Brave new world:more access, more impact, more control

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Digital publishing enables wider access to scholarly research, creates greater impact and allows authors to retain more control over their rights. Presentation for Career Corner, Congress 2014.

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  • So this slide is meant to convey the kind of dramatic – even fiery – change happening in the world of research and academic publishing right now. After hundreds of years of a system based on traditional, commercial, print-based publishing, we’re now seeing many new forms of research dissemination emerge – the Internet has made it possible to easily combine formats such as text and video, and – perhaps most importantly, to share research immediately and freely.
    At the same time, societies and government funding agencies have become increasingly mindful of their ethical obligation to make research funded by taxpayers’ dollars actually available to those same taxpayers by mandating open access publishing for research.
    So now we have national governments – including Canada, finally – mandating that the results of federally funded research be made freely available to the public.
    And, there is less and less money available for universities and libraries to pay for the traditional formats of sharing academic research – scholarly journals. I’m sure you know that some subscription journals cost us thousands of dollars each year, and that these fees increase every year at a pace far outstripping inflation. So we’re in a place where we just can’t keep subsidizing the same old system.
  • Even as you prepare your theses and dissertations, you need to consider how your work is published, shared and stored – and who will own it ?
  • So, for a long time, publishing was pretty old-school:
    -researcher creates content
    -researcher submits content to commercial publisher (book or journal)
    -publisher uses other researchers to review quality of content – often editors do this without pay
    -publisher accepts reviewed content and asks researcher to sign over their copyrights – so that researchers lose most rights to re-use and/or reproduce their own work
    -publisher copy-edits, packages and publishes content and sells it to academic institutions at very high prices

    The picture becomes even more problematic when you consider that much of the research that is published has been funded by taxpayers – who then are not able to access the end result of that research
  • Many emerging models for scholarly publishing:
    -online only journals which are open access >> we’ll look at some of the more innovative models later – incorporate video, reader interaction, etc.
    -university publishers which offer digital journal and/or book publishing
    -online archives – subject specific or institutional
    -funding requirements – CIHR, SSHERC and NSERC have issued a draft unified policy for researchers that will require journal articles based on funded research to be made freely accessible within 12 mos of publication (other countries eg. EU, US, Australia far ahead of Can.)
    -even commercial publishers are becoming more open – allowing authors to archive their work online; may be the pre-refereed, refereed, or even published versions of the manuscript


  • The Open Access movement has been a key driver in this transformation – formalized about 11 years ago with publishers and scholars pledging to use the Internet to make research freely available as a public good
    Key features:
    -immediate access with no user fees
  • There are almost 10,000 journals listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals and around 1.6 M articles.
  • Aligned with growth in OA publishing, policies are being established to promote and guide how OA works at various levels including institutional and national – e.g some institutions, such as Concordia, have policies mandating that researchers must deposit their articles in their IR or give reasons why not.
    >> ROARMAP -- http://roarmap.eprints.org/ -- is tracking this growth. *Search for Brock*
    Internationally, Canada is playing ‘catch up’to US, UK, EU, Australia:
    -UK - RCUK Policy on Open Access – 2012 funded researchers must publish final published version in either immediate OA + archive OR final manuscript in any repo within either 6 (STEM) or 12 mos (SSH)
    - Australia – Australian Research Council OA Policy “any publications arising from an ARC supported research project must be deposited into an open access institutional repository within a twelve (12) month period from the date of publication.” Early 2013
    US Fair Access to Scientific Technology Research Act (FASTR) –require OA j manuscripts repo deposit for agencies with annual research expenditures of $100M +; max 6 month embargo
    EU – funded articles must be OA by publisher immediately, or by researcher via IR within 6 mos

  • -aims to be the one-stop-shop for open access journal users: great place for researchers/students to find OA content in their fields eg browse by subject
    -can search by article processing charge – there are actually more js without charges (6554)
    -can search for articles or journals -criteria for inclusion include peer-review/editorial quality and immediate OA
  • PeerJ –-- https://peerj.com/-- launched Feb 2013 – biology and medical sciences – editorial board of 800 academics, including 20 member advisory board (5 nobel laureates) – rapid review, OA with Creative Commons licensing. Financial model: researchers pay lifetime memberships starting at $99 – pay more to publish more; must contribute by reviewing (can be commenting)
    >>Interesting – you can follow the life of the paper from submission to critique to final acceptance

    eLIFE –http://www.elifesciences.org/- life & bio sciences –eLife is a venue for outstanding research in the life sciences and biomedicine, which ranges from the most fundamental and theoretical work, through to translational, applied, and clinical research.– founded by Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Max Planck Society, Wellcome Trust - + private/public funders - 200 reviewers – includes a journal – rapid review of articles – free publishing for now, article processing charges to come; publishers reinforce the importance of each published work with statements of impact, letters of recommendation by request, post-publication impact measures, and more; only those papers that are deemed by our editors as the very best in science will be published; publishers hope to make “plain language summaries” of research available in future


    Knowledge Unlatched -- http://www.knowledgeunlatched.org/ - global library consortium working with publishers to offer open access academic books to readers; right now seeking pledges from libraries to support a pilot with 28 new books from 13 scholarly publishers; we may be participating via our Ontario consortium
  • Repositories – online archive for digital scholarly materials -- are another form of scholarly publishing

    Many universities requires grad students to deposit their thesis electronically for dissemination and preservation via an institutional repository
    Generally you will retain copyright over your work and give your university a “non-exclusive” right to preserve and share your work
  • Can see big growth in repositories via OpenDOAR, a searchable database of subject and institutional respositories maintained at the Centre for Research Communications at the University of Nottingham.
    Useful for faculty and students: can look for subject repostories; contents searchable (eg War of 1812 Brock)
  • The relation between video game violence and aggression. Adachi, Paul. 2011.
  • Gargouri Y, Hajjem C, Larivière V, Gingras Y, Carr L, et al. (2010) Self-Selected or Mandated, Open Access Increases Citation Impact for Higher Quality Research. PLoS ONE 5(10): e13636. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013636 -- Compared OA and non-OA articles within the same journals; looked at articles deposited in four mandated IRs; compared with articles published in same journal, volume, year but not deposited in an IR
    The impact of free access to the scientific literature: a review of recent research – Davis, Walters, 2011,JMLA 99 3 -- Review of the literature; Nucleic Acid Research j studied how moving from paywall to OA resulted in double article downloads (tho robots account for half of increase); also an RCT - Davis PM, Lewenstein BV, Simon DH, Booth JG,Connolly MJL. Open access publishing, article downloads and citations: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008 Jul 31;337:a568. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.a568.
  • Usually, publishing in an Open Acess journal allows authors to retain full copyright over their work – you give the journal a “non-exclusive” one-time right to publish your work
    You retain the rights to reuse your work as you see fit – to reproduce it digitally or in print, to post on a website or online archive, to share with colleagues or students
  • Brave new world:more access, more impact, more control

    1. 1. Dead tree, by 55Laney69 www.flickr.com/photos/42875184@N08/8654332095 Brave new world: More access, more impact, more control Elizabeth Yates, Liaison/Scholarly Communication Librarian Brock University May 2014
    2. 2. 2 Your research WILL have a digital life. You have the opportunity to control that life. -- Micah Vandegrift, Scholarly Communications Librarian @ Florida State University
    3. 3. Today’s outcomes You will recall: -characteristics of new (and old) forms of research dissemination -key facts about your rights as a scholar -strategies for increasing the impact of your research
    4. 4. Publishing then
    5. 5. Publishing now • Open, online journals • Digital academic presses • Online repositories • Funding agency policies supporting OA • Greater support for author rights
    6. 6. OA • Free, immediate online access to scholarly research • No end-user fees • Usually greater freedom for re-use
    7. 7. Morrison, H. (2014). Dramatic Growth of Open Access: December 31, 2013: first open source edition. http://poeticeconomics.blogspot.ca/ Growth of OA publishing
    8. 8. OA Policies: global growth http://roarmap.eprints.org/
    9. 9. How does it work? Publishing is not free! Costs are covered by means such as: • Article processing fees • Advertising • Sponsorship by a scholarly society • Researcher memberships
    10. 10. Finding Open Access sources Directory of Open Access Journals www.doaj.org/ -search by subject, country, etc. Directory of Open Access Books www.doabooks.org/ -search by keywords, author, etc. BASE – Bielefeld Academic Search Engine http://www.base-search.net/ -retrieves OA academic web sources: more than 60 million documents from more than 3,000 sources (can search by theses)
    11. 11. Other models • Non-traditional “journals” • Repositories • Open books Image: 'Open source photography -- are you in or out?' http://www.flickr.com/photos/12836528@N00/3255771038 Found on flickrcc.net
    12. 12. Innovative platforms
    13. 13. Repositories • Scope: – Subject e.g. arXiv.org – Institutional e.g. Brock’s Digital Repository > your theses will likely end up in an IR • Content: – Preprint – Final manuscript – Other versions
    14. 14. OpenDOAR opendoar.org Image: 'Dolmabahçe Palace...' http://www.flickr.com/photos/37134982@N00/1266859025 Found on flickrcc.net
    15. 15. Brock Digital Repository http://dr.library.brocku.ca/handle/10464/1147 • Our students’ work is visible to the world • Indexed in Google Scholar, SuperSearch, etc. • Statistics for views
    16. 16. Open Access = greater impact Open Access Citation effect: • Open Access articles are cited significantly more than non-OA articles Article downloads: • Open Access articles are downloaded signficantly more than non-OA articles
    17. 17. VS Open Access = more rights
    18. 18. Copyright: What is it? Why does it matter? • a form of intellectual property • takes effect the moment a work is “fixed” (doesn’t apply to ideas, facts) • applies to all genres – books, periodicals, charts, software, films, music, works of art • Protects your rights as a creator: – to reproduce, publish, alter, sell, etc. the work – copyright infringement > is unauthorized copying or use of a work
    19. 19. What can you do? No. 1 > Read your copyright agreements! • research your publication options • negotiate more copy-rights • use Creative Commons licensing -- creativecommons.org • publish with an Open Access platform White clouds in the deep blue, by backtrust; from stock.xchng
    20. 20. Summing up • Research is being shared more openly via OA journals, books, etc. • Researchers can benefit from OA via greater impact, more control over your work eyates@brocku.ca www.slideshare.net/ElizabethYates 'The Road to Tomorrow (and Happy 2009!)' http://www.flickr.com/photos/95572727@N00/3155662908 Found on flickrcc.net

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