Analysis of Financial Statements Timothy R. Mayes, Ph.D. FIN 3300: Chapter 3
Common-size Income Statements <ul><li>A common-size income statement restates all expenses as a percentage of sales </li><...
Common-size Balance Sheets <ul><li>A common-size balance sheet restates all assets and liabilities as a percentage of tota...
Financial Ratios <ul><li>Financial ratios are the analyst’s microscope; they allow us to get a better view of the firm’s f...
Categories of Financial Ratios <ul><li>Financial ratios are often divided into categories based on the information that th...
Liquidity Ratios <ul><li>‘Liquidity’ refers to the speed with which an asset can be converted to cash </li></ul><ul><li>Li...
The Current Ratio For EPI the current ratio in 1997 is:
The Quick Ratio For EPI the quick ratio in 1997 is:
The Cash Ratio For EPI the cash ratio in 1997 is:
Efficiency Ratios <ul><li>The efficiency ratios (A.K.A. assets utilization ratios) describe how well a firm is using its i...
The Inventory Turnover Ratio For EPI the inventory turnover ratio in 1997 is:
The A/R Turnover Ratio For EPI the accounts receivable turnover ratio in 1997 is:
The Average Collection Period For EPI the average collection period in 1997 is:
The Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio For EPI the fixed asset turnover ratio in 1997 is:
The Total Asset Turnover Ratio For EPI the total asset turnover ratio in 1997 is:
Leverage Ratios <ul><li>Leverage ratios describe the amount of debt that the firm has used to finance its investments in a...
The Total Debt Ratio For EPI the total debt ratio in 1997 is:
The Long-term Debt Ratio For EPI the long-term debt ratio in 1997 is:
The Debt to Equity Ratio For EPI the debt to equity ratio in 1997 is:
The Long-term Debt to Equity Ratio For EPI the long-term debt to equity ratio in 1997 is:
Coverage Ratios <ul><li>Coverage ratios indicate the firm’s ability to pay certain expenses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Times I...
The Times Interest Earned Ratio For EPI the times interest earned ratio in 1997 is:
The Cash Coverage Ratio For EPI the cash coverage ratio in 1997 is:
The Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio <ul><li>Note: SF Payments are Sinking Fund payments which are not tax deductible.  Therefo...
Profitability Ratios <ul><li>Profitability ratios provide a measure of the returns that a firm is generating: </li></ul><u...
The Gross Profit Margin For EPI the gross profit margin in 1997 is:
The Operating Profit Margin For EPI the operating profit margin in 1997 is:
The Net Profit Margin For EPI the net profit margin in 1997 is:
The Return on Total Assets For EPI the return on total assets in 1997 is:
The Return on Equity For EPI the return on equity in 1997 is:
The Return on Common Equity For EPI the return on common equity in 1997 is:
Market Valuation Ratios <ul><li>The market valuation ratios provide an indication of the relative under- or over-pricing o...
The Price/Earnings Ratio
The Price/Book Ratio
Rules for Memorizing Ratios <ul><li>There can be an infinite number of financial ratios, but knowing a few basic rules wil...
Using Financial Ratios <ul><li>Calculating ratios is pointless unless you know how to use them </li></ul><ul><li>The most ...
Trend Analysis of Ratios <ul><li>Trend analysis involves the examination of ratios over time </li></ul><ul><li>The analyst...
Comparing to Industry Averages <ul><li>Industry average ratios provide a benchmark for comparison </li></ul><ul><li>We ass...
Company Goals and Debt Covenants <ul><li>Company goals are often stated in terms of financial ratios </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
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  1. 1. Analysis of Financial Statements Timothy R. Mayes, Ph.D. FIN 3300: Chapter 3
  2. 2. Common-size Income Statements <ul><li>A common-size income statement restates all expenses as a percentage of sales </li></ul><ul><li>This allows the analyst to quickly and easily see which expenses have increased or decreased relative to sales </li></ul>
  3. 3. Common-size Balance Sheets <ul><li>A common-size balance sheet restates all assets and liabilities as a percentage of total assets </li></ul><ul><li>This allows the analyst to quickly and easily see which accounts have increased or decreased relative to total assets </li></ul>
  4. 4. Financial Ratios <ul><li>Financial ratios are the analyst’s microscope; they allow us to get a better view of the firm’s financial health than just looking at the raw financial statements </li></ul><ul><li>Ratios are used by both internal and external analysts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>planning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>evaluation of management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>credit granting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>performance monitoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>investment decisions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Categories of Financial Ratios <ul><li>Financial ratios are often divided into categories based on the information that they provide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market valuation </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Liquidity Ratios <ul><li>‘Liquidity’ refers to the speed with which an asset can be converted to cash </li></ul><ul><li>Liquidity ratios describe the ability of a firm to meet its current obligations </li></ul><ul><li>There are three common liquidity ratios: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Current Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Quick Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cash Ratio </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Current Ratio For EPI the current ratio in 1997 is:
  8. 8. The Quick Ratio For EPI the quick ratio in 1997 is:
  9. 9. The Cash Ratio For EPI the cash ratio in 1997 is:
  10. 10. Efficiency Ratios <ul><li>The efficiency ratios (A.K.A. assets utilization ratios) describe how well a firm is using its investment in various asset classes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory Turnover Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average Collection Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Asset Turnover Ratio </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Inventory Turnover Ratio For EPI the inventory turnover ratio in 1997 is:
  12. 12. The A/R Turnover Ratio For EPI the accounts receivable turnover ratio in 1997 is:
  13. 13. The Average Collection Period For EPI the average collection period in 1997 is:
  14. 14. The Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio For EPI the fixed asset turnover ratio in 1997 is:
  15. 15. The Total Asset Turnover Ratio For EPI the total asset turnover ratio in 1997 is:
  16. 16. Leverage Ratios <ul><li>Leverage ratios describe the amount of debt that the firm has used to finance its investments in assets: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Debt Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term Debt Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debt to Equity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term Debt to Equity </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Total Debt Ratio For EPI the total debt ratio in 1997 is:
  18. 18. The Long-term Debt Ratio For EPI the long-term debt ratio in 1997 is:
  19. 19. The Debt to Equity Ratio For EPI the debt to equity ratio in 1997 is:
  20. 20. The Long-term Debt to Equity Ratio For EPI the long-term debt to equity ratio in 1997 is:
  21. 21. Coverage Ratios <ul><li>Coverage ratios indicate the firm’s ability to pay certain expenses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Times Interest Earned Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash Coverage Ratio </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Times Interest Earned Ratio For EPI the times interest earned ratio in 1997 is:
  23. 23. The Cash Coverage Ratio For EPI the cash coverage ratio in 1997 is:
  24. 24. The Fixed Charge Coverage Ratio <ul><li>Note: SF Payments are Sinking Fund payments which are not tax deductible. Therefore, we must divide them by (1-t) to find out how much we need before taxes to meet this after-tax expense. Also, you must include preferred dividends in this number. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Profitability Ratios <ul><li>Profitability ratios provide a measure of the returns that a firm is generating: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross Profit Margin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating Profit Margin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net Profit Margin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return on Total Assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return on Equity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return on Common Equity </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Gross Profit Margin For EPI the gross profit margin in 1997 is:
  27. 27. The Operating Profit Margin For EPI the operating profit margin in 1997 is:
  28. 28. The Net Profit Margin For EPI the net profit margin in 1997 is:
  29. 29. The Return on Total Assets For EPI the return on total assets in 1997 is:
  30. 30. The Return on Equity For EPI the return on equity in 1997 is:
  31. 31. The Return on Common Equity For EPI the return on common equity in 1997 is:
  32. 32. Market Valuation Ratios <ul><li>The market valuation ratios provide an indication of the relative under- or over-pricing of a firm’s stock: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Price/Earnings Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price/Book Ratio </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The Price/Earnings Ratio
  34. 34. The Price/Book Ratio
  35. 35. Rules for Memorizing Ratios <ul><li>There can be an infinite number of financial ratios, but knowing a few basic rules will help you to memorize the formulas: The basic rule is that the name tells you how to calculate the ratio. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any ‘ margin ’ ratio is something divided by sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any ‘ turnover ’ ratio is sales (or a variation of sales) divided by something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any ‘ return on ’ ratio is net income (or a variation of net income) divided by something </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Using Financial Ratios <ul><li>Calculating ratios is pointless unless you know how to use them </li></ul><ul><li>The most basic rule is: a single ratio provides very little information and may be misleading </li></ul><ul><li>With that in mind, there are at least 4 uses of ratios: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend analysis (internal and external) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison to industry averages (internal and external) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting and evaluating company goals (internal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restrictive debt covenants (external) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Trend Analysis of Ratios <ul><li>Trend analysis involves the examination of ratios over time </li></ul><ul><li>The analyst tries to determine if the ratio is changing in a favorable, or unfavorable, direction </li></ul><ul><li>The chart shows EPI’s current ratio for two years (we really need more data) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Comparing to Industry Averages <ul><li>Industry average ratios provide a benchmark for comparison </li></ul><ul><li>We assume that if a ratio is too far from the average something is wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Industry ratios are available from Robert Morris Associates and Standard & Poor’s </li></ul>
  39. 39. Company Goals and Debt Covenants <ul><li>Company goals are often stated in terms of financial ratios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, it is common for management to set goals regarding the firm’s ROE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debt covenants often contain restrictions on certain ratios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, a borrower might be required to maintain a debt to equity ratio of less than 1.0 and a current ratio greater than 2.0 </li></ul></ul>

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