 located at East Asia Capital city: Pyongyang separated from South Korea by the Korean  Demilitarized Zone world’s mos...
MEDIA of NORTH KOREA is“among the most strictlycontrolled in the world.”
FREEDOM of SPEECH andthe PRESS is provided for by theCONSTITUTION but…
…practice of these rights areprohibited unless it containspraises about the COUNTRY, itsGOVERNMENT         and     theLEAD...
According to Kim Jong-il’s book, Guidancefor Journalists, “newspapers carry articles inwhich they unfailingly hold the pre...
 Worker’s Party of Korea- the ruling political party of North Korea Korean Central News Agency (KCNA)- the  only source ...
“a cult promoting adulation of a living national leader or public figure.”
 News is sometimes released internationally but not  domestically (vise versa) Reports on domestic issues remain silent ...
 12 principal newspapers and 20 major periodicalsThese includes: Rodong Sinmun (Labour Daily) - state-controlled Joson ...
4 major TV stations:   Korean Central TV   Mansudae Television   Korean Educational and Cultural Network   Kaesong Tel...
 the most widely-used medium in North Korea(only  55 of every 1,000 North Koreans have television set) As of 2006, there...
 The general population do not have internet access. Internet use is restricted to internet cafes or hotels  designated ...
 Located at South and East Asia Capital city is Seoul South Korea is certified as one of the free countries  of liberal...
 Korea’s first modern newspaper is The Dongnip Sinmun (Independence Newsp - aper), established in 1896 during the Yi Dyna...
 1910:weeklies turned dailies, and privately owned dailies  began to play the role of educators and independence  fighter...
 The modern press in Korea began as weeklies in the  1890s during Chosun Dynasty (1392 to 1910). The  hermit kingdom want...
1. Seung Man Lee’s government (1948-1960) Outlawed leftist newspapers Closed moderate newspapers Arrested reporters and...
 The political liberalization of the late 1980s brought a loosening of press restraints and a new generation of journalis...
 Here is an example of the Standard of Practices  provisions on "Bribery and Entertainment" in the  article on "Dignity o...
 The envelope of cash changing hands from news  sources to reporters is called Chonji in Korean,  literally meaning "a sm...
 Chonji has been a chronic ill of the Korean press. In  the 1990s, a progressive sector of the journalist  circles staged...
National dailies:                    Selected local dailies:        Name          Circulations          Name            Ci...
 Koreas ten national general-interest dailies, mostly morning papers, are all based in Seoul.The national papers publish ...
 In the early twenty-first century the sole use of Hangeul is universal, and the text lines are horizontal as in the West...
 Number of Daily Newspapers:116   National dailies (all in Seoul):   Chosun Ilbo (2,450,000)   Joong-ang Ilbo (2,350,0...
 Select local dailies: Busan Ilbo (400,000) Daegu Maeil Shinmun (170,000) Kookje Daily News (of Busan)(100,000) The C...
 The Joong-ang Ilbo , the second-largest circulation  daily, used to be owned by Koreas leading  multinational business c...
 The South Korean press draws almost 80 percent of its revenue from advertising, with the remaining 20 percent coming fro...
 Act on the Guarantee of Freedom and Functions  of Newspapers    (amended in 2005) Article 17. Market-dominating busines...
Korean Press
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Korean Press

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*U.S. Library of Congress
*slide presentation by Ki Hyun about Korean media
*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_of_South_Korea
*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_of_North_Korea
*http://www.pressreference.com/Sa-Sw/South-Korea.html

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Korean Press

  1. 1.  located at East Asia Capital city: Pyongyang separated from South Korea by the Korean Demilitarized Zone world’s most militarized nation
  2. 2. MEDIA of NORTH KOREA is“among the most strictlycontrolled in the world.”
  3. 3. FREEDOM of SPEECH andthe PRESS is provided for by theCONSTITUTION but…
  4. 4. …practice of these rights areprohibited unless it containspraises about the COUNTRY, itsGOVERNMENT and theLEADER.
  5. 5. According to Kim Jong-il’s book, Guidancefor Journalists, “newspapers carry articles inwhich they unfailingly hold the president in highesteem, adore him and praise him as the greatrevolutionary leader”.
  6. 6.  Worker’s Party of Korea- the ruling political party of North Korea Korean Central News Agency (KCNA)- the only source of all media information in North Korea No private press exists.
  7. 7. “a cult promoting adulation of a living national leader or public figure.”
  8. 8.  News is sometimes released internationally but not domestically (vise versa) Reports on domestic issues remain silent (e.g. increase of wages, food prices) Restrictions are not only to the civilians but also to the government officials.
  9. 9.  12 principal newspapers and 20 major periodicalsThese includes: Rodong Sinmun (Labour Daily) - state-controlled Joson Inmingun (Korean Peoples Army Daily) Minju Choson (Democratic Korea) - government organ Rodongja Sinmum (Workers Newspaper) The Pyongyang Times (English-language; published in the capital)
  10. 10. 4 major TV stations: Korean Central TV Mansudae Television Korean Educational and Cultural Network Kaesong Television
  11. 11.  the most widely-used medium in North Korea(only 55 of every 1,000 North Koreans have television set) As of 2006, there were 16 AM, 14 FM, and 11 shortwave broadcast radio stations.
  12. 12.  The general population do not have internet access. Internet use is restricted to internet cafes or hotels designated for foreign tourists in Pyongyang.
  13. 13.  Located at South and East Asia Capital city is Seoul South Korea is certified as one of the free countries of liberal democracy by a New York-based Freedom House, in its latest Freedom in the World 2001- 2002 report. Unlike North Korea, the South Korean press enjoys a high degree of freedom
  14. 14.  Korea’s first modern newspaper is The Dongnip Sinmun (Independence Newsp - aper), established in 1896 during the Yi Dynasty*Enlightening the public wasthe primary objective of thepress during this period
  15. 15.  1910:weeklies turned dailies, and privately owned dailies began to play the role of educators and independence fighters. 1919: Following the March First Movement, Japanese authorities loosened their overt control over cultural activities and permitted several Korean newspapers to function while maintaining some behind-the-scenes direction over politically sensitive topics. The Chosun Ilbo and the Dong-A Ilbo inaugurated in 1920
  16. 16.  The modern press in Korea began as weeklies in the 1890s during Chosun Dynasty (1392 to 1910). The hermit kingdom wanted to awaken their subjects to the rapidly modernizing world outside by offering a modern press. Enlightening the public was the primary objective of the press When Japan colonized Korea in 1910, weeklies turned dailies, and privately owned dailies began to play the role of educators and independence fighters.
  17. 17. 1. Seung Man Lee’s government (1948-1960) Outlawed leftist newspapers Closed moderate newspapers Arrested reporters and publishers 2. Chung Hee Park’s government (1964-1972)  Closed all but fifteen of Seouls 64 daily newspapers  Using its own radio and news agencies to promote its official line  The Press Ethics Commission Law3. Doo Hwan Chun’s government (1980-1988) Independent news agencies were absorbed into a single state-run agency Numerous provincial newspapers were closed Two independent broadcasting companies were absorbed into the state-run KBS
  18. 18.  The political liberalization of the late 1980s brought a loosening of press restraints and a new generation of journalists more willing to investigate sensitive subjects, such as the May 1980 Kwangju incident. Rohs eight-point declaration of June 29, 1987, provided for "a free press, including allowing newspapers to base correspondents in provincial cities and withdrawing security officials from newspaper offices."
  19. 19.  Here is an example of the Standard of Practices provisions on "Bribery and Entertainment" in the article on "Dignity of Journalists": "News media and journalists, in relation to their news gathering, reports, commentary, and editing, should not receive economic advantages from the parties of vested interest in such forms as monetary offerings, entertainment, free trips, expenses for news- gathering trips, commercial goods, coupons, and expensive mementos. …"
  20. 20.  The envelope of cash changing hands from news sources to reporters is called Chonji in Korean, literally meaning "a small consideration.“ Such a small consideration in cash may range from $25 to $100, depending on the weight of the news item involved.
  21. 21.  Chonji has been a chronic ill of the Korean press. In the 1990s, a progressive sector of the journalist circles staged a reform campaign against this shady practice with some success. The Report on the Korean Press 2000 , of Kwanhun Club, resignedly concludes by saying that " Chonji by now has set in as a routine practice in the Korean journalism."
  22. 22. National dailies: Selected local dailies: Name Circulations Name Circulations Chosun Ilbo 2,450,000 Busan Ilbo 400,000 Joong-ang Ilbo 2,350,000 Daegu Maeil shinmun 170,000 Kookje Daily News 100,000 Dong-a Ilbo 2,100,000 Hankok Ilbo 700,000 November 2001 Kyunghyang Shinmun 450,000 Hankyoreh Shinmun 400,000 Korea Daily News 400,000 Kukmin Daily 350,000 Munhwa Ilbo 300,000 Segye Times 200,000 Korea: 213 copies per 1000 people ※ United Kingdom: 303 / Belgium: 173 / France: 167
  23. 23.  Koreas ten national general-interest dailies, mostly morning papers, are all based in Seoul.The national papers publish 44 to 52 standard-sized pages daily. They all use the Korean language Hangeul . Until late 1990s, some of them printed editorial texts in vertical lines, progressing from right to left, also intermixing the Korean text with a limited number of Chinese characters.
  24. 24.  In the early twenty-first century the sole use of Hangeul is universal, and the text lines are horizontal as in the Western press. One physical difference in the look of the Korean press is the prominent display of some major advertising on the bottom half of the front pages because it is the most expensive ad space. Although all the ten national dailies strive to be quality papers that stress hard news, their news stories tend to be relatively short, which in turn is an indication that in-depth reporting is the exception not the rule.
  25. 25.  Number of Daily Newspapers:116 National dailies (all in Seoul): Chosun Ilbo (2,450,000) Joong-ang Ilbo (2,350,000) Dong-a Ilbo (2,100,000) Hankook Ilbo (700,000) Kyunghyang Shinmun (450,000) Hankyoreh Shinmun (450,000) Korea Daily News (400,000) Kukmin Daily (350,000) Munhwa Ilbo (300,000) Segye Times (200,000)
  26. 26.  Select local dailies: Busan Ilbo (400,000) Daegu Maeil Shinmun (170,000) Kookje Daily News (of Busan)(100,000) The Chosun Ilbo , arguably the largest-circulation daily, is also the most influential in Korea. Like other leading dailies, this paper is a mammoth media complex, publishing not only the main vernacular paper but a weekly newsmagazine, a monthly magazine, a womens monthly, a childrens daily, and a sports daily.
  27. 27.  The Joong-ang Ilbo , the second-largest circulation daily, used to be owned by Koreas leading multinational business conglomerate Samsung Group. It is now independent and family owned but most Koreans suspect the tie with Samsung is still there in the operation of the paper The last of the top three, Dong-a Ilbo , used to be the pre-eminent critic of Koreas previous military or dictatorial regimes. During the civilian rule now, this paper still exerts its critical approach to uncovering ills and irregularities in all sectors from government to business.
  28. 28.  The South Korean press draws almost 80 percent of its revenue from advertising, with the remaining 20 percent coming from subscription fees. The high rate of dependence on advertising means potential power of advertising sponsors, media owners special care about the news that touches on such sponsors, and the need to drive up circulations, the base of ad rates.
  29. 29.  Act on the Guarantee of Freedom and Functions of Newspapers (amended in 2005) Article 17. Market-dominating business operators - one business operator whose market share accounts for not less than 30% of the average number of newspapers - 3 or more business operators whose total market share accouts for not less than 60% of the average number of newspapers Monopoly Regulation and Fair Trade : Article 3-2 (Prohibition on the Abuse of Market Dominance)

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