Libbychap014.ppt

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Libbychap014.ppt

  1. 1. Chapter 14 Analyzing Financial Statements
  2. 2. Understanding The Business FINANCIAL STATEMENT USERS EXTERNAL DECISION MAKERS MANAGEMENT . . . uses accounting data to make product pricing and expansion decisions. . . . use accounting data for investment, credit, tax, and public policy decisions.
  3. 3. Understanding The Business THREE TYPES OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT INFORMATION Past Performance Present Condition Future Performance Income, sales volume, cash flows, return- on-investments, EPS. Assets, debt, inventory, various ratios. Sales and earnings trends are good indicators of future performance.
  4. 4. Understanding The Business Return on an equity security investment Investors Dividends Increase in share price
  5. 5. Understanding The Business Invest? No Yes Economy-wide Factors Industry Factors Individual Company Factors
  6. 6. Understanding a Company’s Strategy I need to know the company’s policies on product differentiation, pricing, and cost control to make my financial analysis more meaningful.
  7. 7. Financial Statement Analysis <ul><li>Financial statement analysis is based on comparisons. </li></ul>Examines a single company to identify trends over time. Time series analysis Comparison with similar companies
  8. 8. Financial Statement Analysis <ul><li>Financial statement analysis is based on comparisons. </li></ul>Provides insights concerning a company’s relative performance. Company A Company B Time series analysis Comparison with similar companies
  9. 9. Ratio and Percentage Analyses <ul><li>Ratio analysis, or percentage analysis, is used to express the proportionate relationship between two different amounts. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Component Percentages <ul><li>Express each item on a particular statement as a percentage of a single base amount . </li></ul>Total assets on the balance sheet Net sales on the income statement
  11. 11. Component Percentages Example <ul><li>The comparative income statements of Home Depot 2001 and 2000 appear on the next slide. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare component percentage income statements where net sales equal 100%. </li></ul>Home Depot
  12. 12. Component Percentages
  13. 13. Component Percentages 2001 Cost ÷ 2001 Sales
  14. 14. Component Percentages
  15. 15. Now, let’s look at some commonly used ratios.
  16. 16. Commonly Used Ratios <ul><li>The 2001 and 2000 balance sheets for Home Depot are presented next. </li></ul><ul><li>We will be referring to these financial statements throughout the ratio analyses. </li></ul>Home Depot
  17. 17. Comparative Statements Continued
  18. 18. Comparative Statements
  19. 19. Tests of Profitability <ul><li>Profitability is a primary measure of the overall success of a company. </li></ul><ul><li>Now, let’s look at the profitability ratios for Home Depot for 2001. </li></ul>Home Depot
  20. 20. Return on Equity This measure indicates how much income was earned for every dollar invested by the owners. Return on Equity $2,581 ($15,004 + $12,341) ÷ 2 = = 18.9% Income Average Owners’ Equity Return on Equity =
  21. 21. Return on Assets This ratio is generally considered the best overall measure of a company’s profitability. Corporate tax rate is 34 percent. Return on Assets Income + Interest Expense (net of tax) Average Total Assets = Return on Assets $2,581 + ($21 ×(1 - .34)) ($21,385 + $17,081) ÷ 2 = = 13.5%
  22. 22. Financial Leverage 5.4% = 18.9% – 13.5% Financial leverage is the advantage or disadvantage that occurs as the result of earning a return on equity that is different from the return on assets. Financial Leverage Return on Equity – Return on Assets =
  23. 23. Earnings per Share (EPS) Earnings per share is probably the single most widely watched financial ratio. Income Average Number of Shares of Common Stock Outstanding EPS = EPS $2,581 (2,324 + 2,304) ÷ 2 = = $1.12
  24. 24. Quality of Income Quality of Income Cash Flow from Operating Activities Net Income =
  25. 25. Quality of Income A ratio higher than 1 indicates higher-quality earnings. Quality of Income Cash Flow from Operating Activities Net Income = Quality of Income $2,796 $2,581 = = 1.08
  26. 26. Profit Margin This ratio describes a company’s ability to earn income from sales. = 5.6% Profit Margin $2,581 $45,738 = Profit Margin Income (before Extraordinary Items) Net Sales =
  27. 27. Fixed Asset Turnover This ratio measures a company’s ability to generate sales given an investment in fixed assets. Fixed Asset Turnover $45,738 ($13,068 + $10,227) ÷ 2 = = 3.9 Fixed Asset Turnover Net Sales Revenue Average Net Fixed Assets =
  28. 28. Tests of Liquidity <ul><li>Tests of liquidity focus on the relationship between current assets and current liabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Now, let’s look at the liquidity ratios for Home Depot for 2001. </li></ul>Home Depot
  29. 29. Cash Ratio This ratio measures the adequacy of available cash. Cash Ratio Cash + Cash Equivalents Current Liabilities = = 0.04 : 1 Cash Ratio $167 $4,385 =
  30. 30. Current Ratio This ratio measures the ability of the company to pay current debts as they become due. Current Ratio Current Assets Current Liabilities = Current Ratio $7,777 $4,385 = = 1.77 : 1
  31. 31. Quick Ratio (Acid Test) This ratio is like the current ratio but measures the company’s immediate ability to pay debts. Quick Assets Current Liabilities = Quick Ratio $1,012 $4,385 = .23 : 1 = Quick Ratio
  32. 32. Receivable Turnover This ratio measures how quickly a company collects its accounts receivable. Net Credit Sales Average Net Trade Receivables Receivable Turnover = Receivable Turnover $45,738 ($835 + $587) ÷ 2 = 64 times =
  33. 33. Average Age of Receivables This ratio measures the average number of days it takes to collect receivables. Days in Year Receivable Turnover Average Age of Receivables = = 5.7 days 365 64 Average Age of Receivables =
  34. 34. Inventory Turnover This ratio measures how quickly the company sells its inventory. Cost of Goods Sold Average Inventory Inventory Turnover = Inventory Turnover $32,057 ($6,556 + $5,489) ÷ 2 = 5.3 times =
  35. 35. Average Days’ Supply in Inventory This ratio measures the average number of days it takes to sell the inventory. Days in Year Inventory Turnover Average Days’ Supply in Inventory = = 69 days 365 5.3 = Average Days’ Supply in Inventory
  36. 36. Tests of Solvency and Equity Position <ul><li>Tests of solvency measure a company’s ability to meet its obligations. </li></ul><ul><li>Now, let’s look at the solvency ratios for Home Depot for 2001. </li></ul>Home Depot
  37. 37. Times Interest Earned This ratio indicates a margin of protection for creditors. Net Interest Income Tax Income Expense Expense Interest Expense Times Interest Earned = + + $2,581 + $21 + $1,636 $21 Times Interest Earned = = 202
  38. 38. Cash Coverage Cash Coverage Cash Flow from Operating Activities Before Interest and Taxes Interest Paid =
  39. 39. Cash Coverage This ratio compares the cash generated with the cash obligations of the period. Cash Coverage = $2,796 + $16 + $1,386 $16 = 262 Cash Coverage Cash Flow from Operating Activities Before Interest and Taxes Interest Paid =
  40. 40. Debt/Equity Ratio This ratio measures the amount of liabilities that exists for each $1 invested by the owners. Total Liabilities Owners’ Equity Debt/Equity Ratio = $6,381 $15,004 = 0.43 Debt/Equity Ratio =
  41. 41. Market Tests <ul><li>Market tests relate the current market price of a share of stock to an indicator of the return that might accrue to the investor. </li></ul><ul><li>Now, let’s look at the market tests for Home Depot for 2001. </li></ul>Home Depot
  42. 42. Price/Earnings (P/E) Ratio This ratio measures the relationship between the current market price of the stock and its earnings per share. A recent price for Home Depot stock was $35 per share. P/E Ratio = Current Market Price Per Share Earnings Per Share P/E Ratio = $35 $1.12 = 31.3
  43. 43. Dividend Yield Ratio This ratio is often used to compare the dividend-paying performance of different investment alternatives. Home Depot paid dividends of $.16 per share when the market price was $35 per share. Dividend Yield Dividends Per Share Market Price Per Share = Dividend Yield $0.16 $35 = = 0.46%
  44. 44. Other Analytical Considerations <ul><li>In addition to financial ratios, special factors might affect company analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uneconomical expansion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective factors. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Interpreting Ratios <ul><li>Ratios may be interpreted by comparison with ratios of other companies or with industry average ratios. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratios may vary because of the company’s industry characteristics, nature of operations, size, and accounting policies. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Efficient Markets <ul><li>A securities market in which prices fully reflect available information is called an efficient market . </li></ul><ul><li>In an efficient market, a company’s stock reacts quickly when new, relevant information is released about the company. </li></ul>
  47. 47. End of Chapter 14 Ratios Ratios Ratios Ratios Ratios

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