immediately comb the hair with a fine nit comb. 4. Wipe the conditioner off the fine tooth comb onto a paper tissue and look for lice and eggs. 5. Repeat the combing for every part of the head at least 5 times. Also examine the comb for lice and eggs. Treatment: There are specific lotions and shampoos to treat head lice infections. 1. Apply the product to all areas of the head and cover all hairs from roots to tips. 2. If you are using lotions, apply the product to dry hair. For shampoos, wet the hair, but use the least amount of water possible. 3. Leave the preparation on the hair for at least 20 minutes. 4. Cover the child's eyes while the treatment is being applied. Ask them to hold a towel against their eyes. Prevention: 1. Do not share personal hair decorations/clips/headbands, hats or clothing. Lice are not nice to share! 2. Hang coats/hats/backpacks separately. Coats should not be piled up. Stuff hats into coat/jacket sleeves. Coats and backpacks should be hung on the backs of chairs. Place possessions in individual cubbies, lockers or plastic bags. Lice are hitchhikers! 3. Do not lie down or place their heads on the carpet. Vacuum daily. 4. Towels, smocks and gym clothes brought from home should be stored in separate cubbies, boxes, or plastic bags and sent home frequently for washing. 5. Detect lice and treat them as soon as possible. 144
  13. 13. Sore Throat What is a sore throat? When your throat hurts it is often a symptom of an illness, such as a cold. When someone looks at the throat with a light, it will be bright red. What is the cause? Most sore throats are caused by viruses and are part of a cold. About 10% of sore throats are caused by bacteria. A throat culture or test is the only way to know whether a sore throat is caused by bacteria or a virus. Tonsillitis (temporary swelling and redness of the tonsils) is usually present with any throat infection, viral or bacterial. Teenagers who sleep with their mouths open often wake in the morning with a dry mouth and sore throat. It feels better when they drink something. Use a humidifier to help prevent this problem. How long does it last? Sore throats caused by viral illnesses usually last 3 or 4 days. They responds well to penicillin or other antibiotics. After you have been taking medication for 24 hours, it is no longer contagious. You can then return to school if your fever is gone and you are feeling better. Symptoms: - Temperature (fever) - Painful throat Treatment • Throat pain relief - Gargle with warm saltwater (1/4 teaspoon of salt per glass) or an antacid solution. - Suck on hard candy. 145
  14. 14. • Diet Swollen tonsils can make some foods hard to swallow. Eat a diet of soft foods for a few days. • Fever and pain relief Take acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil) for the sore throat or for fever over 102°F (39°C). • Common mistakes in treating sore throat o Avoid expensive throat sprays. They are not effective, but many also contain an ingredient (benzocaine) that may cause an allergic reaction. o Do not use leftover antibiotics from siblings or friends. Backache What is a backache? A backache is pain and stiffness in the back. The middle or lower back is the most common area to have pain. Backaches are most common during adolescence. With a backache: 146
  15. 15. • The pain is worsened by bending. • The muscles on either side of the spine are tender or in spasm. What causes backaches? Backaches are usually caused by straining some of the 200 muscles in the back that allow us to stand upright. Often the strain is caused by carrying something too heavy, lifting from an awkward position, or overexertion of back muscles (for example, from digging). How can I take care of myself? • Pain-relief medicines Take acetaminophen or ibuprofen four times a day. Continue this until 24 hours have passed without any pain. This medicine is the most important part of the therapy because back pain causes muscle spasm and these medicines can reduce both the spasm and the pain. • Local heat A heating pad or hot water bottle applied to the most painful area for 20 minutes helps to relieve muscle spasm. • Sleeping position The most comfortable sleeping position is usually on your side. The mattress should be firm or reinforced with a board. • Activity Avoid lifting, jumping, horseback riding, motorcycle riding, and exercise until you are completely well. Complete bed rest is unnecessary. How can I prevent backaches? The only way to prevent future backaches is to keep your back muscles in excellent 147
  16. 16. physical condition. This will require 5 minutes of back and abdominal exercises every day. Helpful exercises are: • Cat and camel: Get down on your hands and knees. Let your stomach sag, allowing your back to curve downward. Hold this position for 5 seconds. Then arch your back and hold for 5 seconds. Do 3 sets of 10. • Pelvic tilt: Lie on your back with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor. Tighten your abdominal muscles and push your lower back into the floor. Hold this position for 5 seconds, then relax. Do 3 sets of 10. • Partial curl: Lie on your back with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor. Tighten your stomach muscles and flatten your back against the floor. Tuck your chin to your chest. With your hands stretched out in front of you, curl your upper body forward until your shoulders clear the floor. Hold this position for 3 seconds. Don't hold your breath. It helps to breathe out as you lift your shoulders up. Relax. Repeat 10 times. Build to 3 sets of 10. To challenge yourself, clasp your hands behind your head and keep your elbows out to the side. • Prone hip extension: Lie on your stomach with your legs straight out behind you. Tighten up your buttocks muscles and lift one leg off the floor about 8 inches. Keep your knee straight. Hold for 5 seconds. Then lower your leg and relax. Do 3 sets of 10. Repeat the exercise with your other leg. • Try to lift objects with your leg muscles and not by bending or twisting the back. 148
  17. 17. When should I go to the doctor? Go immediately if: • The pain becomes very severe AND persists more than 2 hours after taking a pain medicine. • You can't walk. • You start feeling very sick. • The pain is no better after 3 days of treatment. • The pain is still present after 2 weeks. • You have other concerns or questions. 149
  18. 18. Why Do Kids Use Drugs? Kids may take drugs for many reasons. They may see older kids using them and want to be more like them. They may try drugs because they're curious. Others may feel sad, scared, or bored. They may think drugs can help them forget their problems. Many kids just want to fit in with their friends. They may What Are Drugs? Drugs are chemicals that change the way our bodies work. If you've ever been sick and had to take medicine, you already know some kinds of drugs. A medicine is a drug that a doctor gives people who are sick, but even medicines can be dangerous if they're not taken according to a doctor's instructions. Cigarettes and alcohol are also drugs, but they are legal. (In the United States, adults 18 and over can buy cigarettes and those 21 and over can buy alcohol.) But smoking and excessive drinking are bad for adults and totally off limits for kids. Other kinds of drugs are dangerous all the time. These are drugs that aren't given by doctors. Most of them are illegal and include substances like ecstasy, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, and heroin. 150
  19. 19. think drugs will make them cool. Lots of kids say they use drugs to get their parents' attention. The truth is, drugs don't solve problems. Drugs just hide feelings. When a drug wears off, those feelings of being sad or lonely are still there. And you just feel worse. Why Are Drugs Bad for You? Anything you take too much of - even cough medicine or soda - can be bad for your body. And even small amounts of drugs kill your brain cells. Unlike your hair or fingernails, once a brain cell dies, it never grows back. Drugs also interfere with your ability to think clearly. People can do really dumb or dangerous things that could hurt them - or other people - when they use drugs. Keeping up with school becomes even harder for kids on drugs. Drugs can also prevent your body from growing properly and can make you look sick all the time. Some drugs make kids angry when they use them. These kids get into fights with their parents, teachers, and friends. And using drugs even one time may be all it takes to permanently damage your body - or kill you. One hit of crack or cocaine can give you (yes, even a kid!) a heart attack and kill you. Sniff glue or 151
  20. 20. some other inhalant just once and you could go blind. You'd never be able to see again - forever. Kids who use drugs may become dependent on them, or addicted. They have become so used to a drug that their bodies need it to function. Once you have an addiction, it's very hard to stop taking drugs. Stopping drug use brings on withdrawal symptoms - vomiting (throwing up), sweating, tremors (shaking), even hallucinations (say: ha-loo-sin-ay-shunz) - which continue until the body gets used to being without the drug. Hallucinations are when a person thinks she hears or sees things that in reality aren't there. How Can I Tell if My Friend Is Using Drugs? Here are some of the more common warning signs of someone who is using drugs: • stops showing interest in school • suddenly changes friends (hangs out with kids who use drugs) • becomes negative, cranky, or worried all the time • doesn't want to go out anymore or play • asks to be left alone a lot • is always tired (maybe even sleeps in class) • has many accidents • becomes involved in a lot of fights • changes moods a lot • has sudden changes in appearance (red or puffy eyes, weight changes, lots of headaches or stomachaches, shaking, coughing that won't quit, brown stains on fingertips, stumbling, or a constant runny nose) • loses interest in hobbies or sports • has poor judgment • can't concentrate 152
  21. 21. Fight Back Against Drugs Drugs are easy to get and easy to take. That's why it's hard for some people to say no. Friends who use drugs may want you to try them, too, but it's better to find friends who don't use drugs and don't want you to, either. Stop and think about what could happen if you use drugs. Remember that you will pay a long-term price - even death - for a short-term high. Find other kids who feel the same as you do about drugs and stick together. Most kids don't mess with drugs because drugs really mess you up. SKIN INFECTIONS 153
  22. 22. What Is a Fungal Infection? Fungi (say: fun-guy), which is more than one fungus, can be found on different parts of the body. Here are some common types of fungal infections: Tinea (say: tin-ee-uh) is a type of fungal infection of the hair, skin, or nails. When it's on the skin, tinea usually begins as a small red area the size of a pea. As it grows, it spreads out in a circle or ring. Tinea is often called "ringworm" because it may look like tiny worms are under the skin (but of course, they're not!). Athlete's foot is another type of fungal infection that usually appears between the toes but can also affect the bottom or sides of the feet. It has symptoms that include dry, cracked, and itchy skin between the toes. Some people also have red, scaly blisters on the bottoms and sides of their feet. There may also be a watery discharge from the blisters. Jock itch is a fungal infection of the groin and upper thighs. (This usually occurs only in boys and men.). It appears as a rash with elevated edges. It too is itchy and fungus is a type of germ that lives on all of us? This germ is harmless most of the time, but sometimes it can cause a problem. The problem is called a fungal infection (say: fun-gal in-fec-shen). It does sound gross, and some people are embarrassed when they get this type of infection. But remember, a fungus rarely spreads below the skin and it's usually easy to treat, so it doesn't stick around for long. 154
  23. 23. often feels like it is burning. It's pretty common, especially if you play sports where you sweat and wear athletic equipment. Candida (say: can-did-uh) is a yeast-like fungus which causes the skin around the infected area to itch. The skin may also be red and swollen This fungus most often affects the skin around the nails or the soft, moist areas around body openings Farewell to Fungus! Getting rid of a fungal infection is not all that difficult. Your doctor may decide to scrape a small amount of the irritated skin or clip off a piece of hair or nail and look at it under a microscope. Once your doctor knows what kind of infection you have, there are special antifungal creams and shampoos that can help to get rid of it. Why Do We Get Fungal Infections? Lots of kids get fungal infections. Some of these infections are extremely contagious (say: con-tay-juss), which means they easily spread from person to person. Touching someone that has tinea, or doing something as simple as sharing a comb or hairbrush, can spread the fungus from one person to another. Because fungi need a warm, dark, and humid place to grow, public showers, pools, locker rooms, and even the warmth of shoes and socks can give fungi the perfect opportunity to strike. When a kid walks around barefoot or doesn't change sweaty socks, there's also a chance of infection. Taking antibiotics can also cause some kids to get a fungal infection. Antibiotics get rid of germs that make us sick, but they can also kill many of the "harmless" bacteria in our body. These harmless bacteria normally fight with the fungus for a place to live, but when antibiotics kill them, the fungus is free to grow. That's why it's important to listen to your doctor about antibiotics. 155
  24. 24. How To Prevent Fungal Infections. • Wash your feet everyday. • Dry your feet completely, especially between your toes. • Wear sandals or shower shoes when walking around in locker rooms, public pools, and public showers. • Wear clean socks and if they get wet or damp, be sure to change them as soon as you can. Use a powder (talcum or antifungal) on your feet to help reduce perspiration. When doing Sports: • Wear clean, cotton underwear and loose-fitting pants. • Keep your groin area clean and dry. • Don't hang out in wet swimsuits; • change as soon as possible. 156
  25. 25. DIARRHEA Diarrhea--loose, watery stools occurring more than three times in one day--is a common problem that usually lasts a day or two and goes away on its own without any special treatment. However, prolonged diarrhea can be a sign of other problems. Diarrhea can cause dehydration, which means the body lacks enough fluid to function properly. What causes diarrhea? Diarrhea may be caused by a temporary problem, like an infection, or a chronic problem, like an intestinal disease. A few of the more common causes of diarrhea are • Bacterial infections Several types of bacteria, consumed through contaminated food or water, can cause diarrhea. • Viral infections. Many viruses cause diarrhea. • Food intolerances. Some people are unable to digest a component of food, such as lactose, the sugar found in milk. • Parasites. Parasites can enter the body through food or water and settle in the digestive system. • Reaction to medicines, such as antibiotics. • Intestinal diseases, like inflammatory bowel disease or celiac disease. 157
  26. 26. • Functional bowel disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, in which the intestines do not work normally. In many cases, the cause of diarrhea cannot be found. As long as diarrhea goes away on its own, an extensive search for the cause is not usually necessary. People who visit foreign countries are at risk for traveler's diarrhea, which is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with bacteria, viruses, or, sometimes, parasites. Traveler's diarrhea is a particular problem for people visiting developing countries. What are the symptoms? Diarrhea may be accompanied by abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, or an urgent need to use the bathroom. Depending on the cause, a person may have a fever or bloody stools. What is the treatment? In most cases, replacing lost fluid to prevent dehydration is the only treatment necessary. Preventing Dehydration 158
  27. 27. Dehydration occurs when the body has lost too much fluid and electrolytes (the salts potassium and sodium). The fluid and electrolytes lost during diarrhea need to be replaced promptly Although water is extremely important in preventing dehydration, it does not contain electrolytes. To maintain electrolyte levels, you could have broth or soups, which contain sodium, and fruit juices, soft fruits, or vegetables, which contain potassium. Preventing diarrhea Wash your hands!!! When to wash your hands: • After using the toilet. • After handling pets, pet cages or other pet objects. • After sneezing, coughing or blowing your nose. • After playing outside or with shared toys. • Immediately before or after eating. • After touching any portion of your body. • Before touching their eyes or face. • When hands are visible dirty. 159
  28. 28. Flu (Influenza) What is influenza? Influenza (flu) is a viral infection of the nose, throat, trachea, and bronchi that occurs in epidemics every 3 or 4 years (for example, Asian influenza). The main symptoms are a stuffy nose, sore throat, and nagging cough. There may be more muscle pain, headache, fever, and chills than colds usually cause. For most people, influenza is just a bad cold and bed rest is not necessary. The dangers of influenza for healthy people are overrated. Symptoms: • Fever or aches • Cough or hoarseness • Sore throat • Stuffy nose How can I prevent influenza? The influenza vaccine gives protection for only 1 or 2 years. In addition, the vaccine itself can cause fever in 20% of the people who get the shots and a sore injection site in 10%. Therefore, the vaccine is not recommended for healthy people (unless an especially severe form of influenza comes along). Only those with chronic diseases (for example, asthma) need to come in for yearly influenza boosters. Talk with your doctor or parents if you think you should have flu shots. How can I take care of myself? The treatment of influenza depends on your main symptoms and is no different from the treatment for other viral respiratory infections. Bed rest is not necessary. • Contagiousness: Spread is rapid because the incubation period is only 24 to 36 hours and the virus is very contagious. You may return to school after the fever is gone and you feel up to it. 160
  29. 29. When should I call my health care provider? Call during office hours if: • You develop any complications such as an earache, sinus pain or pressure, or a fever lasting over 3 days. • You have other questions or concerns. 161
  30. 30. Toothache What is a toothache? A toothache is a painful tooth. Sometimes it is just a temporarily sensitive tooth, but usually it means decay or a cavity is present. What are the symptoms? - Pain - a gum boil just below the gum line - a swollen cheek (if the infections spreads) How can I take care of myself? • Flossing First use dental floss on either side of the painful tooth. The removal of a jammed piece of food may bring quick relief. • Pain relief medicine Treat your toothache with acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil). If the pain lasts more than a day or becomes severe, call your dentist. An ice cube on the tooth or ice pack on the jaw for 20 minutes will also help. • Oil of cloves for severe toothache If you cannot see a dentist for several days and an open cavity is visible, clean all food out of the cavity with a toothpick, Water-Pik, or water in a syringe. Put in a few drops of oil of cloves (80% eugenol). You won't need a prescription to get oil of cloves. If the cavity is large, pack it with a small piece of cotton soaked with oil of cloves. Try to keep the oil of cloves off the tongue because it stings. The cavity can also be temporarily sealed with melted candle wax. 162
  31. 31. How can I prevent toothaches? Brush your teeth, especially the back molars, after every meal. Be sure to use a fluoride toothpaste. When should I call my dentist? Call IMMEDIATELY if: • The pain is very severe. • You have a fever (over 100°F, or 37.8°C). • Your face is swollen. • You are feeling very sick. Call during office hours if: • You have had the pain for more than a day. • You have other concerns or questions. 163

×