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Youth in the Pacific Issue Brief 2016

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Youth in the Pacific Issue Brief 2016

  1. 1. http://undesadspd.org/Youth.aspx facebook.com/UN4Youth twitter.com/UN4Youth Overview The youth segment of the Pacific population is growing fast, placing huge and increasing demographic pressures on basic resources and core services. Despite the substantial size of the youth population in the region and the significance of issues such as youth employment and young people’s sexual and reproductive health, there remains a lack of targeted investment required to meet the needs of all young people in the Pacific. The resulting impact has been minimal change in the overall status of youth since 2005–2011.1 A concerning and significant portion of the Pacific youth population are marginalized from mainstream development efforts, which has created development burden and hindered the region’s progress. These key youth populations marginalized from mainstream development efforts include: young people who are not in education, employment and training (NEET), young women, rural youth, young people with disabilities, and youth who are discriminated against because of their sexual orientation or gender identity and expression. MAJOR ISSUES 1 United Nations Children’s Fund and Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 2011. The state of Pacific youth report 2011: Opportunities and obstacles.United Nations Children’s Fund – Pacific and Secretariat of the Pacific Community HIGHLIGHTS  More than half of the Pacificregion’spopulation of 10 million, across 22 countries and territories, is under the age of 25  Average youth unemployment rates in the Pacific are 23% compared with a global average of 12.6%  For every age category (15-19, 20-24 and 25-29 years),youngwomeninthe Pacificare lesslikelyto be employed than young men  More youngpeople inthe Pacific,especially young women,are remaining in school longer; however, few youth access tertiary education due to low secondary education completion rates  The legal voting age is higher than 18 in some of the Pacific Island countries  Alcohol-use disorders are the top cause of years lost to disability among males aged 10 to 19 in the Western Pacific region  The average allocation of public funds to social protection is 2% of GDP across the Pacific Island YOUTH IN THE PACIFIC
  2. 2. Youth in the Pacific www.un.org/youth facebook.com/UN4Youth twitter.com/UN4Youth Page2 Education The state of youth education in the Pacific varies according to factors such as location, gender and the quality of education delivery and infrastructure. Universal gross primary education has been achieved across the Pacific except for in Papua New Guinea.2 On the other hand, not all young people between the ages of 15 and 19 are in school. However, more young people, especially young women, are remaining in school longer, meaning that they are attaining more formal education then their older peers. Figures from 2009 show that in Samoa, 61% of women aged 20–24 have completed secondary education or higher compared with 47% of women aged 25–29.3 Additionally, in all Pacific countries except for Nauru, there are more females enrolled in secondary school than males4 (Figure 1). Figure 1: Net secondary school enrolment rates (%) by sex, in selected countries, latest year Few young people access tertiary education because of the low rates of post-high school completions. More young men compared than young women access tertiary education in the Pacific. Palau recorded the highest tertiary participation rate (40%) in 2000, with Fiji and the Marshall Islands experiencing significantly lower rates at 15% and 17% percent, respectively. Tonga and Vanuatu experience even lower tertiary participation rates of 6% and 5% percent, respectively. Employment In the Pacific, the youth unemployment rate stands at an alarming 23% 5 and young people are over five times less likely to secure jobs than older workers.6 National youth unemployment 2 http://data.unicef.org/education/overview/html, which provides data for years 2009 to 2011 3 United Nations Children’s Fund and Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 2011. The State of Pacific Youth Report 2011: Opportunities and obstacles.United Nations Children’s Fund – Pacific and Secretariat of the Pacific Community 4 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, http://data.uis.unesco.org/ 5 http://www.spc.int/nmdi/youth
  3. 3. Youth in the Pacific www.un.org/youth facebook.com/UN4Youth twitter.com/UN4Youth Page3 rates range from 63.7% in Tuvalu, 58.5% in the Marshall Islands and 8.9% in Vanuatu.7 The State of Pacific Youth Report states that between a quarter and more than half of all the men in the 25–29 age group in Kiribati (57%), Samoa (44%), Marshall Islands (35%) and Solomon Islands (26%) are not employed.8 The situation is compounded by a significant ‘youth cohort,’ which cannot be absorbed by existing labour markets and job creation strategies. The 15-24 age category makes up half of the unemployed population in the region.9 In Fiji alone, 25,529 young people registered with the National Employment Centre in 2012 in the hope of securing some form of employment.10 While some of the high rates reflect employment on the ground, care is advised in interpreting sub regional differences because some intercountry and regional differences are also due to the use of different measures of employment and unemployment.11 Tuvalu, Marshall Islands, Kiribati, Nauru and Federated States of Micronesia all applied the same employment measure that was proposed by SPC, which is based on the 2012 International Labour Organization standards. Applying this definition in other Pacific Island countries would give higher total unemployment rates. Overall, current statistics do not offer a realistic representation of the unemployment situation because they only count young people who are ‘looking for work’ in the formal sector. Additionally, in Kiribati 58% of young men aged 20–24 years, 44% in Marshall Islands and 46% in Samoa are defined as ‘NEET’ youth (Not in Education, Employment or Training). In the Pacific, especially in countries where population growth is high, household poverty has been linked to increased risk of adolescents dropping out of school, in turn negatively impacting their employment opportunities.12 Health Mental Health Despite the difficulty in attaining reliable data, research with students in the North Pacific in 2009 revealed that ‘over one in four respondents in the four countries said they had attempted 6 International Labour Organization. 2013. Global employment trends for youth 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@dgreports/@dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_212423.pdf 7 Ibid 8 United Nations Children’s Fund and Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 2011. The State of Pacific Youth Report 2011: Opportunities and obstacles.United Nations Children’s Fund – Pacific and Secretariat of the Pacific Community 9 International Labour Organization, n.d. Draft Pacific youth employment strategy (Pacific YES). Suva, Fiji: International Labour Organisation. 10 Swami N. 2012. Centre registers 25,529 youths.Accessed 7November 2012 at: www.fijitimes.com/story.aspx?id=211965 11 Haberkorn G. 2013. Disentangling Pacific Island employment myths. 19th International Conference of Labour Statisticians. 2-11 October, Geneva. 12 Will Parks with David Abbott,Protecting Pacific Island children and women during economic and food crises: Working Edition One for advocacy,debate and guidance (Suva: UNICEF, UNDP, 2009).
  4. 4. Youth in the Pacific www.un.org/youth facebook.com/UN4Youth twitter.com/UN4Youth Page4 suicide in the past 12 months.’13 In Fiji, suicide outnumbers deaths by drowning and other injury-related accidents.14 Specifically, depression related suicide is noted as the main cause of death among young people. Alcohol Consumption About 25% of high school students involved in a survey in American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the Marshall Islands and Palau revealed having had five or more alcoholic drinks in a row over 30 days. A study in Fiji also revealed the seriousness of binge drinking, ‘about three in five young people reported having had five or more alcoholic drinks in one session.’15 In fact, fewer young people in the Pacific use and abuse drugs than they do alcohol. Additionally, excessive alcohol consumption and, to a lesser extent, drug use are known to be causes of motorcycle accidents in the Cook Islands and street fights and domestic violence in New Caledonia’s capital. On occasions, it leads to risky and unsafe sexual behaviour increasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections. Finally, alcohol-use disorders are the top cause of years lost to disability among males aged 10 to 19 in the Western Pacific region.16 HIV/AIDS HIV and AIDS is a reality for young people in the Pacific. Papua New Guinea records the highest number of HIV cases, accounting for 98% of the 5,169 new HIV diagnoses reported in PICTs in 2008.17 The prevalence rate for those in the 15–24 age group was about one in a hundred in 2007 although this fell to 0.8 in a hundred in 2010.18 Additionally, the rate of HIV infection in Papua New Guinea is highest among females, which adds to their vulnerability and marginalisation. The rest of the Pacific has an extremely low HIV prevalence. It was estimated that there were about 230 people living with HIV in Fiji at the end of December 2012. The Fiji situation is concerning because 77% of all reported infections have been made by those between the ages of 20 and 29 years and 30 and 39.19 HIV may be slightly under-reported in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. 13 Word Health Organization. 2012. Seoul forum on suicide Pprevention in the western Pacific region: Meeting report. World Health Organization, 13-14 September 2012. 14 Ibid 15 Puamau E.S. 2011. Drug and alcohol use in Fiji: A review. Pacific Health Dialogue 17(1):165–171. 16 The 37 countries that comprise the Western Pacific region, as defined by the WHO, are American Samoa, Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hong Kong China, Japan, Kiribati, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Macao China, Malaysia, Marshall Islands,Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Republic of Korea, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Viet Nam and Wallis and Futuna (see www.wpro.who.int/countries/en/). 17 United Nations Children’s Fund and Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 2011. The state of Pacific youth report 2011: Opportunities and obstacles.United Nations Children’s Fund –Pacific and Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 18 Secretariat of the Pacific Community, National Millennium Development Indicators: http://www.spc.int/nmdi/MdiSummary2.aspx?minorGroup=23 19 Fiji Islands. 2012. Global AIDS progress report 2012. United Nations AIDS Secretariat. Accessed 20 October 2012 at: http://www.unaids.org/en/dataanalysis/knowyourresponse/countryprogressreports/2012countries/#a_52702
  5. 5. Youth in the Pacific www.un.org/youth facebook.com/UN4Youth twitter.com/UN4Youth Page5 Non-communicable Diseases, including Obesity Young people also identify non-communicable diseases (NCD) as significantly affecting their health and wellbeing, and their futures. In the Pacific, 75% of all deaths in the Pacific are due to NCDs. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop NCDs such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Obesity and diabetes appear to be increasing among young people in urban areas as a result of changing dietary patterns and low levels of physical activity.20 In fact, high rates of obesity are reported in several Pacific Island countries, including Nauru, the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu, where, as of 2006, the proportion of obesity among 15 to 19 year old girls was 51, 29 and 53 percent respectively.21 Common risk factors underlie NCDs. Globalisation and urbanisation bring with it unhealthy lifestyles and environmental changes that make communities susceptible to tobacco and alcohol use, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity.22 Young people in particular are susceptible to tobacco and alcohol use. These underlying risk factors give rise to intermediate risk factors such as high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, abnormal lipid profiles and obesity. In turn, the intermediate risk factors predispose individuals to the ‘fatal four’: cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes. Altogether, these chronic diseases account for the majority of deaths in the region for young people.23 Additionally, in the Pacific Islands region, considerable increases in disability are occurring due to high levels of noncommunicable diseases that result in new non-communicable disease-related disabilities. The World Health Organization estimates that ‘some 193,000 young people aged 15–24 years in the Pacific region are disabled and about 58,000 young people are severely disabled. Melanesia accounts for most of these disabled young people.’24 Finally, mosquito-borne and tropical diseases are also a cause of death for young people in the region. Between 2000 and 2012, deaths resulting from dengue fever among persons aged 15 to 29 years increased by 150% in the Western Pacific region.25 Participation and Peace Measuring the extent of young people’s participation in the Pacific is difficult because of the absence of indicators. However, seven Commonwealth Pacific countries are included in the civic participation domain of the Commonwealth Secretariat’s 2016 Youth Development Index and have the same score, 0.537 20 Oceania Football Confederation. 2013. Pacific Youth and Sports Conference 2013. http://pyasc.org/Social/Health 21 WHO, Adolescent Girls and Young Women in the Western Pacific Region. 10 Key Health Challenges (WHO: Manila, 2011). 22 World Health Organization and Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 2007. The Pacific framework for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases. 23 Ibid 24 Ibid 25 WHO, Quantitative risk assessment of the effects of climate change on selected causes of death,2030s and 2050s (Geneva: WHO, 2014).
  6. 6. Youth in the Pacific www.un.org/youth facebook.com/UN4Youth twitter.com/UN4Youth Page6 Additionally, a regional study conducted by UNICEF Pacific revealed that very few young people currently participate in decision-making, but more than 10 times the number of young people believed that kind of participation was important.26 The study also highlighted representation as a problematic issue, where much participation only included the ‘elite’ young people and often was more tokenistic in nature. Finally, participation can be difficult for youth because the legal voting age is higher than 18 in some of the Pacific Island countries, such as in the Solomon Islands and Fiji. 27 ,28 At present, some youth are also embroiled in armed conflicts, particularly in Papua New Guinea29 . Empirical evidence implicates a connection between high youth populations at risk and armed conflict and social unrest.30 Beyond the size of the youth population, few years of formal education, social exclusion and a lack of educational and employment opportunities have been linked with youth engagement in armed conflict. In fact, little systemic engagement of youth and marginalization of key youth populations leads to youth disenfranchisement, which can have many negative consequences.31 For example, formal employment has been identified as a resilience factor against involvement in crime and violence in Papua New Guinea.32 Climate Change and the Environment Despite empirical evidence that young people are affected by climate change, there is little data regarding how climate change and the environment impact youth in the Pacific specifically. However, youth in the Pacific are very engaged with climate change advocacy initiatives, which are detailed in the section titled “Initiatives.” Gender Inequality Employment The unemployment rate for young women in every Pacific Island country and territory is higher than that of young men. The State of Pacific Youth Report 2011 revealed that for 26 As quoted in Carling M. 2009. Maximising potential: The citizenship role of young people in Fiji. Masters thesis,School of Government, Development and International Affairs, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji. 27 Switched On: Youth at the Heart of Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific, Regional Coordination Mechanism United Nations Development Group Asia-Pacific Thematic Working Group on Youth, 2015, http://www.unescap.org/resources/switched-youth-heart-sustainable-development-asia-and-pacific 28 Central Intelligence Agency 2009, The World Factbook 2009, ISSN 1553-8133, Washington,DC, viewed 21st November, 2009, <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html>. 29 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Conflict and Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Strategic Net Assessment (Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2015). 30 Child Soldiers International, Global Report 2004 (London: CSI, 2004). 31 Noble C. and Pereira N. 2011. Urban youth in the Pacific: Increasing resilience and reducing risk for involvement in crime and violence. United Nations Development Programme – Pacific Centre. 2011. Study prepared for the Forum Regional Security Council. 32 Urban youth in the Pacific: increasing resilience and reducing risk for involvement in crime and violence / Cameron Noble, Natalia Pereira and Nanise Saune. - Suva, Fiji : UNDP Pacific Centre : PIFS, 2011.
  7. 7. Youth in the Pacific www.un.org/youth facebook.com/UN4Youth twitter.com/UN4Youth Page7 every age category (15–19, 20–24 and 25–29 years), young women were less likely to be employed than young men (Figure 2). Figure 2: Youth employment rates (%) by sex, in the Solomon Islands Only in Kiribati was the percentage of young women in employment (38%) higher than young men (33%) in the 20–24 age category.33 However, young women are often engaged in unpaid work activities, such as child care, assisting with parenting, and in domestic work, which is little accounted for in data. At the moment, this contribution is not acknowledged. Additionally, a recent World Bank report revealed that more young women than young men are moving to urban areas, often to squatter or informal peri-urban settlements. This is of concern given the low level of employment opportunities in urban areas and the general vulnerability of young women in the Pacific34 . Violence Against Women Discriminatory behaviour and practices against women are still widespread in the Pacific. For example, many young women experience violence in their families and communities. High rates of intimate partner violence against women have been recorded in Kiribati (68%), the Solomon Islands (63%) and Samoa (46%).35 Young women with disabilities are often more vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse. The seriousness of the issue has led to calls, for example in the case of Fiji, that ‘the vulnerability of women and girls with disabilities [be] addressed in the new constitution.’36 33 The Pacific Youth Development Framework 2014–2023, Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 34 The Pacific Youth Development Framework 2014–2023, Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 35 Young Women’s Christian Association.n.d. Safe. Respected.Included. Connected.Skilled. A Pacific Young Women’s Leadership Strategy 2011–2014. Geneva: Young Women’s Christian Association. 36 Vuibau T. 2012. Treat all equal. Fiji Times Online. Accessed 21 October 2012 at: http://www.fijitimes.com/story.aspx?id=209540 42% 64% 74% 30% 34% 34% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 15-19 20-24 25-29 PercentageofYouthEmployed Age Range Source: The PacificYouthDevelopmentFramework 2014-2030, Secretariatof the Pacific Community Young Men Young Women
  8. 8. Youth in the Pacific www.un.org/youth facebook.com/UN4Youth twitter.com/UN4Youth Page8 Additionally, high rates of sexual violence against female high-school students have been documented in American Samoa, Palau, and the Northern Mariana Islands: 26, 19 and 18 percent of young women reported having experienced forced sex, in each of the three respective territories.37 In Papua New Guinea, among women who reported being raped in 2008, nearly 50% were under the age of 15 years.38 Also, a study of violence against women in six countries39 , including Papua New Guinea, found that 30 to 57 percent of men surveyed reported ever having perpetrated physical and/or sexual violence against their intimate partners; in terms of sexual violence, of the 10 and 62 per cent of surveyed men who confessed to acts of rape across the six countries, half of them raped a woman for the first time when they were teenagers. Moreover, the men perpetrating violence against women reported experiencing emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse as children (before age 18).40 There is little data on the costs of violence of against women. However, data at the country level shows that costs are not insignificant. For example, the Reserve Bank of Fiji calculated the financial cost of violence against women at 7% of the country’s GDP in 2002.41 Young Women and Governance Additionally, sex-based discrimination in the Pacific is also evident in the complete absence of women in the parliaments of the Federated States of Micronesia, Tonga and Vanuatu as of 2015.42 In these countries, as well as the countries where women constitute a distinct minority of parliamentarians43 , the lack of role models can have an impact on young women’s choices and goals. While progress has been made in creating leadership opportunities for youth across the Pacific Islands, such as through the revival of National Youth Councils and the Pacific Youth Council Secretariat, it is male youth who have largely benefited.44 Adolescent BirthRate Adolescent birth rates are at both high and low levels in the Pacific region. The adolescent birth rate is highest in the Marshall Islands (85 per 1,000), followed by Nauru (81 per 1,000) 37 Emma Fulu, Warner Xuan, et al., Why do Some Men Use Violence Against Women and How Can we Prevent It? Quantitative Findings from the United Nations Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific (Bangkok: UNDP, UNFPA, UN Women, UNV, 2013). 38Child Fund Alliance, Stop Violence Against Women and Children in Papua New Guinea (Surry Hills: Child Fund Alliance, 2013). 39 The six countries that comprised the study were Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia,Papua New Guinea and Sri Lanka. 40 Emma Fulu, Warner Xuan, et al., Why do Some Men Use Violence Against Women and How Can we Prevent It? Quantitative Findings from the United Nations Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific (Bangkok: UNDP, UNFPA, UN Women, UNV, 2013). 41 UNIFEM. “The Facts: Violence against Women & Millennium Development Goals”, available from: http://www.endvawnow.org/uploads/browser/files/EVAW_FactSheet_KM_2010EN.pdf 42 Inter-Parliamentary Union, “Women in National Parliaments Database”,available from: www.ipu.org/wmn- e/classif.htm 43 Countries in the Pacific where women constitute less than 10 per cent of the national parliamentarians include Kiribati, Marshall Islands,Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands,and Tuvalu. (Source: Inter- Parliamentary Union, www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm). 44 World YWCA, Safe, Respected,Included, Connected, Skilled: a Pacific Young Women’s Leadership Strategy 2011–2014 (Geneva: World YMCA, 2011).
  9. 9. Youth in the Pacific www.un.org/youth facebook.com/UN4Youth twitter.com/UN4Youth Page9 and the Solomon Islands (70 per 1,000). However, they are lowest in Niue and Tonga (both at just under 20 per 1,000). Also, early and forced marriage is at lower rates in countries of the Pacific, compared to the rest of the Asia-Pacific region (Figure 3).45 Figure 3: Share (%) of women aged 20 to 24 years who married before 18 years of age, in selected countries, latest year The Way Forward Initiatives Employment Many initiatives have been undertaken for, and by, youth employment in the Pacific. For example, since 2008, ILO’s Know About Business (KAB) Programme has reached approximately 29,000 students in secondary and vocational schools in Papua New Guinea. In Fiji, KAB is expected to reach 2,000 young people in 20 schools in Fiji in the first phase 45 UNICEF global databases,2014. Based on DHS, MICS and other national household surveys (available from: http://data.unicef.org/).
  10. 10. Youth in the Pacific www.un.org/youth facebook.com/UN4Youth twitter.com/UN4Youth Page10 (2013–2014). In addition, since 2008, the Tonga Chamber of Commerce and Industry (TCCI) has implemented the business training programme in 15 secondary schools in the capital, accounting for approximately 1,200 students and has assisted about 80–100 students with start-up capital.46 Also, 250 youths participated in the Urban Youth Employment Project in Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea’s capital and largest urban centre, whose population is comprised of 35% persons aged 15 to 29 years). By March 2013, half of these participants who had graduated from the pre-employment training initiative had been placed in on-the-job training with public and private employers in the National Capital District.47 Climate Change The Pacific Islands are particularly vulnerable to natural disasters—in recent years, youth have come together in such forums as the “Pre-Pacific Platform for Disaster Risk Management Youth Stakeholder Workshop,” to address the role of youth in the post-2015 framework on disaster risk reduction.48 Similarly, around 50 Maori and Pacific Island youth met in Auckland in December 2012 for the “Power Shift Pacific: Looking Beyond Disaster- Youth Forum.”49 Additionally, in October 2014, 30 young Pacific climate warriors from 12 different nations travelled to Australia to challenge their fossil fuel industry. Making international headlines, they succeeded in blockading Newcastle port, the world’s largest coal port, for a day with traditional outrigger canoes and massive support from local Australian activists. This occurred on the same day that hundreds of young Australians closed their bank accounts with Australia’s big four banks to make a statement against their financing of fossil fuel expansion projects.50 Governance Finally, there are such initiatives as the Pacific Youth Forum Against Corruption, which was launched in 2015 and brings together young leaders, aged 18 to 25, from 15 Pacific Island countries to discuss ways to tackle corruption.51 Also in the Pacific, the Young Women’s Leadership Alliance52 is empowering young women and promoting their active engagement on issues that affect their lives and those of their communities. Additionally, in the Solomon 46 The Pacific Youth Development Framework 2014–2023, Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 47 World Bank, “Papua New Guinea: Urban Youth Employment Project”, available from: www.worldbank.org/en/results/2013/08/12/papua-new-guinea-urban-youth-employment-project 48 Pacific Platform for Disaster Risk Management, Pre‐Pacific Platform for Disaster Risk Management Youth Stakeholder Workshop: Summary of Key Findings from Youth Stakeholders on Post‐2015 Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction (Suva: Pacific Platform for Disaster Risk Management, 2014). 49 New Zealand National Commission for UNESCO, “Pacific and Maori Youth Converge to Talk Disaster Resilience”, available from: http://www.unesco.org.nz/news-/media-releases-/271-pacific-and-mori-youth- converge-to-talk-disaster-resilience 50 http://350.org/press-release/pacific-climate-warriors-from-12-countries-blockade-worldslargest-coal-port/ 51 ABC, “Pacific youth gatherin Fiji for forum against corruption”, available from: www.abc.net.au/news/2015- 02-23/pacific-youth-gather-for-anti-corruption-forum-in-fiji/6222210 52 Pacific Women Shaping Pacific Development, “Pacific Young Women’s Leadership Alliance”, available from: www.pacificwomen.org/projects/pacific-young-womens-leadership-alliance/
  11. 11. Youth in the Pacific www.un.org/youth facebook.com/UN4Youth twitter.com/UN4Youth Page11 Islands, the Young Women’s Parliamentary Group provides women with a means of advocating their concerns and priorities with national decision makers.53 The PYDF The Pacific Youth Development Framework (PYDF) was created by the Secretariat for the Pacific Community in 2014. Its mission is to increase investments in youth across development sectors by strengthening development accountability, the evidence base and improving development effectiveness through engagement, coordination and strategic communication between all youth stakeholders, including key populations of young people. The PYDF comprises four priority outcome areas that have been determined by young people: more young people secure decent employment, young people’s health status is improved, governance structures empower young people to increase their influence in decision-making processes, and more young people participate in environmental action. The PYDF Strategic Approaches include: an inclusive rights-based approach to position youth as equal partners, a targeted approach to complement and enhance mainstream efforts, an evidence-based approach to provide incentives to increase and focus investments in youth development, and an integrated approach to introduce youth objectives across sectors.54 The World Programme Action of Youth The World Programme Action of Youth provides a policy framework and practical guidelines for national action and international support to improve the situation of young people.55 It contains 15 priority areas to be addressed, and continues to guide policy and action in the area of youth development for youth in all regions, including the Pacific. The S.A.M.O.A Pathway The Small Islands and Developing States (SIDS) Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway was developed in 2014 at the Third International SIDS Conference, and provides a policy framework and guidelines for national action and international support for SIDS linked to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.56 This framework guides policy and action for many countries in the Pacific region. Recommendations The state of Pacific Youth Report 2011 recommended a greater focus in three areas: improving governance for youth, improving data collection and analysis of youth and 53 Switched On: Youth at the Heart of Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific, Regional Coordination Mechanism United Nations Development Group Asia-Pacific Thematic Working Group on Youth, 2015, http://www.unescap.org/resources/switched-youth-heart-sustainable-development-asia-and-pacific 54 The Pacific Youth Development Framework 2014–2023, Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 55 The World Programme Action of Youth, http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unyin/documents/wpay2010.pdf 56 SAMOA Pathway Outcome Document, http://www.sids2014.org/index.php?menu=1537
  12. 12. Youth in the Pacific www.un.org/youth facebook.com/UN4Youth twitter.com/UN4Youth Page12 mobilizing resources for youth. There are major gaps in the available data on young people in the Pacific, posing one of the biggest challenges to promoting their rights.57 The great diversities among countries, peoples and cultures in Asia and the Pacific rule out one-size-fit-all solutions to address the problems that affect them.58 Thus, many solutions are necessary to manage these issues. Recommendations for solutions and actions to promote overarching policy direction in order to support youth development in the pacific are:  Prepare for future demographic implications  Enhance institutional capacity and engendering good governance  Promoting social dialogue and political commitment  Strengthen the evidence base for more effective policymaking Additional recommendations, organized by the “Five P’s” of sustainable development, are: For People:  Ensure that poverty alleviation measures are well coordinated  Encourage actions to increase productivity in the agricultural sector  Promote the health and well-being of all youth  Ensure integrated and inclusive migration for youth For Planet:  Facilitate access to adequate and resilient housing and basic services in urban areas  Expand access to water, sanitation and hygiene, especially in rural areas  Prepare youth as disaster risk reduction ambassadors  Ensure that youth are aware of sustainable consumption For Prosperity:  Improving access to and quality of education  Make decent jobs a top priority  Strengthen and broaden social protection For Peace:  Engage youth as active citizens  Address exclusion and unrest  End violence and discrimination against women and girls For Partnerships:  Enhance multi-stakeholder collaboration  Promote integrated urban and rural development  Reduce the digital divide. 57 The Pacific Youth Development Framework 2014–2023, Secretariat of the Pacific Community. 58 Switched On: Youth at the Heart of Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific, Regional Coordination Mechanism United Nations Development Group Asia-Pacific Thematic Working Group on Youth, 2015, http://www.unescap.org/resources/switched-youth-heart-sustainable-development-asia-and-pacific
  13. 13. Youth in the Pacific www.un.org/youth facebook.com/UN4Youth twitter.com/UN4Youth Page13 These broad and complementary approaches can be incorporated to ensure more effective and youth-inclusive implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 59 Sources  Switched On Report: Youth At The Heart Of Sustainable Development In Asia And The Pacific, Regional Coordination Mechanism – United Nations Development Group, Asia-Pacific Thematic Working Group on Youth, 2016.  Pacific Youth Development Framework  The Commonwealth Youth Development Index 2014  Urban youth in the Pacific: increasing resilience and reducing risk for involvement in crime and violence / Cameron Noble, Natalia Pereira and Nanise Saune. - Suva, Fiji : UNDP Pacific Centre : PIFS, 2011.  The State of Pacific Youth 2011, Opportunities and Obstacles, Richard Curtain, Patrick Vakaoti. – Suva, Fiji : UNICEF ; Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2011 59 Ibid This Fact Sheet was prepared by DESA in collaboration with the former Regional Coordination Mechanism – United Nations Development Group, Asia-PacificThematic Working Group on Youth, co-chaired by ESCAP and ILO.

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