Lit searching and managing citations for Applied Nursing Research


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  • Background: where do I want to go?
    Planning: write a researchable question and putting together a search strategy
    Finding: search for information sources to answer your question
    Evaluating: are these credible resources? Do they answer my question?
    Revising: do I need to change my search strategy/research question?
    Putting it together: writing and citing

    1. Start a research log – keep track of what and where you have searched; as part of this journal, I would encourage you to reflect on what you have learned and what you still need to learn
    2. Do some preliminary research on your general topic. Now, you’ve covered human development in class, so that has already been covered.

  • Research methodologies > general
    Research methodologies > nursing
    * Used for truncation > tells database to search for alternate word endings
  • So, what’s a keyword?
    -keywords represent the main topics in research subject [ what’s a topic?: A matter dealt with in a text, discourse, or conversation; a subject ]
    -a keyword is a word versus phrases/sentences [ sometimes keywords are compound words that convey one topic e.g. horseback riding ]
    To generate good keywords:
    -think about what your books or articles should be about to answer your research question
    -use nouns – search engines/databases don’t look for articles and prepositions
  • Depending on the breadth of the research literature on what you are studying, you may also need to think about broader or narrower terms for your topics
    For example, suppose you wanted information about teenagers: not all researchers use the same words to talk about the same subjects– some might refer to young adults, young people, youths, adolescents, etc. That’s why we also need to think about synonyms and words related to our topics.

  • Now I’m going to introduce you to some handy-dandy search tools: these are words that really help you retrieve relevant articles by letting you combine your concepts in powerful ways
    AND > use this search tool to combine distinct topics: that way you tell the database to search for articles that contain ALL of your topics. That way every article will contain ALL of your topics. E.g. outdoor recreation and children
    OR > Use this search tool to combine similar topics: this tells the database to search for articles containing ANY of your topics. E.g. children OR teenagers
    Research worksheet posted in Sakai
  • How it works: Google Scholar indexes webpages and pulls citation information from journal articles, conference proceedings, working papers, reports and other documents – but we have no idea where exactly it is searching; we also have to trust its weighting system will actually turn up the most relevant results for your search
    >>a couple of tips can make your searching more efficient
  • Use the advanced search function to focus your search
    e.g. exact phrase, data range, specific author
  • Auto-generate in-text citations, references
    With a free account, you can save and download bibliographies
    >if citation not found, can add manually
    >Note: not perfect with APA style – always check formatting
  • RefWorks works with most of our electronic databases – just look for the ‘Export’ or ‘Send to reference manager’ function
  • >Library Help page
  • We’ve learned that:
    You can find background info about qualitative and quantitative research methods using a keyword search in SuperSearch; and use the same strategy with keywords for your topic
    It’s important to generate keywords and related words to guide and focus your search strategy
    You can use publication type filters and subject headings in databases to find qualitative and quantitative research studies; you can also try using those words in a keyword search in Google Scholar and SuperSearch
    Several options are available for managing citations: choose one that suits your neeeds – and always proofread
    That the library is here to help
  • Lit searching and managing citations for Applied Nursing Research

    1. 1. Finding information resources for NUSC 4P50 Applied Nursing Research Elizabeth Yates, Nursing Librarian June 25, 2014
    2. 2. Lit searching doesn’t have to be hard Image:
    3. 3. Today’s outcomes You will recall: • Where to find info on research methodologies • How to search effectively with keywords & search operators • How to find qualitative & quantitative research studies • Options for managing citations and creating bibliographies Based on your feedback!
    4. 4. Planning Background Finding Evaluating Revising Writing & citing Lit search cycle
    5. 5. Background: info about research Background = books Fastest path: 1. Nursing Research Guide - 2. Find books > SuperSearch 3. Advanced Search: – research method* AND qualitative – research method* AND quantitative – more specific > add nursing to search 4. Books & media @ Brock
    6. 6. Background: info @ your topics Same strategy 1. Nursing Research Guide 2. Find books > SuperSearch 3. Advanced Search: 1. Combine similar concepts with OR 2. Combine different concepts with AND 4. Books & media @ Brock
    7. 7. A bit more about keywords and search operators ... • You need to think like a search engine/database to get good results • Speak its language – E.g.: • Google, SuperSearch = keywords • CINAHL, MEDLINE = subject headings • To focus: use more keywords
    8. 8. What’s a keyword? -usually a noun -main concepts in research topic -word versus phrases/sentences Eg. How does diet and exercise affect Type 2 diabetes?
    9. 9. Keywords & synonyms Synonym: word meaning same as original word Related term: word with similar meaning to original term; could be broader or narrower than original
    10. 10. Search tools: combine concepts Search words AND, OR are powerful tools for retrieving relevant results Distinct topics: use AND e.g. gestational diabetes AND exercise Similar topics (synonyms): use OR e.g. exercise OR walking OR swimming
    11. 11. Search tools, cont’d When you want ALL of the words to be present in an article = AND When you want ANY of the words to be present in an article = OR OR > more results AND > fewer results
    12. 12. Sample search string How does (diet OR food OR nutrition) and (exercise OR physical activity OR working out) affect people with (Type 2 diabetes OR diabetes mellitus)? TIP: in a database, you can use ORs and ANDs in the Search History
    13. 13. Finding qualitative & quantitative studies Strategies: • Use publication type filters in CINAHL, MEDLINE e.g. Systematic review, practice guideline, RCT • Use subject headings e.g. – CINAHL > quantitative studies, qualitative students – MEDLINE > qualitative research, research design • Google Scholar, SuperSearch: – Add qualitative, quantitative as keywords to your search
    14. 14. Google Scholar Antiques, by bibliojojo: flickr
    15. 15. Google Scholar • Nursing Research Guide > Find articles tab > Google Scholar • Go to advanced search > via • pull down triangle
    16. 16. Managing citations >Nursing Research Guide > Writing & citing BibMe: -web-based, easy to use; limited scope RefWorks: -web-based, more complicated; sophisticated features for writing & citing, sharing folders, etc. Zotero: -web-based but also requires desktop installation; sophisticated features for writing & citing, sharing folders; also stores PDFs, allows annotations, etc.
    17. 17. • Free, online tool for saving and organizing citations and generating bibliographies • Auto-generate in-text citations, references • Ad-supported (you’re the target market!) BibMe ALWAYS PROOFREAD!!
    18. 18. RefWorks • Web-based software > use your Brock ID and password – Group code: RWBrockU • Export article citations to RefWorks > save in a folder (always move out of Last Imported) • Use citations to: -access the articles with the Get It link -generate bibliographies automatically Caution: our RefWorks access ends August 2015
    19. 19. RefWorks: Creating bibliographies 1. Select a folder 2. Select references you want to use 3. Select “Create Bibliography” 4. Choose output style from pull down menu > APA 6th 5. Choose file format (e.g. Word, Open Office) ALWAYS PROOFREAD!!
    20. 20. Zotero Access via Library website ( > Help > Writing & Citing Three components: – library that keeps all of your references organized – browser tool that can grab citation information from a web page – Word (or OpenOffice) plug-in that can produce formatted in-text citations and a bibliography. Firefox: -the library and the browser tool are one piece; download the Word plug-in separately Chrome or Safari: -library and the Word plug-in are one piece;download the browser tool separately Zotero doesn’t work with IE
    21. 21. Zotero: Gathering citations Zotero browser tool checks for citation information on a webpage You’ll see different icons depending on what you’re looking at: • book icon: • journal article icon: multiple citations (e.g. a page of search results): Select icon to add citation to your Zotero library
    22. 22. Zotero: other ways to add content • Web page –right click > save zotero snapshot • Add manually – create new item button
    23. 23. Zotero: organizing citations • Citations can be sorted into different folders, called Collections • Citations can sit in more than one Collection at a time • All citations appear in the My Library collection Tip: to minimize confusion, create/select appropriate folder before importing items
    24. 24. Zotero: creating bibliographies 1. Select items 2. Right click to create a bibliography 3. Select citation style 4. Copy to clipboard 5. Paste into document
    25. 25. Zotero: bibliographies with plug-in • If you downloaded Zotero with Chrome or Safari, you have also downloaded the Word plug-in: – To install, navigate to Settings > Preferences > City and choose "Install Word Add-On." • If you are using Zotero with Firefox, the Word plug-in can be downloaded here. • You’ll see the plug-in under Add-ins in Word toolbar
    26. 26. • Help webpage - • Research help desk • Ask Us! – Help available via chat, email, phone • Your librarian – Email, call 905-688-5550, ext 4469 Library Help
    27. 27. Summing up