The case for a new acronym ESAPIncreasingly English is being used as the teachingmedium for Business Studies, Medicine, En...
A general view• Language teachers lack the expertise and  confidence to teach subject specific  conventions and content• S...
General English  Level driven: the    Student motives are  main focus is on     varied and general.  what a student can   ...
the specific view    When English is taught, it should include:    • current specific needs    • wider needs (transferable...
What do students say? “We’ve been learning English for 6 years and  we’re still doing the verb to be.”  (Lack of interest ...
Which means ...• Students are generally goal-orientated.• Students might not know what they need, but  they do know what t...
The acronyms•   EFL?•   ENOP?•   ESP?•   EAP?•   ESAP?•   EOP?
English study at university•   ENOP?•   EAP?•   ESP?•   ESAP?
EAP provides …• Discourse structures and vocabulary  spanning all academic fields• General skills to help decode and  cons...
EAPThemes based on areas of human knowledge  – not quirky  – not imaginary  – not ‘one-off’ human interest stories  – not ...
EAPListening:   to lecturesSpeaking:    seminars, tutorialsReading:     for researchWriting:     essays, assignments
EAP LISTENINGListening and taking notes  – not interactive listening  – not ‘eavesdropping’  – not multiple listening  – n...
How do we learn?•   This seems like a simple ...       •   question•   but there is no simple …           •   answer•   In...
Top down bottom up listeningHow do we learn?This seems like a simple …but there is no simple …In the next two lectures, we...
EAP SPEAKINGSpeaking from research  – not phatic communion  – not every function that can be thought of  – not convergent,...
EAP READINGReading for research  – not reading for pleasure  – not every and any text type  – not ‘after doing’ comprehens...
Reading to Writing    Researched       Meaning         into     Rehearsed       Words
EAP WRITINGWriting in academic genres  – not first person  – not informal postcards, letters  – not convergent, ‘what I kn...
EAP WRITING is:• analytical not impressionistic• objective not subjective• intellectual not emotional• serious not convers...
Teaching writing: top down•   Researching•   Structuring research notes•   Understanding models•   Organising information ...
The TOWER of ProductionThinking     audience, purpose, contentOrganizing   information from research, knowledge, opinion W...
EAP Grammar
We can start with a few facts ...  75% - 85% of EAP is in …           … the present (including passives)  10% - 15% of EAP...
And ...  90% of EAP is in the simple aspect   7% of EAP is in the perfect aspect   3% of EAP is in the progressive aspect ...
EAP Grammarthe complex noun phraseclause joiningclause embeddingprepositional phrasesstance adverbials
EAP
How does ESAP differ from EAP            material?• Content-centred approach to promote more  meaningful learning- teaches...
ESAP students need …          TOP DOWN SKILLS to use specific information from the field tocheck and develop arguments and...
ESAP  What background knowledge?• What is the discipline?• What are its branches?• What does a practitioner do?• What is t...
ESAP• Disciplinary variations:• Disciplines see reality in different ways
ESAP Learning tasks• Humanities & social sciences           Analysing & synthesizing from           multiple sources• Scie...
ESAP Lexis and collocation• Common core ignores multiple meaningsConsist means ‘stay the same’ in the social  sciences and...
ESAP Reporting conventions• Social sciences;• Verbs which refer to writing activities: discuss,  hypothesize, suggest, arg...
Self-mention (per 1,000 words)•   Philosophy               5.5•   Marketing                5.5•   Applied Linguistics     ...
Stance features (per 1000 words)•   Philosophy         42.8•   Sociology         31.1•   App Ling          37.2•   Marketi...
Discipline    Citations per 1000 wordsBiology                        15.5Sociology                      12.5Philosophy    ...
Some implications for teaching..•   Use target-language authentic texts•   Encourage analysis•   Encourage critical thinki...
and ....................S What we teach in any kind of content based  course is not the content itself but some form  of t...
Thank youhttps://sites.google.com/site/linvamod                 /
Basic content syllabus for ESAP coursesWhat is the discipline?What are its branches?What does a practitioner in the discip...
Approaches to ESAP Elmira Kocheva
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Approaches to ESAP Elmira Kocheva

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Presentation - modern teaching in ESP and especially in ESAP, reading, speaking, comprehension, writing.

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  • Slide 2: From general to specific   T his talk is about ESP and EAP    So how is this talk related to innovation? As you can see from the abstract, the suggestion is that the publisher should work with the end user, in this case, not just the student, but also universities. And furthermore, ESAP is the most recent trend in ESP (ESP – EAP – ESAP).   The problem with ESAP is that it divides what many see as a small market (EAP) into an even smaller market, by dividing it up into specific areas of study. So another innovation perhaps is taking a risk, something that publishers are not usually happy doing.   As Education and Research Manager for Garnet Education, I hope the risk is worth it.   Until recently, ESP has been a neglected area for ELT publishers. A shift in the ELT landscape has proved a renewed interest in this area, but a coherent rationale within which to teach has yet to emerge. The belief is that working in close collaboration with educational institutions is the way to establish a more principled approach. This talk will look at how materials can be produced as a result of collaboration with universities for the development of EAP material.
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  •   Slide 9: English study at university   I work for a publisher and we are launching a new major series – ESAP. I would therefore like to focus the rest of my talk on how this was developed. We have established that ESAP stands for English for Specific Academic Purposes, i.e., subject-specific learning at the tertiary level.   But why not EAP, more general academic English? Or why not EOP, English for No Obvious Purpose?   EOP is what is taught when nobody has thought through the real purpose of why they are teaching – and this happens a surprising amount.   EAP is obviously useful to students entering English medium study, but it only provides for the immediate needs of the student and doesn’t deal with the problems students face when they reach their faculty studying law, business or whatever. This is why there is increasing demand for ESAP, but no material available for the hard pressed teacher – apart from the new Garnet series
  •   Slide 9: English study at university   I work for a publisher and we are launching a new major series – ESAP. I would therefore like to focus the rest of my talk on how this was developed. We have established that ESAP stands for English for Specific Academic Purposes, i.e., subject-specific learning at the tertiary level.   But why not EAP, more general academic English? Or why not EOP, English for No Obvious Purpose?   EOP is what is taught when nobody has thought through the real purpose of why they are teaching – and this happens a surprising amount.   EAP is obviously useful to students entering English medium study, but it only provides for the immediate needs of the student and doesn’t deal with the problems students face when they reach their faculty studying law, business or whatever. This is why there is increasing demand for ESAP, but no material available for the hard pressed teacher – apart from the new Garnet series
  • Slide 10: EAP provides ...   They certainly need the general academic, the discourse structures and vocabulary that span all fields, and the general skills which will help them to decode and construct text in the appropriate register.
  • When we listen in L1, we are able to predict: - the exact next word or phrase - the kind of word or phrase - the part of speech - the communicative value
  • P2
  • denoting speech used to express or create an atmosphere of shared feelings, goodwill, or sociability rather than to impart information:
  • P2
  • Slide 11: Students also need ...   English-medium student also need specific information from the field they are actually going to study in order to carry out top down processing. People use schemata to organize current knowledge and provide a framework for future understandingSchemata are an effective tool for understanding the world. Through the use of schemata, most everyday situations do not requireeffortful thought— automatic thought is all that is required. People can quickly organize new perceptions into schemata and act effectively without effort. For example, most people have a stairway schema and can apply it to climb staircases they've never seen before.
  • Slide 13: Basic content for ESAP courses   The key to activating schemata is background knowledge ; but we need to decide what background knowledge to focus on?   The exact contents of a first year tertiary course will vary from institution to institution but we have found it possible to break down into a common core.   Wherever students are taught, say Business Studies, the syllabus will contain the same core information, which can be incorporated into a basic syllabus which meets the basic needs of the vast majority of students in a particular discipline.   This generally translates as follows:
  • Approaches to ESAP Elmira Kocheva

    1. 1. The case for a new acronym ESAPIncreasingly English is being used as the teachingmedium for Business Studies, Medicine, Engineeringetc at Higher Education and University levels. Thispresents interesting challenges for the English teacherfaced with students who are not interested in learningEnglish for its own sake, but who are concerned tohave sufficient command of English to help themprogress in their chosen careers. General English isbeing replaced by English for Specific Purposes butwithin an atmosphere of English for AcademicPurposes. How can this best be done?
    2. 2. A general view• Language teachers lack the expertise and confidence to teach subject specific conventions and content• Skills and language across a range of disciplines remain the same
    3. 3. General English Level driven: the Student motives are main focus is on varied and general. what a student can They may be interested and cannot do in the language or want now. to enjoy the global community.
    4. 4. the specific view When English is taught, it should include: • current specific needs • wider needs (transferable skills and competencies) • acknowledgement of future needs• •
    5. 5. What do students say? “We’ve been learning English for 6 years and we’re still doing the verb to be.” (Lack of interest / progression) “I’d like more time to speak and practise the language. I forget it straight after the lesson.” (Frustration) “Different teachers tell us different things. (Lack of faith in the teacher – or is it the book?)
    6. 6. Which means ...• Students are generally goal-orientated.• Students might not know what they need, but they do know what they don’t need.• Our materials and methods should reflect this.
    7. 7. The acronyms• EFL?• ENOP?• ESP?• EAP?• ESAP?• EOP?
    8. 8. English study at university• ENOP?• EAP?• ESP?• ESAP?
    9. 9. EAP provides …• Discourse structures and vocabulary spanning all academic fields• General skills to help decode and construct text in appropriate registers i.e., Bottom Up skills •
    10. 10. EAPThemes based on areas of human knowledge – not quirky – not imaginary – not ‘one-off’ human interest stories – not ‘teen’ topics
    11. 11. EAPListening: to lecturesSpeaking: seminars, tutorialsReading: for researchWriting: essays, assignments
    12. 12. EAP LISTENINGListening and taking notes – not interactive listening – not ‘eavesdropping’ – not multiple listening – not ‘after doing’ comprehension questions
    13. 13. How do we learn?• This seems like a simple ... • question• but there is no simple … • answer• In the next two lectures, we’re... • going• to look at theories of … • learning• This week, I’m going to talk... • about• theories from Ancient… • Greece• Next, theories from … • Islamic scholars• theory from a Russian scientist, …• Ivan Pavlov• ...agree about learning. • (contrary view) However...
    14. 14. Top down bottom up listeningHow do we learn?This seems like a simple …but there is no simple …In the next two lectures, we’re …… to look at theories of …I’m going to talk about …… from Ancient …Next, theories from …A Russian scientist, …… agree about learning. However
    15. 15. EAP SPEAKINGSpeaking from research – not phatic communion – not every function that can be thought of – not convergent, ‘what I know / think’
    16. 16. EAP READINGReading for research – not reading for pleasure – not every and any text type – not ‘after doing’ comprehension questions
    17. 17. Reading to Writing Researched Meaning into Rehearsed Words
    18. 18. EAP WRITINGWriting in academic genres – not first person – not informal postcards, letters – not convergent, ‘what I know / think’
    19. 19. EAP WRITING is:• analytical not impressionistic• objective not subjective• intellectual not emotional• serious not conversational• impersonal not personal• formal not colloquial
    20. 20. Teaching writing: top down• Researching• Structuring research notes• Understanding models• Organising information into paragraphs• Writing topic sentences
    21. 21. The TOWER of ProductionThinking audience, purpose, contentOrganizing information from research, knowledge, opinion Writing appropriate writing plan Editing writing for the writer – cohesionRewriting writing for the reader – coherence
    22. 22. EAP Grammar
    23. 23. We can start with a few facts ... 75% - 85% of EAP is in … … the present (including passives) 10% - 15% of EAP is in … … the past (including passives) 5% - 10% of EAP uses … … modals (Source: Various inc. Longman Grammar of Written and Spoken English)
    24. 24. And ... 90% of EAP is in the simple aspect 7% of EAP is in the perfect aspect 3% of EAP is in the progressive aspect 0.5% of EAP is in the perfect progressive aspect (Source: Longman Grammar of Written and Spoken English)
    25. 25. EAP Grammarthe complex noun phraseclause joiningclause embeddingprepositional phrasesstance adverbials
    26. 26. EAP
    27. 27. How does ESAP differ from EAP material?• Content-centred approach to promote more meaningful learning- teaches students to cope with input texts in their discipline (lectures, research articles, etc.)• Addresses variations within disciplines- different skills, conventions, lexis and register
    28. 28. ESAP students need … TOP DOWN SKILLS to use specific information from the field tocheck and develop arguments and theoriesBuilding background knowledge enables ESAP English for Specific Academic Purposes •
    29. 29. ESAP What background knowledge?• What is the discipline?• What are its branches?• What does a practitioner do?• What is the history of the discipline?• Who are the great people in the discipline – biography?• What are the great works in the discipline – references?• What are the basic principles / knowledge in the discipline?• What are the current issues?• What are the contentious issues?• Are there any Health and Safety issues (if relevant)?• How do you distinguish fact from opinion in the discipline?• What might the future hold?
    30. 30. ESAP• Disciplinary variations:• Disciplines see reality in different ways
    31. 31. ESAP Learning tasks• Humanities & social sciences Analysing & synthesizing from multiple sources• Science and technology Describing procedures, defining procedures, planning solutions
    32. 32. ESAP Lexis and collocation• Common core ignores multiple meaningsConsist means ‘stay the same’ in the social sciences and ‘composed of’ in the sciencesVolume means “book’ in applied linguistics and ‘quantity’ in biologyAbstract means ‘remove’ in engineering and ‘theoretical’ in social sciences
    33. 33. ESAP Reporting conventions• Social sciences;• Verbs which refer to writing activities: discuss, hypothesize, suggest, argue• Engineers and scientists:• Verbs which refer to research activities: observe, discover, show, analyse, etc
    34. 34. Self-mention (per 1,000 words)• Philosophy 5.5• Marketing 5.5• Applied Linguistics 4.5• Sociology 4.3• Physics 4.1• Biology 3.4• Electrical engineering 3.3• Mechanical engineering 1.0
    35. 35. Stance features (per 1000 words)• Philosophy 42.8• Sociology 31.1• App Ling 37.2• Marketing 39.5• Physics 25.0• Mech Eng 19.8• Elec Eng 21.6
    36. 36. Discipline Citations per 1000 wordsBiology 15.5Sociology 12.5Philosophy 10.8Applied Linguistics 10.8Marketing 10.1Electronic Engineering 8.4Physics 7.4Mechanical Engineering 7.3
    37. 37. Some implications for teaching..• Use target-language authentic texts• Encourage analysis• Encourage critical thinking• Encourage reflection• Use authentic models• Use expert informants
    38. 38. and ....................S What we teach in any kind of content based course is not the content itself but some form of the discourse of that content. ESAP should equip students with the vocabulary and skills they need to enable them to study their chosen discipline in the most effective way.
    39. 39. Thank youhttps://sites.google.com/site/linvamod /
    40. 40. Basic content syllabus for ESAP coursesWhat is the discipline?What are its branches?What does a practitioner in the discipline do?The history of the disciplineThe great people in the discipline – biographyThe great works in the discipline – referencesBasic principles / knowledge in the disciplineCurrent issues in the disciplineContentious issues in the disciplineHealth and safety issues – if relevantFact vs opinion in the disciplineThe future of the disciplineAdapting the texts: Some features more common in academic Englishnouns = hypernyms, hyponymsprepositions = embedding in the noun phraseor = alternative; definition / explanationcataphoria = e.g. the problem + expositionits, their = non-human referenceour = to avoid my-tion nouns = production, definition etc.passives = although still only 25% of totalnoun C = e.g. the person that…; a way of doing etc.Some features less common in academic Englishpronouns = EAP uses alternative nounsnot / no = EAP states positive propositionsquestions = except as rhetorical devicesimperatives = although technical has manyphrasal verbs = Latinate words used insteadprogressive = is doing, was doing etc.perfective = has done, had done etc.

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