Apuverbit 1

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Suomenkielinen kielioppikalvosarja

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Apuverbit 1

  1. 1. Apuverbien tehtävä on auttaa <ul><li>Apuverbit toimivat rakennuspalikoina erilaisissa verbirakenteissa. </li></ul><ul><li>I must stay at home tonight. </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t want to upset my parents any further. </li></ul><ul><li>Niiden paikka lauseessa ilmaisee, onko kyseessä kysymys vai väite. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you get along with your parents? </li></ul><ul><li>Is your Dad angry with you? </li></ul><ul><li>Not-sanan lyhenne n’t liitetään aina apuverbiin </li></ul>
  2. 2. Kahdenlaisia apuverbejä <ul><li>Taipumattomat (=modaaliset) apuverbit esiintyvät verbirakenteissa vain pääverbin kanssa. </li></ul><ul><li>I can’t call you because Mom may hear me. </li></ul><ul><li>BE, HAVE ja DO taipuvat persoonissa ja aikamuodoissa. Ne voivat toimia myös pääverbinä. </li></ul><ul><li>I am very upset! I once had a dog. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Modaalisilla apuverbeillä ei ole kaikkia muotoja <ul><li>will would </li></ul><ul><li>shall should ought to </li></ul><ul><li>can could </li></ul><ul><li>may might </li></ul><ul><li>must </li></ul>
  4. 4. Be ja have taipuvat kaikissa aikamuodoissa ja persoonissa <ul><li>am, are, is </li></ul><ul><li>was, were </li></ul><ul><li>has been, have been </li></ul><ul><li>had been </li></ul><ul><li>will be </li></ul><ul><li>would be </li></ul><ul><li>would have been </li></ul><ul><li>should be … </li></ul><ul><li>has, have </li></ul><ul><li>had </li></ul><ul><li>has had, have had </li></ul><ul><li>had had </li></ul><ul><li>will have </li></ul><ul><li>would have </li></ul><ul><li>would have had </li></ul><ul><li>should have … </li></ul>
  5. 5. Kiertoilmaisut <ul><li>Koska can ja may verbeillä on vain kaksi muotoa ( could ja might ) ja must verbillä vain yksi muoto, on muut muodot ilmaistava muilla keinoin. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to (=kyetä, pystyä, osata) </li></ul><ul><li>Myös: manage to, know how to ym. </li></ul><ul><li>Be allowed to (=saada lupa) </li></ul><ul><li>Myös: be permitted to </li></ul><ul><li>Have to (=pitää, täytyä) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myös: need to, be forced to, be compelled to, be obliged to </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. CAN eri merkityksiä: <ul><li>Osata, voida, kyetä, pystyä </li></ul><ul><li>I can’t call you until I get my new mobile. </li></ul><ul><li> I won’t be able to call you… </li></ul><ul><li>2) Saada lupa </li></ul><ul><li>I can’t go out tonight, because I’m grounded. </li></ul><ul><li> I’m not allowed to go out… </li></ul><ul><li>3) Olla mahdollista </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t be serious! </li></ul>
  7. 7. MAY eri merkityksiä: <ul><li>Saada lupa </li></ul><ul><li>May I answer the phone, please? (lupa läsnäolijoilta) </li></ul><ul><li>Is it allowed to use a mobile here? (yleiset säännöt) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Saattaa, ehkä </li></ul><ul><li>I may be a bit late. I might pop in for a while. </li></ul><ul><li>Huom! Maybe = ehkä (may + be yhteen!) </li></ul>
  8. 8. MUST eri merkityksiä <ul><li>Pitää, täytyä, olla pakko </li></ul><ul><li>I must go now. I have to be back by eight. </li></ul><ul><li>Varmaankin </li></ul><ul><li>You must be fed up with your parents! </li></ul><ul><li>Huom! Mustn’t = ei saa </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t have to = ei tarvitse </li></ul>
  9. 9. Be able to / Be allowed to + verbin perusmuoto <ul><li>BE taipuu, muut osat pysyvät samoina </li></ul><ul><li>am/are/is </li></ul><ul><li>was/were </li></ul><ul><li>have been / has been + ALLOWED TO / </li></ul><ul><li>had been ABLE TO + infinitiivi </li></ul><ul><li>will be… </li></ul><ul><li>I haven’t been able to sleep lately. </li></ul><ul><li>I will be allowed to stay out until eleven on Fridays. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Have to <ul><li>HAVE taipuu, to + verbin perusmuoto pysyy samana. </li></ul><ul><li>have / has </li></ul><ul><li>had </li></ul><ul><li>have had / has had + TO + infinitiivi </li></ul><ul><li>had had </li></ul><ul><li>will have… </li></ul><ul><li>Did you have to please your elders when you were young? </li></ul><ul><li>I had to buy another ticket for my little sister. </li></ul>

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