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Microbiome, gut function and immunity final

  2. WHAT IS THE MICROBIOME? • The microbiome can be put simply as the balance of bacteria, yeasts, virus’s, protozoa and parasites that live in your body. • There are over 40,000 species identified to date. • The average human microbiome weights 2.2kg. • The amount of DNA owned by our microbiome is 200 times our own DNA. • We need a balance of at least 80% beneficial microbiome in order to maintain good health. • Therefore, we should not be referring to ourselves as ‘me’, rather ‘us’ would be a better description! • When you have a bowel movement, most of the weight of the faecal matter is microbiome, rather than anything else
  4. WHERE DOES IT ALL START? • Previously, we thought that babies were sterile in their mother’s womb, and they were first exposed to microbiome in the birth canal. • However, we now know that the placenta has its own microbiome, and that our life long microbiome balance is started at the moment of conception. • The placenta microbiome is based on our mothers. This is why it is really important to plan pregnancy, and to ensure that the mother is in a good state of health.
  5. WHERE DOES IT ALL START? • The next stage of microbiome conditioning is birth. • As the baby passes down the birth canal, its face, eyes, ears and mouth are covered in secretions from the birth canal, which give the baby a heavy dose of his life long microbiome. • 3 weeks before the birth, (if the birth is at the expected time) the mothers body will populate the birth canal with billions of beneficial bacteria and yeasts, in preparation for the baby to swallow and set the standard for health.
  6. WHERE DOES IT ALL START? • Problems occur when: • The baby is premature and the appropriate microbiome has not been place in the birth canal • The mother is on antibiotic before or during the birth • The mother as an infection in the birth canal during the birth • The baby is born by caesarean
  7. WHERE DOES IT ALL START? • Studies show that babies who are born via caesarean, have a microbiome that is similar to that of the surgeons hands. Even as adults, people born via caesarean show distantly different gut microbiome to those who were born via vaginal birth. • C section babies are colonised by staphlococcus and other hospital bacteria and have much higher rates of eczema, asthma and other immune conditions. James J. Goedert et al. Diversity and composition of the adult microbiome associated with a history of caesarean birth or appendectomy: analysis of the American gut project. EBioMedicine 2014
  8. WHERE DOES IT ALL START? • The third stage of microbiome transmission is skin to skin contact. • Skin to skin transfers the microbiome of the skin from the mother to the babies skin. • This is why imitate skin to skin contact is so important. • If we miss out this vital stage, then the baby will pick up the microbiome from the environment around him. This can be a problem if it is a hospital birth or if the mother is too unwell to care for her child.
  9. WHERE DOES IT ALL START? • The forth stage of microbiome transmission is through breastmilk. • Breastmilk is a power house of bacteria! The bacteria line the digestive tract of the baby and prepare the baby’s gut for foods later on.
  10. BREAST MILK IS AMAZING! • Breast milk changes in composition according to the babies needs. The babies saliva enters the mother nipples through a vacuum that is produced by the sucking action of the baby. • If the baby has an infection, the mothers body will respond to this by creating antibodies for that infection, and within half an hour, these antibodies are showing up in breast milk. • Breastmilk also contains sugars that the baby cannot break down, and therefore their only purpose is to provide a food source for the microbiome. • Amazing!
  11. HOW DOES MICROBIOME IMPACT HEALTH? -Immune system -Digestive system - Skeletal system -Cardiovascular system -Endocrine system -Nervous system -Respiratory system -Urinary system -Reproductive system -Detoxification -Energy and methylation -Nutrition status
  12. EPIGENETICS • Microbiome has more of an impact on the expressions of genetic related conditions, than genes do. Examples • BRCA1 / BRCA2 genes (breast cancer) • HLA genes (autoimmune genes) • FTO (fat gene) • Ageing
  13. NUTRITION • They produce short chain fatty acids (butyric acid) which are needed as fuel for the gut cells. • They excrete vitamins k2 (more than we get from diet) • B12 is also produced, however not enough in isolation • B1, B2 • Vitamin C • Over 200 digestive enzymes
  14. GUT HEALTH • 70% of your immune system comes from you gut microbiome. • They have a huge impact on the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue and the regulation of immune cells. • They alter the PH of the gut. Beneficial bacteria produce lactic acid, which is helpful for protection against pathogens and needed for good digestion. • The gut is where you digest and absorb foods and provide your whole body with nutrition. Humans naturally produce 22 digestive enzymes to break down foods, however, your microbiome excrete over 200 digestive enzymes! They are as important for digestion as your bodies natural function! • The majority of digestion is done by microbes.
  15. GUT • Sibo – excessive bacteria in the small intestine. • Excess bacteria metabolise fermentable fibres in the small intestine causing gas and bloating. • FODMAP – Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols. • Lactose - troublesome sugar.
  16. IBS • There is a lack of beneficial bacteria in the colon, and therefore, not enough short chain fatty acids are produced i.e butyric acid. Short chain fatty acids fuel the gut cells and allow for effective peristalsis = constipation. • Or, too many pathogenic organisms in the colon causing irritation = diarrhoea. - What are the typical symptoms of IBS? - How do we treat IBS naturally? - What other symptoms in IBS could signal SIBO? - Anxiety? - Irritability? - Food intolerances?
  17. IBD • GALT (gust associated lymphoid tissue) • The gut microbiome shapes the intestinal immune response, and is directly indicated in Irritable bowel diseases such Crohn’s, Colitis and ulcerative Colitis, as well as all other auto immune conditions. • The use of microbiome therapy for IBD remission has so far been impressive. Therapies such as the use of probiotics – particularly E.coli Nissel, and faecal rectal infusion are showing great results. • What does this mean for the current use of immunosuppressant's and steroids for IBD’s? • How does faecal rectal infusion work and are there any risks? • What other diseases benefit from faecal rectal infusion? June L Round , et al. The gut microbiotica shapes intestinal immune response during health and disease. Nature Reviews Immunology 2009
  18. DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY • Pathogens have the ability to affect the behaviour of the host. Studies show that patients with IBS and altered microbial diversity have demonstrated poorer emotional functions such as anxiety and depression. Pathogenic bacteria release a substance called lipopolysaccharides. These are able to pass the blood brain barrier where they can effect emotions. Consider the microbiome affect on: • Suicide rates – (Toxaoplasma gondii - protozoa) • Anti depressant use • Other mental illnesses Blanchard EB, et al. The role of anxiety and depression in irritable bowel syndrome. Behav Res Ther 1990.
  19. LIVER DETOXIFICATION • Beneficial bacteria stimulate the enzyme production of the liver needed for certain detox pathways. • Consider the implications of microbiome and liver detox pathways: • Drug metabolism • Nutrient metabolism • Skin health • Immune health • Moods and mental health Claus SP, et al. Colonization-induced host-gut microbial metabolic interaction. Mbio 2011
  20. CHOLESTEROL • Some bacteria are efficient at reducing cholesterol levels. There are certain microbes called bile salt hydrolase active (BSH active) bacteria. • They metabolise and break down some of your bile. Bile is made from cholesterol, so your body has to call on its reserves to make more, decreasing blood cholesterol levels. • Consider the implication for reduced cholesterol on rates of: • Atherosclerosis and heart blockages / ischemic stroke • Coronary artery disease and poor blood flow Mitchell L Jones et al. cholesterol lowering with bile salt hydrolase active probiotic bacteria, mechanism of action, clinical evidence, and future direction for heart health applications. Expert opinion on biological Therapy 2013
  21. WHAT CAUSES A BAD MICROBIOME? • Our mothers health at the time of conception and birth • The way in which we were born, and weather or not we undergo vaginal seeding • Weather we were breast fed or formula fed • Antibiotic use – it is estimated that over 50% of antibiotics are inappropriately prescribed • The use of Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory (NSAID’s). They case irritation in the gut which stops the adherence of the microbiome to the gut wall. • Stress can have a profound detrimental affect on microbiome. • Poor diet. Baily MT et al. Exposure to social stressor alters the structure of the intestinal microbiota: implications for stressor-induced immunomodulation. Brain behave immune 2011
  22. WHAT CAN WE DO? • Your microbiome changes within just one day of you changing your diet. This means that we have a very powerful tool at our finger tips. • Exclude sugar and refined carbohydrates, which reduces inflammation in the gut and has a negative affect on the gut microbiome. • In the words of Michael pollan “Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants”
  23. WHAT CAN WE DO? • The diet impacts microbiome, and microbiome impacts your diet. Your microbiome released chemicals into your brain, giving you cravings for food that supports their growth. Since we know that sugar is detrimental to the microbiome and sugar cravings come from negative microbiome such as candida species. • What we need for a good gut garden is the same as how we would grow a real garden: • less chemicals • more nutrition • And a bit of dirt
  24. WHAT CAN WE DO? • Eat fermented foods daily. Fermented foods contain billions of organisms and a huge variety of species and strains. • Sauerkraut contains Bacillus clausii, also found in healthy soil and plants. Bacillus Clausii is particularly beneficial for the upper respiratory tract. It is also antibiotic resistant! • Nato contains Bacillus Subtillus which break down hydrocarbons in the gut. They colonise mostly in the small intestine. • Saccharomyces boulardii is a beneficial yeast and is related to bakers yeast. It produces lactic acid and supports GALT, modulates immunoglobulins. Good to take with antibiotics to help decrease the risk of a candida overgrowth.
  25. KEFIR DRINK CONTAINS… • Lactobacillus acidophilus • Lactobacillus brevis • Lactobacillus casei • Lactobacillus delbrueckii- bulgaricus • Lactobacillus delbrueckii- delbrueckii • Lactobacillus delbruckii- lactis • Lactobacillus helveticus • Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens- kefiranofaciens • Lactobacillus kefiri • Lactobacillus paracassi- paracasi • Lactobacillus plantarum • Lactobacillus rhamnosus • Lactobacillus sake • Lactococcus lactis- cremoris • Lactococcus lactis- lactis • Lactococcus lactis • Leuconostoc mesenteroides- cremoris • Leuconostoc mesenteroides- dextranicum • Leuconostoc mesenteroides- mesenteroides • Pseudomonas fluorescens • Pseudomonas putida • Streptococcus thermophiles • Candida humilis • Kazachstania unispora • Kazachstania exigua • Kluyveromyces siamensis • Kluyveromyces lactis • Kluyveromyces marxianus • Saccharomyces cerevisiae • Saccharomyces martiniae • Saccharomyce unisporus
  26. WHAT CAN WE DO? • Consume fibre to provide a food source for the beneficial microbiome. • Ensure that HCL levels are normal. • Avoid constipation. • De-stress. • Get back to nature. • Take a probiotic supplement. • Remove sugar from the diet. • Ensure you are consuming enough omega 3. • Eliminate and food intolerance. • Consume a diet that consists of at least 80% beneficial and nutritious foods. • Avoid antibiotics, antibacterial products and chlorine in drinking water. • Go oraanic.
  27. THANKYOU FOR LISTENING I hope you enjoyed ‘our’ talk!