Socio 101 group 3 - social stratification in the philippines
Social Stratification in the Philippines
Distinct social classes during pre- colonial times: 1. datus or chiefl class 2. maharlika or nobility class 3. Timagua or the common class 4. Alipin or the dependent classesSocial mobility was possible but intermarriage between social classes was discouraged.
Criteria for Leadership: Wealth Personal ability Social Classes during Spanish Times1. Upperclass2. Freemen3. Peninsulares4. Creoles, mestizos, insulares
Social Classes during the American Period 1. small cosmopolitan upper class 2. large, indigenous lower classOpportunities for Social Mobility:1. Gradual Filipinization of positions in offices and institutions like the church, government, business and educationResult: small and weak middle class, more evident in urban than rural areas
The Northern and Southern Kalinga Southern Kalinga- Criteria for Social Class Position: 1. wealth 3. connection 2. courage Northern Kalinga- Criteria for Social Class Position:1. Ownership of land 3.wealth differentials2. Hagabi* (ceremonial bench)
Negrito Tribes Very simple substratification structure Criteria for Social Class Position: 1. means of family background 2. personal characteristics* Hagabi is a status symbol that represents the highest social rank.
Muslim Society = part-closed and part-open sub stratification Is further divided into three: Hereditary aristocracy (datu or sultan) Criteria to be a sultan: wealth and followers Freemen Slaves Over-all Criteria in this society: 1.Amt. of property 3.differences in prestige 2. no. of slaves owned 4. connection with influential political leaders 5. Personal qualities
Rural Coomunities According to J.N. Anderson, social classes and statuses of rural communities are as follows: 1. medium landlords, small owners, owner-farmers, owner tenants 2. small owners, owner-farmers, owner tenants 3. tenants 4. laborers, agricultural workers, underemployed, unemployed 5. regularly employed in non agricultural occupations 6. pensionado and OFWs
Bikol Community Divided into 2: 1. big people (dakung ato) 2. little people: sadit na taoCriteria: 1. land ownership 2. Education and occupation 3. Style of life 4. Attitudes 5. Behavior patterns 6. Participation in community affairs 7. Inconsequential things
EDCOR (economic development corps) of the Phil. Army 1. officers (landlords) 2. settlers (tenants) 3. enlisted men (police)Industrial corporations: Haciendas:-stockholders -land owners-executives -labor contractors-laborers -laborers
Urban Classification Systems Chinese Upper-stratum: Euro- Indians American elite Spaniards Transition: Chinese, Indians Americans British Politicians in power, successful professionals, Dutch landlords, businessmen, German industrialists, financiers
Middle class- recently emerged class and is very small. Members are highly mobile intellectuals, civil servants, teachers, clerical workers, merchants, mechanic tradesmen, small businessmen and property owners on a scale. The lower class is made up of 2 subclasses: A. Cosmopolitan B. Provinciano Indicators of the over-all social class stratification systems: land ownership and family prestige Secondary indicators are: cultural-linguistic identity, religion, education and occupation
Trivia: In rural areas, landlord-tenant relationship, which is more social than economic in nature, is encrusted with reciprocity of obligations. Slaves in the Muslim Society can obtain freedom by purchasing it, marrying a member of another social class, by seeking adoption from someone other than a slave or by escaping.