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Section I  Introduction and Resources Module 1.a.
Companies Under Investigation <ul><li>Aldelphi </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur Andersen </li></ul><ul><li>AOL </li></ul><ul><li>B...
Investigation cont’d <ul><li>Halliburton </li></ul><ul><li>Imclone </li></ul><ul><li>Kmart </li></ul><ul><li>KPMG </li></u...
Why? <ul><li>Quality of earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Where were the auditors? </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility of management...
What is accounting? <ul><li>Often called the language of business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures financial aspects of a bu...
Why should  everyone   in business study accounting?? <ul><li>Many business decisions are based on accounting information....
The Accounting Equation <ul><li>Assets  =  Claims or </li></ul><ul><li>Assets  = Liabilities  +  Equity </li></ul><ul><li>...
Four Basic Financial Statements <ul><li>Balance Sheet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assets  =  Liabilities  +  Equity </li></ul></...
The Annual Report includes: <ul><li>financial statements </li></ul><ul><li>notes to the financial statements </li></ul><ul...
On-line Annual Reports <ul><li>Most companies provide their annual reports online.  Click on the link below to look at Del...
Notes <ul><li>Are an INTEGRAL part of the statements </li></ul><ul><li>Provide summary of accounting policies </li></ul><u...
Notes (more stuff included) <ul><li>Contain some supplementary information required by SEC and FASB </li></ul><ul><li>Exam...
Auditor’s Report <ul><li>Unqualified (what you want!) -- states that statements present information in conformity with GAA...
Look at an auditor’s opinion <ul><li>Federal Express Annual Report </li></ul><ul><li>Click on the link above and try to fi...
Example of a qualified opinion <ul><li>The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming Caro...
MD&A (Financial Review) <ul><li>1. Internal/external sources of liquidity </li></ul><ul><li>2. Any material deficiencies i...
MD&A (continued) <ul><li>5. Unusual/infrequent transactions which affect income from continuing operations </li></ul><ul><...
“PR Fluff” <ul><li>Amount sometimes varies INVERSELY with performance... </li></ul><ul><li>Can visit many corporate websit...
SEC Filings http:// www.sec.gov <ul><li>10K </li></ul><ul><li>10Q </li></ul><ul><li>8K </li></ul><ul><li>Prospectus </li><...
Do rules = uniformity? <ul><li>GAAP provide some measure but they allow considerable discretion </li></ul><ul><li>Accounti...
Accounting Period <ul><li>Another complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Although the firm’s life is continuous, financial data is p...
Cash versus “Accrual” <ul><li>Financial statements are prepared on an “accrual” basis </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to MATCH e...
More Sources of “Confusion” <ul><li>Earnings per share </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation of parent and subs </li></ul><ul><l...
Even MORE Confusion... <ul><li>“Comprehensive” income reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Two sets of books (yes, it’s legal!!) - ...
Quality of Financial Reporting <ul><li>Management has considerable discretion within GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Potential exis...
<ul><li>A business man was interviewing applicants for the position of divisional manager.  He devised a simple test to se...
Means to Affect Quality <ul><li>Accounting policies and estimates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>choices and changes </li></ul></ul...
Accounting Policies/Estimates <ul><li>Choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management may choose among acceptable accounting poli...
Timing of Revenues/Expenses <ul><li>Matching process involves judgments by management regarding recognition of revenues an...
Discretionary Items <ul><li>Budget level and timing of expenditures for many items are discretionary, e.g. </li></ul><ul><...
Nonrecurring and Nonoperating Items <ul><li>Nonrecurring and nonoperating items are not part of normal ongoing business </...
Look at an example of an accounting change <ul><li>Coca Cola Annual Report </li></ul><ul><li>Is the accounting change show...
What about Inflation??? <ul><li>Historical cost principle prevails in financial reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of infl...
Missing Information <ul><li>Morale/efficiency of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation/public perceptions of firm </li></...
What about publicity? <ul><li>Affects public perception of firm and can impact financial performance </li></ul><ul><li>Pro...
What Info is Hard to Find? <ul><li>Many items must be extracted from notes, supplementary schedules, MD&A section in order...
The End! <ul><li>If you had any technical difficulties with this PowerPoint presentation, please let me know immediately. ...
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Module 1

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Module 1

  1. 1. Section I Introduction and Resources Module 1.a.
  2. 2. Companies Under Investigation <ul><li>Aldelphi </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur Andersen </li></ul><ul><li>AOL </li></ul><ul><li>Bristol Myers Squibb </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Associates International </li></ul><ul><li>Deloitte & Touche </li></ul><ul><li>Enron </li></ul><ul><li>Ernst & Young </li></ul><ul><li>Global Crossing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Investigation cont’d <ul><li>Halliburton </li></ul><ul><li>Imclone </li></ul><ul><li>Kmart </li></ul><ul><li>KPMG </li></ul><ul><li>Peregrine </li></ul><ul><li>PricewaterhouseCoopers </li></ul><ul><li>Qwest </li></ul><ul><li>Tyco </li></ul><ul><li>Worldcom Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Xerox </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why? <ul><li>Quality of earnings </li></ul><ul><li>Where were the auditors? </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility of management </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is accounting? <ul><li>Often called the language of business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures financial aspects of a business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicates this information to decision makers </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Why should everyone in business study accounting?? <ul><li>Many business decisions are based on accounting information. </li></ul><ul><li>Since accounting information is prepared according to “rules,” an understanding of these rules is necessary for the appropriate use of the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal need for understanding financial statements </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Accounting Equation <ul><li>Assets = Claims or </li></ul><ul><li>Assets = Liabilities + Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Asset : something of value </li></ul><ul><li>Liability : something owed (creditors’ share of the assets) </li></ul><ul><li>Equity : what remains (owners’ share of the assets) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Four Basic Financial Statements <ul><li>Balance Sheet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assets = Liabilities + Equity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Income Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenues - Expenses = Net income </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statement of Changes in Equity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning equity + Contributions + Net income - Distributions = Ending equity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statement of Cash Flows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash inflow - Cash outflow = Net cash flow </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Annual Report includes: <ul><li>financial statements </li></ul><ul><li>notes to the financial statements </li></ul><ul><li>auditor’s report </li></ul><ul><li>5-year summary of key financial data </li></ul><ul><li>high and low stock selling prices </li></ul><ul><li>management discussion & analysis of operations (“forward-looking” info) </li></ul>
  10. 10. On-line Annual Reports <ul><li>Most companies provide their annual reports online. Click on the link below to look at Delta Airlines’ most recent annual report. Pay particular attention to how Delta addresses the challenges following 9/11 (the first page or two of the AR). How much cash aid did Delta receive from the federal government? </li></ul><ul><li>Delta Annual Report </li></ul><ul><li>(note it will download in PDF format—you may have to open up the window from the bottom toolbar) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Notes <ul><li>Are an INTEGRAL part of the statements </li></ul><ul><li>Provide summary of accounting policies </li></ul><ul><li>Present detail about particular accounts (e.g. inventory, investments, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Include other information (e.g. leasing arrangements, pending legal proceedings, income taxes, etc.) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Notes (more stuff included) <ul><li>Contain some supplementary information required by SEC and FASB </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information on foreign currency translations for firms doing business in/with foreign countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>information by segment for firms with several lines of business </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Auditor’s Report <ul><li>Unqualified (what you want!) -- states that statements present information in conformity with GAAP (sometimes with explanatory language) </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes qualified or adverse opinions are issued (not what you want!) </li></ul><ul><li>Disclaimer </li></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind that auditor is hired by the firm -- always the possibility of conflict of interest </li></ul>
  14. 14. Look at an auditor’s opinion <ul><li>Federal Express Annual Report </li></ul><ul><li>Click on the link above and try to find the auditor’s opinion (Hint: It’s after the notes) </li></ul><ul><li>What type of opinion is it and who were their auditors in 2002? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Example of a qualified opinion <ul><li>The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming Carolco Pictures Inc. and subsidiaries will continue as a going concern. As more fully described in Note B, the Company has incurred continuing significant losses and has a deficiency in assets $64,521,000 at December 31, 1994. Further, the Company has experienced significant cash flow difficulties and does not have sufficient cash resources and financing sources to meet its operating expenses and scheduled debt service obligations, and continue to fund its principal business activity. These conditions raise substantial doubts about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern. (Management's plans in regard to these matters are also described in Note B). The 1994 consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty. </li></ul><ul><li>Carolco Pictures produced the Terminator movies! </li></ul>
  16. 16. MD&A (Financial Review) <ul><li>1. Internal/external sources of liquidity </li></ul><ul><li>2. Any material deficiencies in liquidity and how they will be remedied </li></ul><ul><li>3. Commitments for capital expenditures/sources of funding </li></ul><ul><li>4. Anticipated changes in mix and cost of financing resources </li></ul>
  17. 17. MD&A (continued) <ul><li>5. Unusual/infrequent transactions which affect income from continuing operations </li></ul><ul><li>6. Events causing material changes in cost/revenue relationships (e.g. future price increase) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Breakdown of sales increases in price & volume components </li></ul>
  18. 18. “PR Fluff” <ul><li>Amount sometimes varies INVERSELY with performance... </li></ul><ul><li>Can visit many corporate websites to view some interesting “creations” </li></ul>
  19. 19. SEC Filings http:// www.sec.gov <ul><li>10K </li></ul><ul><li>10Q </li></ul><ul><li>8K </li></ul><ul><li>Prospectus </li></ul><ul><li>What is insider trading? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the CEO/CFO certification? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Do rules = uniformity? <ul><li>GAAP provide some measure but they allow considerable discretion </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting choices and estimates affect amounts on financial statements </li></ul><ul><li>Depreciation of fixed assets is a good example (choice of method, different “good faith” estimates possible) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Accounting Period <ul><li>Another complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Although the firm’s life is continuous, financial data is presented for arbitrary time periods -- year, quarter and the like </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to need for more adjustments and estimates </li></ul><ul><li>Statements are prepared on “accrual” basis </li></ul>
  22. 22. Cash versus “Accrual” <ul><li>Financial statements are prepared on an “accrual” basis </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to MATCH expenses with revenue in a given accounting period </li></ul><ul><li>Revenues reported when “earned” rather than when received in cash </li></ul><ul><li>Expenses are recorded when incurred rather than when paid in cash </li></ul>
  23. 23. More Sources of “Confusion” <ul><li>Earnings per share </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidation of parent and subs </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting leases </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting pensions </li></ul><ul><li>Translation of foreign operations </li></ul><ul><li>Off-balance sheet financing </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting for derivatives </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(continued…….) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Even MORE Confusion... <ul><li>“Comprehensive” income reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Two sets of books (yes, it’s legal!!) - financial vs. tax reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Pro forma earning </li></ul>
  25. 25. Quality of Financial Reporting <ul><li>Management has considerable discretion within GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>Potential exists to “manipulate” the profit/loss reported </li></ul><ul><li>The closer the financial data presented represent financial reality, the higher the quality of the financial statements and reported earnings </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>A business man was interviewing applicants for the position of divisional manager.  He devised a simple test to select the most suitable person for the job.  He asked each applicant the question, &quot;What is two and two?&quot; The first interviewee was a journalist.  His answer was &quot;Twenty-two.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The second applicant was an engineer.  He pulled out a slide rule and showed the answer to be between 3.999 and 4.001. </li></ul><ul><li>The next person was a lawyer.  He stated that in the case of Jenkins vs. Commr of Stamp Duties (Qld), two and two was proven to be four. </li></ul><ul><li>The last applicant was an accountant.  The business man asked him, &quot;How much is two and two?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The accountant go up from his chair, went over to the door and closed it then came back and sat down.  He leaned across the desk and said in a low voice, &quot;How much do you want it to be?” </li></ul><ul><li>He got the job. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Means to Affect Quality <ul><li>Accounting policies and estimates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>choices and changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Timing of revenues and expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Discretionary items </li></ul><ul><li>Nonrecurring and nonoperating items </li></ul><ul><li>ALL ARE WITHIN THE PURVIEW OF MANAGEMENT </li></ul>
  28. 28. Accounting Policies/Estimates <ul><li>Choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management may choose among acceptable accounting policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management has opportunity to make estimates when applying policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy or estimate may be changed </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Timing of Revenues/Expenses <ul><li>Matching process involves judgments by management regarding recognition of revenues and/or expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Usually the more conservative the approach (least favorable to management) the higher the quality of earnings </li></ul>
  30. 30. Discretionary Items <ul><li>Budget level and timing of expenditures for many items are discretionary, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>advertising/marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repairs/maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>research and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capital expansion </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Nonrecurring and Nonoperating Items <ul><li>Nonrecurring and nonoperating items are not part of normal ongoing business </li></ul><ul><li>Earnings figure should reflect future operating potential </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore segregate such things as major asset sales, accounting changes, asset impairments, extraordinary items </li></ul>
  32. 32. Look at an example of an accounting change <ul><li>Coca Cola Annual Report </li></ul><ul><li>Is the accounting change shown net of tax? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at page 70 of the annual report. What SFAS caused the change? </li></ul>
  33. 33. What about Inflation??? <ul><li>Historical cost principle prevails in financial reporting </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of inflation is uneven -- relevance vs. reliability tradeoff </li></ul><ul><li>Produces both purchasing power gains and losses -- e.g. debt is good in inflationary situation </li></ul>
  34. 34. Missing Information <ul><li>Morale/efficiency of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation/public perceptions of firm </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of management team/provisions for succession </li></ul><ul><li>Potential exposure to regulatory changes </li></ul><ul><li>IMPACT OPERATING SUCCESS BUT ARE DIFFICULT TO QUANTIFY </li></ul>
  35. 35. What about publicity? <ul><li>Affects public perception of firm and can impact financial performance </li></ul><ul><li>Proven correlation between financial returns and reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Recent examples are adverse publicity for Coca Cola and Northwest Airlines -- countered by the respective companies to minimize impact </li></ul>
  36. 36. What Info is Hard to Find? <ul><li>Many items must be extracted from notes, supplementary schedules, MD&A section in order to interpret financial statement numbers - the facts are there, but they are not self-evident! </li></ul><ul><li>Coverage in Chapters 2-5 is geared to helping FIND and EFFECTIVELY USE information in financial statements and supplementary materials </li></ul>
  37. 37. The End! <ul><li>If you had any technical difficulties with this PowerPoint presentation, please let me know immediately. </li></ul>

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