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Waste as a future feedstock - James clark


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Helping to solve the problems of the depletion of many elements and the growing volumes of hazardous waste together by building closed loop design into chemicals and materials.

By James Clark, Green Chemistry Group, University of York

Published in: Education
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Waste as a future feedstock - James clark

  1. 1. Waste as a Future Feedstock James Clark Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence University of York, UK
  2. 2. Benefits of the Chemical Industry Good news for chemists?
  3. 3. No because everybody hates chemicals! Pressures on the Chemical Industry Across the Lifecycle
  4. 4. We are running out of key elements Elemental unsustainability
  5. 5. Location of Scarce Elements And who owns the mineral rights to those that are left?
  6. 6. What do we do with our waste? We turn our resources into a waste
  7. 7. We need to introduce Green Chemistry concepts and practices across the supply chain(s) So its not all about how safe the product is…. Or how clean the manufacturing is…….. Or how sustainable the feedstocks are
  8. 8. Reducing Carbon Footprint Suppliers Manufacturers Producers Retailers Consumers Renewable Resources Greener Processes Safer Components Green Products Sustainable feedstocks to reduce environmental burden Clean, efficient manufacturing required Desire to monitor green credentials Increased consumer awareness Renewable Resources & Biorefineries Green Chemistry for Industry Green Chemistry & the Consumer
  9. 9. Waste as a Feedstock
  10. 10. Waste is tomorrows resource Waste management will enter a new vista as waste becomes a vital resource for future manaufacturing
  11. 11. Recovering valuable resources from landfill sites We have the technologies to do this!
  12. 12. Elements that definitely should be avoided … and those that we think are OK? But its not just the safety and the availability of Metals………
  13. 13. Tantalum From Cradle to Grave Tantalum Ore (various compositions) Ta, Nb complex fluorides + other impurities (Si, Fe, Ti, U…) Pure Ta + Nb complexes in solution K 2 TaF 7 or Ta 2 O 5 or TaCl 5 (Nb recovered via Nb 2 O 5 ) Ta metal powder or wires Electronic Products HF / H 2 SO 4 / Δ (i) Filter (ii) Solvent extract ( MiBK ) Further processing Molten Na / Δ Alternative via C/Al reduction of Ta 2 O 5 or H 2 reduction of TaCl 5 Simple substances can hide horrendous environmental and human health impacts Even when you think its OK…
  14. 14. Moving towards sustainable Carbon
  15. 15. Petroleum feedstock Fuels Solvent Bulk chemicals Plastics Fibres Fine chemicals Oils Petroleum Refinery The biggest worry is future Carbon……
  16. 16. Fuels Solvent Bulk chemicals Plastics Fibres Fine chemicals Oils Bio-refinery Biomass Don’t use food quality feedstocks!!
  17. 17. Extractables …….… Eco-waxes Wheat straw or any low value bio/food waste ScCO 2 extraction Wax products Cosmetic Products Lignocellulose <ul><li>Strawboard </li></ul><ul><li>Garden Mulch </li></ul><ul><li>Pulp & Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Bioethanol </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul>Health Products Semiochemicals Renewable resource+CO 2 extraction = EU “natural”
  18. 18. COMPOSITES EXPANDED MATERIALS STARBONS ® CATALYSTS & CATALYSTS SUPPORTS ADSORBENTS & SEPARATIONS Natures largest volume renewable substances should be used more as materials
  19. 19. Making use of food wastes….. Switchable adhesives for carpet tiles (InterfaceFlor) Diverting millions of Kg pa from landfill Recyclable
  20. 20. Bio-silicates (B&Q) Bio-based composite materials for structural and furniture applications Future construction materials based on 100% green and sustainable components More uses for food waste and for ashes…..
  21. 21. Green Chemistry in the UK York Nottingham Imperial Leeds Leicester Glasgow Alternative solvents Supercritical fluids Catalysis Renewable resources Queens Cardiff Bath Warwick Manchester Newcastle Durham
  22. 22. <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Industry collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Education , including development of teaching and promotional materials </li></ul><ul><li>Networking with all chemical stakeholders </li></ul>Activity Areas The Centre’s Activities can be groups into 4 areas:
  23. 23. Education and Training Contact-based long and short Courses and Masterclasses Supported e -learning Full or Part-time Certificate, Diplomas and Degree options Including MSc in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Industrial Technology We need to better prepare the next generation and retrain the existing workforce in the principles and practices of green chemistry
  24. 24. The response of the HE sector Teaching and training activity in the Universities <ul><li>Masters training courses (York, ICL, Leicester, Patras, Zaragosa, Strasbourg, Chambery….) </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing number of related PhDs (worldwide) </li></ul><ul><li>Major education initiatives (eg California) </li></ul><ul><li>U/g course modules </li></ul><ul><li>U/g course practicals </li></ul><ul><li>U/g course case studies </li></ul>Pre-18 education University education Industry and Society -
  25. 25. What’s lacking in green and sustainable chemistry teaching? <ul><li>U/g syllabus content patchy </li></ul><ul><li>Few (any?) examples of structured teaching </li></ul><ul><li>throughout u/g course </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of purpose-designed practicals, workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Failure by academics to use some of many good case studies </li></ul>
  26. 26. What are the barriers to green and sustainable chemistry teaching? <ul><li>Difficulties of introducing new core material </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of strong advocates of green chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Tendancy to “modularise” material </li></ul><ul><li>Perception that green chemistry opposes other chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Perception that green chemistry is a “fad” </li></ul>
  27. 27. Career opportunities New jobs for green chemists <ul><li>New industries (eg white biotech) </li></ul><ul><li>Within existing industries </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental consultancies </li></ul><ul><li>Government and government agencies </li></ul><ul><li>European chemical agency and others </li></ul><ul><li>Waste management </li></ul>Pre-18 education University education Industry and Society - But the market for scientists and engineers with “green” experience is growing.
  28. 28. <ul><li>Est. 1998 with funding from the Royal Society of Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Not-for-profit CLG </li></ul><ul><li>One of the largest international networks of this type in the world </li></ul><ul><li>International membership </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent forum for information exchanges and collaboration </li></ul>Green Chemistry Network
  29. 29. Networking Projects Green Chemistry & the Consumer Engaging the retailers through low technical awareness of greener chemistry <ul><li>“ Research shows that 80% of the 16 Million people visiting our stores each week want sustainable products” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A clear majority (of our customers) want this process to be simplified” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Green Chemistry is not only a solution, it is the solution” </li></ul><ul><li>[Mike Barry, Mark & Spencer Head of CSR] </li></ul>Biodegradable Surfactants Halogen-free flame retardants Environmentally friendly bitter-taste blockers for drugs We must encourage mechanisms for engaging the (very many) users of the chemical industry
  30. 30. Science and Society Engagement Celebration Event (2010)
  31. 31. Pre – HE: Education and Outreach <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>To excite young people about chemistry and the positive impact it can have. </li></ul><ul><li>To enable young people to critically engage with ideas and solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts/areas of work </li></ul><ul><li>lots of projects and funding at key stage 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery Days, Countryside Days, Science Days in Primary Schools </li></ul><ul><li>High awareness about environment at young age, interest and enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities at GCSE/A level stage </li></ul>
  32. 33. School workshops as part of York Festival of Science & Technology 12-14 th March 2009
  33. 34. Carbon Dioxide – Friend or Foe? Science Trail
  34. 36. Past The Chemical Industry of the Past(?)
  35. 37. The Chemical Industry Today
  36. 38. The Chemical Industry Tomorrow(?)
  37. 39. Research Industry Networking Education