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- 1. Annual Report and Financial Statement Spreadsheet Problem (Hand in through WebCT) Part I: Using the financial information found below (also found in chapter 13 of your textbook (Kimmel 3rd edition) type in the financial statements including the Income Statement, Balance Sheet, and Cash Flow Statement for 2001 and 2000 (you will need 2000 to compute some ratios). Using the financial statement information that you typed into excel, using excel formulas to calculate the 18 ratios for 2001 listed below. You amounts should match the 2001 values listed in the illustration below. You are to use only formulas or cell references to calculate the ratios. That means, when I check your ratios, I should not see any typed in values. The ratio formulas should include only cell references from the financial statement information you put into the excel spreadsheet. Hand in your completed spreadsheet file by submitting the file into WebCT. Part II: Using the Annual Report for Kellogg’s 2001 (the document is a pdf file found as a link on the syllabus), answer the following Questions. Hand in by submitting a MS-word file in WebCT. How many pages is the Kellogg’s 2001 annual report? What major company did Kellogg’s purchase in 2001? In 2001k Kellogg’s was organized into 5 integrated business units. What were the largest two business units? What are four of the seven committees that the Board of Directors may be involved with for Kellogg’s? How many notes to the financial statements are included? Who was the audit firm who gave the audit opinion? What audit opinion did Kellogg’s receive from the auditor in 2001? Grading Item Points Financial Statements Properly Input 5 Ratios properly calculated 15 Proper use of cell references and formulas 10 Correct Answers to Annual Report Questions 5 Total 35 APPENDIX Comprehensive Illustration of Ratio Analysis In previous chapters we presented many ratios used for evaluating the financial health and performance of a company. In this appendix we provide a comprehensive review of those ratios and discuss some important relationships among them. Since earlier chapters demonstrated the calculation
- 2. of each of these ratios, in this chapter we instead focus on their interpretation. Page references to prior discussions are provided if you feel you need to review any individual ratios. The financial information in Illustrations 13A-1 through 13A-4 was used to calculate Kellogg's 2001 ratios. You can use these data to review the computations. Illustration 13A-1 Kellogg Company's balance sheet As indicated in the chapter, for analysis of the primary financial statements, ratios can be classified into three types: 1. Liquidity ratios: Measures of the short-term ability of the enterprise to pay its maturing obligations and to meet unexpected needs for cash. 2. Solvency ratios: Measures of the ability of the enterprise to survive over a long period of time. 3. Profitability ratios: Measures of the income or operating success of an enterprise for a given period of time.
- 3. Illustration 13A-2 Kellogg Company's income statement Illustration 13A-3 Kellogg Company's statement of cash flows Illustration 13A-4 Additional information for Kellogg Company As a tool of analysis, ratios can provide clues to underlying conditions that may not be apparent from an inspection of the individual components of a particular ratio. But a single ratio by itself is not very meaningful. Accordingly, in this discussion we use the following comparisons: 1. Intracompany comparisons covering two years for Kellogg Company (using comparative financial information from Illustrations 13A-1, 13A-2, and 13A-3). 2. Intercompany comparisons using General Mills as one of Kellogg's principal competitors. 3. Industry average comparisons based on Robert Morris Associates' median ratios for manufacturers of flour and other grain mill products and comparisons with other sources. For some of the ratios that we use, industry comparisons are not available. (These are denoted “na.”) Liquidity Ratios Liquidity ratios measure the short-term ability of the enterprise to pay its maturing obligations and to meet unexpected needs for cash. Short-term creditors such as bankers and suppliers are particularly interested in assessing liquidity. The measures that can be used to determine the enterprise's short-term debt-paying ability are the current ratio, the current cash debt coverage ratio, the receivables turnover ratio, the average collection period, the inventory turnover ratio, and average days in inventory.
- 4. 1. Current ratio. The current ratio expresses the relationship of current assets to current liabilities, computed by dividing current assets by current liabilities. It is widely used for evaluating a company's liquidity and short-term debt-paying ability. The 2001 and 2000 current ratios for Kellogg and comparative data are shown in Illustration 13A-5. Illustration 13A-5 Current ratio What do the measures tell us? Kellogg's 2001 current ratio of .86 means that for every dollar of current liabilities, Kellogg has $0.86 of current assets. We sometimes state such ratios as .86:1 to reinforce this interpretation. Kellogg's current ratio—and therefore its liquidity—increased significantly in 2001. It is well below the industry average but higher than that of General Mills. 2. Current cash debt coverage ratio. A disadvantage of the current ratio is that it uses year-end balances of current asset and current liability accounts. These year-end balances may not be representative of the company's current position during most of the year. A ratio that partially corrects for this problem is the ratio of cash provided by operating activities to average current liabilities, called the current cash debt coverage ratio. Because it uses cash provided by operating activities rather than a balance at one point in time, it may provide a better representation of liquidity. Kellogg's current cash debt coverage ratio is shown in Illustration 13A-6. BUSINESS INSIGHT Investor Perspective The apparent simplicity of the current ratio can have real-world limitations because adding equal amounts to both the numerator and the denominator causes the ratio to decrease. Assume, for example, that a company has $2,000,000 of current assets and $1,000,000 of current liabilities; its current ratio is 2:1. If it purchases $1,000,000 of inventory on account, it will have $3,000,000 of current assets and $2,000,000 of current liabilities; its current ratio decreases to 1.5:1. If, instead, the company pays off $500,000 of its current liabilities, it will have $1,500,000 of current assets and $500,000 of current liabilities; its current ratio increases to 3:1. Thus, any trend analysis should be done with care because the ratio is susceptible to quick changes and is easily influenced by management.
- 5. Illustration 13A-6 Current cash debt coverage ratio Like the current ratio, this ratio increased in 2001 for Kellogg. Is the coverage adequate? Probably so. Kellogg's operating cash flow coverage of average current liabilities is twice that of General Mills, and it exceeds a commonly accepted threshold of .40. No industry comparison is available. 3. Receivables turnover ratio. Liquidity may be measured by how quickly certain assets can be converted to cash. Low values of the previous ratios can sometimes be compensated for if some of the company's current assets are highly liquid. How liquid, for example, are the receivables? The ratio used to assess the liquidity of the receivables is the receivables turnover ratio, which measures the number of times, on average, receivables are collected during the period. The receivables turnover ratio is computed by dividing net credit sales (net sales less cash sales) by average gross receivables during the year. The receivables turnover ratio for Kellogg is shown in Illustration 13A-7. Illustration 13A-7 Receivables turnover ratio We have assumed that all Kellogg's sales are credit sales. The receivables turnover ratio for Kellogg rose in 2001. The turnover of 12.0 times compares favorably with the industry median of 11.6, and is much higher than General Mills' turnover of 8.58. BUSINESS INSIGHT Investor Perspective In some cases, the receivables turnover ratio may be misleading. Some companies, especially large retail chains, issue their own credit cards. They encourage customers to use these cards, and they slow their collections in order to earn a healthy return on the outstanding receivables in the form of interest at rates of 18% to 22%. In general, however, the faster the turnover, the greater the reliance that can be placed on the current ratio for assessing liquidity. 4. Average collection period. A popular variant of the receivables turnover ratio converts it into an average collection period in days. This is done by dividing the receivables turnover ratio into 365 days. The average collection period for Kellogg is shown in Illustration 13A-8.
- 6. Illustration 13A-8 Average collection period Kellogg's 2001 receivables turnover of 12.0 times is divided into 365 days to obtain approximately 30.4 days. This means that the average collection period for receivables is about 30 days. Analysts frequently use the average collection period to assess the effectiveness of a company's credit and collection policies. The general rule is that the collection period should not greatly exceed the credit term period (i.e., the time allowed for payment). General Mills' average collection period is significantly longer than those of Kellogg and the industry. This difference may be due to less aggressive collection practices, but it is more likely due to a difference in credit terms granted. 5. Inventory turnover ratio. The inventory turnover ratio measures the number of times on average the inventory is sold during the period. Its purpose is to measure the liquidity of the inventory. The inventory turnover ratio is computed by dividing the cost of goods sold by the average inventory during the period. Unless seasonal factors are significant, average inventory can be computed from the beginning and ending inventory balances. Kellogg's inventory turnover ratio is shown in Illustration 13A-9. Illustration 13A-9 Inventory turnover ratio Kellogg's inventory turnover ratio increased in 2001. The turnover ratio of 8.1 times is higher than the industry average of 6.9 and significantly better than General Mills' 5.6. Generally, the faster the inventory turnover, the less cash is tied up in inventory and the less the chance of inventory becoming obsolete. Of course, a downside of high inventory turnover is that the company can run out of inventory when it is needed. 6. Days in inventory. A variant of the inventory turnover ratio is the days in inventory, which measures the average number of days it takes to sell the inventory. The days in inventory for Kellogg is shown in Illustration 13A-10. Illustration 13A-10 Days in inventory Kellogg's 2001 inventory turnover ratio of 8.1 divided into 365 is approximately 45.1 days. An average selling time of 45 days is faster than the industry average and significantly faster than that of General Mills. Some of this difference might be explained by differences in product lines across the two companies, although in many ways the types of products of these two companies are quite similar. Inventory turnover ratios vary considerably among industries. For example, grocery store chains have a turnover of 10 times and an average selling period of 37 days. In contrast, jewelry stores have an average turnover of 1.3 times and an average selling period of 281 days. Within a company there may even be significant differences in inventory turnover among different types of products. Thus, in a grocery store the turnover of perishable items such as produce, meats, and dairy products is faster than the turnover of soaps and detergents. To conclude, nearly all of these liquidity measures suggest that Kellogg's liquidity increased during 2001. Its liquidity appears acceptable when compared to the industry as a whole and much better than that of General Mills.
- 7. Solvency Ratios Solvency ratios measure the ability of the enterprise to survive over a long period of time. Long-term creditors and stockholders are interested in a company's long-run solvency, particularly its ability to pay interest as it comes due and to repay the face value of debt at maturity. The debt to total assets ratio, the times interest earned ratio, and the cash debt coverage ratio provide information about debt- paying ability. In addition, free cash flow provides information about the company's solvency and its ability to pay additional dividends or invest in new projects. 7. Debt to total assets ratio. The debt to total assets ratio measures the percentage of the total assets provided by creditors. It is computed by dividing total liabilities (both current and long- term) by total assets. This ratio indicates the degree of financial leveraging. It also provides some indication of the company's ability to withstand losses without impairing the interests of its creditors. The higher the percentage of debt to total assets, the greater the risk that the company may be unable to meet its maturing obligations. The lower the ratio, the more equity “buffer” is available to creditors if the company becomes insolvent. Thus, from the creditors' point of view, a low ratio of debt to total assets is desirable. Kellogg's debt to total assets ratio is shown in Illustration 13A-11. Illustration 13A-11 Debt to total assets ratio Kellogg's 2001 ratio of .92 means that creditors have provided financing sufficient to cover 92% of the company's total assets. Alternatively, it says that Kellogg would have to liquidate 92% of its assets at their book value in order to pay off all of its debts. Kellogg's 92% is above the industry average of 59% as well as the 78% ratio of General Mills. Kellogg's solvency declined during the year. In that time, Kellogg's use of debt financing changed in two ways: First, Kellogg increased its use of long-term debt by 384%, and second, its equity decreased slightly. Both these factors reduced its solvency. The adequacy of this ratio is often judged in light of the company's earnings. Generally, companies with relatively stable earnings, such as public utilities, have higher debt to total assets ratios than cyclical companies with widely fluctuating earnings, such as many high-tech companies. Another ratio with a similar meaning is the debt to equity ratio. It shows the relative use of borrowed funds (total liabilities) compared with resources invested by the owners. Because this ratio can be computed in several ways, care should be taken when making comparisons. Debt may be defined to include only the noncurrent portion of liabilities, and intangible assets may be excluded from stockholders' equity (which would equal tangible net worth). If debt and assets are defined as above (all liabilities and all assets), then when the debt to total assets ratio equals 50%, the debt to equity ratio is 1:1. 8. Times interest earned ratio. The times interest earned ratio (also called interest coverage) indicates the company's ability to meet interest payments as they come due. It is computed by dividing income before interest expense and income taxes by interest expense. Note that this ratio uses income before interest expense and income taxes because this amount represents what is available to cover interest. Kellogg's times interest earned ratio is shown in Illustration 13A-12. Illustration 13A-12 Times interest earned ratio For Kellogg the 2001 interest coverage was 3.3, which indicates that income before interest and
- 8. taxes was 3.3 times the amount needed for interest expense. This exceeds the rate for General Mills, but it is less than half the average rate for the industry. The debt to total assets ratio increased for Kellogg during 2001, and its times interest earned ratio declined dramatically. These ratios indicate that Kellogg is less able to service its debt. 9. Cash debt coverage ratio. The ratio of cash provided by operating activities to average total liabilities, called the cash debt coverage ratio, is a cash-basis measure of solvency. This ratio indicates a company's ability to repay its liabilities from cash generated from operating activities without having to liquidate the assets used in its operations. Illustration 13A-13 shows Kellogg's cash debt coverage ratio. Illustration 13A-13 Cash debt coverage ratio An industry average for this measure is not available. Kellogg's .17 is higher than General Mills' . 10, but it did decline from .22 in 2000. One way of interpreting this ratio is to say that net cash generated from one year of operations would be sufficient to pay off 17% of Kellogg's total liabilities. If 17% of this year's liabilities were retired each year, it would take approximately six years to retire all of its debt. It would take General Mills approximately ten years to do so. A general rule of thumb is that a measure above .20 is acceptable. 10. Free cash flow. One indication of a company's solvency, as well as of its ability to pay dividends or expand operations, is the amount of excess cash it generated after investing to maintain its current productive capacity and paying dividends. This amount is referred to as free cash flow. For example, if you generate $100,000 of cash from operations but you spend $30,000 to maintain and replace your productive facilities at their current levels and pay $10,000 in dividends, you have $60,000 to use either to expand operations or to pay additional dividends. Kellogg's free cash flow is shown in Illustration 13A-14. Illustration 13A-14 Free cash flow Kellogg's free cash flow declined considerably from 2000 to 2001. In fact, it was negative in 2001. During 2001, Kellogg used a large portion of free cash flow to acquire Keebler Foods. It is unlikely that Kellogg will have a similar large purchase in the near future. Profitability Ratios Profitability ratios measure the income or operating success of an enterprise for a given period of time. A company's income, or the lack of it, affects its ability to obtain debt and equity financing, its liquidity position, and its ability to grow. As a consequence, creditors and investors alike are interested in evaluating profitability. Profitability is frequently used as the ultimate test of management's operating effectiveness. Throughout this book we have introduced numerous measures of profitability. The relationships among measures of profitability are very important. Understanding them can help management determine where to focus its efforts to improve profitability. Illustration 13A-15 diagrams these relationships. Our discussion of Kellogg's profitability is structured around this diagram.
- 9. Illustration 13A-15 Relationships among profitability measures 11. Return on common stockholders' equity ratio. A widely used measure of profitability from the common stockholder's viewpoint is the return on common stockholders' equity ratio. This ratio shows how many dollars of net income were earned for each dollar invested by the owners. It is computed by dividing net income minus any preferred stock dividends—that is, income available to common stockholders—by average common stockholders' equity. The return on common stockholders' equity for Kellogg is shown in Illustration 13A-16. Illustration 13A-16 Return on common stockholders' equity ratio Kellogg's 2001 rate of return on common stockholders' equity is unusually high at 54%, considering an industry average of 26% and General Mills' return of 22%. In the subsequent sections we investigate the causes of this high return. 12. Return on assets ratio. The return on common stockholders' equity ratio is affected by two factors: the return on assets ratio and the degree of leverage. The return on assets ratio measures the overall profitability of assets in terms of the income earned on each dollar invested in assets. It is computed by dividing net income by average total assets. Kellogg's return on assets ratio is shown in Illustration 13A-17. Illustration 13A-17 Return on assets ratio Kellogg had a 6% return on assets in 2001. This rate is higher than that of General Mills but close to the industry average. Note that Kellogg's rate of return on stockholders' equity (54%) is substantially higher than its rate of return on assets (6%). The reason is that Kellogg has made effective use of leverage. Leveraging or trading on the equity at a gain means that the company has borrowed money at a lower rate of interest than the rate of return it earns on the assets it purchased with the borrowed funds. Leverage enables management to use money supplied by nonowners to increase the return to owners. A comparison of the rate of return on assets with the rate of interest paid for borrowed money indicates the profitability of trading on the equity. If you borrow money at 8% and your rate of return on assets is 11%, you are trading on the equity at a gain. Note, however, that trading on the equity is a two-way street: For example, if you borrow money at 11% and earn only 8% on it, you
- 10. are trading on the equity at a loss. Kellogg earns more on its borrowed funds than it has to pay in interest. Thus, the return to stockholders exceeds the return on the assets because of the positive benefit of leverage. Recall from our earlier discussion that Kellogg's percentage of debt financing as measured by the ratio of debt to total assets (or debt to equity) increased in 2001. It appears that Kellogg's high return on stockholders' equity is largely a function of its significant use of leverage. 13. Profit margin ratio. The return on assets ratio is affected by two factors, the first of which is the profit margin ratio. The profit margin ratio, or rate of return on sales, is a measure of the percentage of each dollar of sales that results in net income. It is computed by dividing net income by net sales for the period. Kellogg's profit margin ratio is shown in Illustration 13A-18. Illustration 13A-18 Profit margin ratio Kellogg experienced a decline in its profit margin ratio from 2000 to 2001 of 8.5% to 5%. Its profit margin ratio was less than the industry average of 6% but equal to General Mills' 5%. High-volume (high inventory turnover) enterprises such as grocery stores and pharmacy chains generally have low profit margins, whereas low-volume enterprises such as jewelry stores and airplane manufacturers have high profit margins. 14. Asset turnover ratio. The other factor that affects the return on assets ratio is the asset turnover ratio. The asset turnover ratio measures how efficiently a company uses its assets to generate sales. It is determined by dividing net sales by average total assets for the period. The resulting number shows the dollars of sales produced by each dollar invested in assets. Illustration 13A-19 shows the asset turnover ratio for Kellogg. Illustration 13A-19 Asset turnover ratio The asset turnover ratio shows that in 2001 Kellogg generated sales of $1.16 for each dollar it had invested in assets. The ratio declined significantly from 2000 to 2001. Kellogg's asset turnover ratio is below the industry average of 1.37 times but well above General Mills' ratio of .65. Asset turnover ratios vary considerably among industries. The average asset turnover for utility companies is .45, for example, while the grocery store industry has an average asset turnover of 3.49. In summary, Kellogg's return on assets ratio declined from 12% in 2001 to 6% in 2001. Underlying this decline was a decreased profitability on each dollar of sales (as measured by the profit margin ratio) and a decline in the sales-generating efficiency of its assets (as measured by the asset turnover ratio). The combined effects of profit margin and asset turnover on return on assets for Kellogg can be analyzed as shown in Illustration 13A-20.
- 11. Illustration 13A-20 Composition of return on assets ratio 15. Gross profit rate. Two factors strongly influence the profit margin ratio. One is the gross profit rate. The gross profit rate is determined by dividing gross profit (net sales less cost of goods sold) by net sales. This rate indicates a company's ability to maintain an adequate selling price above its cost of goods sold. As an industry becomes more competitive, this ratio declines. For example, in the early years of the personal computer industry, gross profit rates were quite high. Today, because of increased competition and a belief that most brands of personal computers are similar in quality, gross profit rates have become thin. Gross profit rates should be closely monitored over time. Illustration 13A-21 shows Kellogg's gross profit rate. Illustration 13A-21 Gross profit rate Kellogg's gross profit rate increased slightly from 2000 to 2001. 16. Earnings per share (EPS). Stockholders usually think in terms of the number of shares they own or plan to buy or sell. Expressing net income earned on a per share basis provides a useful perspective for determining profitability. Earnings per share is a measure of the net income earned on each share of common stock. It is computed by dividing net income by the average number of common shares outstanding during the year. The terms “net income per share” or “earnings per share” refer to the amount of net income applicable to each share of common stock. Therefore, when we compute earnings per share, if there are preferred dividends declared for the period, they must be deducted from net income to arrive at income available to the common stockholders. Kellogg's earnings per share is shown in Illustration 13A-22. Illustration 13A-22 Earnings per share Note that no industry average is presented in Illustration 13A-22. Industry data for earnings per share are not reported, and in fact the Kellogg and General Mills ratios should not be compared. Such comparisons are not meaningful because of the wide variations in the number of shares of outstanding stock among companies. Kellogg's earnings per share decreased 26 cents per share in 2001. This represents a 17.9% decrease from the 2000 EPS of $1.45. 17. Price-earnings ratio. The price-earnings ratio is an oft-quoted statistic that measures the ratio of the market price of each share of common stock to the earnings per share. The price-earnings (P- E) ratio is a reflection of investors' assessments of a company's future earnings. It is computed by dividing the market price per share of the stock by earnings per share. Kellogg's price-earnings
- 12. ratio is shown in Illustration 13A-23. Illustration 13A-23 Price-earnings ratio At the end of 2001 and 2000 the market price of Kellogg's stock was $30.1 and $26.3, respectively. General Mills stock was selling for $41.1 at the end of 2001. In 2001 each share of Kellogg's stock sold for 25.3 times the amount that was earned on each share. Kellogg's price-earnings ratio is higher than the industry average of 23.8 times and significantly higher than its previous year's ratio of 18.1 but lower than General Mills' ratio of 29.5. These higher P-E ratios suggest that the market is more optimistic about Kellogg and General Mills than about the other companies in the industry. However, it might also signal that their stock is overpriced. 18. Payout ratio. The payout ratio measures the percentage of earnings distributed in the form of cash dividends. It is computed by dividing cash dividends declared on common stock by net income. Companies that have high growth rates are characterized by low payout ratios because they reinvest most of their net income in the business. The payout ratio for Kellogg is shown in Illustration 13A-24. Illustration 13A-24 Payout ratio The 2001 and 2000 payout ratios for Kellogg and General Mills are comparatively high in relation to the industry average of .43. Management has some control over the amount of dividends paid each year, and companies are generally reluctant to reduce a dividend below the amount paid in a previous year. Therefore, the payout ratio will actually increase if a company's net income declines but the company keeps its total dividend payment the same. Of course, unless the company returns to its previous level of profitability, maintaining this higher dividend payout ratio is probably not possible over the long run. Before drawing any conclusions regarding Kellogg's dividend payout ratio, we should calculate this ratio over a longer period of time to evaluate any trends, and also try to find out whether management's philosophy regarding dividends has changed recently. The “Selected financial data” section of Kellogg's Management Discussion and Analysis shows that over a 5-year period earnings per share have declined 12.5%, while dividends per share have grown 16%. Unless earnings growth improves, this rapid dividend growth is not sustainable over the long term.

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