MORE ON PARAPHRASE (AND
CITATION)
E. SILER
POINTS TO REMEMBER
• PARAPHRASE IS A WAY TO RESTATE SMALL,
IMPORTANT PIECES OF INFORMATION AND
OPINION.
• YOU DO NOT PARAP...
DECIDING WHAT TO PARAPHRASE
• At just 8 square miles, about a third of the size
of Manhattan, and located in the southern
...
FACTS AND OPINIONS
• At just 8 square miles, about a third of the size
of Manhattan, and located in the southern
Pacific O...
SIMPLE FACT PARAPHRASE
• NAURU IS A SMALL ISLAND, ONLY 8 SQUARE
MILES, IN THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC OCEAN
(STEPHEN, 2011).
OPINION PARAPHRASE
• MORE LIKELY TO REQUIRE SOME QUOTING.
• OFTEN USED WITH A SIGNAL PHRASE
CITATION.
• STEPHEN (2011) DES...
EXAMPLE 2
• But make no mistake; we are a sovereign
nation, with our own language, customs and
history dating back 3,000 y...
FACT PARAPHRASES
• NAURU IS A COUNTRY (STEPHEN, 2011). THE
PEOPLE THERE SPEAK A UNIQUE LANGUAGE
AND ENJOY A UNIQUE CULTURE...
OPINION PARAPHRASE
• STEPHEN (2011) BELIEVED THE STORY OF
NAURU IS “AN INDISPENSIBLE CAUTIONARY
TALE” BECAUSE THE ISLAND H...
EXTENDED FACT PARAPHRASES
• Phosphate mining, first by foreign companies and
later our own, cleared the lush tropical rain...
COUNT VERBS, VERB FORMS, NOUNS-
FROM-VERBS!
• Phosphate mining, first by foreign companies and
later our own, cleared the ...
PARAPHRASES
• 1. FOREIGN COMPANIES AND NAURUAN COMPANIES MINED
PHOSPHATE ON NAURU.
• 2. THE CENTRAL PART OF THE ISLAND WAS...
REGROUPING
• THE CENTRAL PART OF THE ISLAND WAS ONCE COVERED BY
TROPICAL RAINFOREST.
• FOREIGN COMPANIES AND NAURUAN COMPA...
REMOVE REDUNDANCIES/ COMBINE /
TRANSITIONS
• THE CENTRAL PART OF THE ISLAND WAS ONCE COVERED BY
TROPICAL RAINFOREST (STEPH...
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Moreonparaphrase

  1. 1. MORE ON PARAPHRASE (AND CITATION) E. SILER
  2. 2. POINTS TO REMEMBER • PARAPHRASE IS A WAY TO RESTATE SMALL, IMPORTANT PIECES OF INFORMATION AND OPINION. • YOU DO NOT PARAPHRASE LONG PASSAGES. • LONG PASSAGES SHOULD BE SUMMARIZED. • PARAPHRASE REARRANGES GRAMMAR AND STRUCTURE AND REPLACES WORDS.
  3. 3. DECIDING WHAT TO PARAPHRASE • At just 8 square miles, about a third of the size of Manhattan, and located in the southern Pacific Ocean, Nauru appears as merely a pinpoint on most maps — if it is not missing entirely in a vast expanse of blue. (FROM “ON NAURU, A SINKING FEELING”, BY MARCUS STEPHEN)
  4. 4. FACTS AND OPINIONS • At just 8 square miles, about a third of the size of Manhattan, and located in the southern Pacific Ocean, Nauru appears as merely a pinpoint on most maps — if it is not missing entirely in a vast expanse of blue. • FACTS: INFORMATION ON SIZE/LOCATION • OPINION: COMPARISON OF SIZE TO A PIN.
  5. 5. SIMPLE FACT PARAPHRASE • NAURU IS A SMALL ISLAND, ONLY 8 SQUARE MILES, IN THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC OCEAN (STEPHEN, 2011).
  6. 6. OPINION PARAPHRASE • MORE LIKELY TO REQUIRE SOME QUOTING. • OFTEN USED WITH A SIGNAL PHRASE CITATION. • STEPHEN (2011) DESCRIBED THE ISLAND AS “A PINPRICK” IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN.
  7. 7. EXAMPLE 2 • But make no mistake; we are a sovereign nation, with our own language, customs and history dating back 3,000 years. Nauru is worth a quick Internet search, I assure you, for not only will you discover a fascinating country that is often overlooked, you will find an indispensible cautionary tale about life in a place with hard ecological limits.
  8. 8. FACT PARAPHRASES • NAURU IS A COUNTRY (STEPHEN, 2011). THE PEOPLE THERE SPEAK A UNIQUE LANGUAGE AND ENJOY A UNIQUE CULTURE. THE ISLAND HAS A LONG HISTORY (STEPHEN, 2011). • NOT: • NAURU IS A COUNTRY. THE PEOPLE THERE SPEAK A UNIQUE LANGUAGE AND ENJOY A UNIQUE CULTURE. THE ISLAND HAS A LONG HISTORY (STEPHEN, 2011).
  9. 9. OPINION PARAPHRASE • STEPHEN (2011) BELIEVED THE STORY OF NAURU IS “AN INDISPENSIBLE CAUTIONARY TALE” BECAUSE THE ISLAND HAS “HARD ECOLOGICAL LIMITS.”
  10. 10. EXTENDED FACT PARAPHRASES • Phosphate mining, first by foreign companies and later our own, cleared the lush tropical rainforest that once covered our island’s interior, scarring the land and leaving only a thin strip of coastline for us to live on. The legacy of exploitation left us with few economic alternatives and one of the highest unemployment rates in the world, and led previous governments to make unwise investments that ultimately squandered our country’s savings.
  11. 11. COUNT VERBS, VERB FORMS, NOUNS- FROM-VERBS! • Phosphate mining, first by foreign companies and later our own, cleared the lush tropical rainforest that once covered our island’s interior, scarring the land and leaving only a thin strip of coastline for us to live on. The legacy of exploitation left us with few economic alternatives and one of the highest unemployment rates in the world, and ledprevious governments to make unwise investments that ultimately squandered our country’s savings.
  12. 12. PARAPHRASES • 1. FOREIGN COMPANIES AND NAURUAN COMPANIES MINED PHOSPHATE ON NAURU. • 2. THE CENTRAL PART OF THE ISLAND WAS ONCE COVERED BY TROPICAL RAINFOREST. • 3. THE MINING SCARRED THE LAND. • 4. THE MINING LEFT ONLY A THIN COASTLINE FOR PEOPLE. • 5. PEOPLE LIVE ON THE COASTLINE OF THE ISLAND. • 6. THE MINING COMPANIES EXPLOITED NAURU. • 7. THE EXPLOITATION RESULTED IN LOST OPPORTUNITES AND HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT. • 8. EARLIER GOVERNMENTS MADE BAD CHOICES. • 9. EARLIER GOVERNMENTS INVESTED BADLY. • 10. THE BAD INVESTMENTS RUINED THE COUNTRY’S SAVINGS.
  13. 13. REGROUPING • THE CENTRAL PART OF THE ISLAND WAS ONCE COVERED BY TROPICAL RAINFOREST. • FOREIGN COMPANIES AND NAURUAN COMPANIES MINED PHOSPHATE ON NAURU. THE MINING COMPANIES EXPLOITED NAURU. THE MINING SCARRED THE LAND. THE MINING LEFT ONLY A THIN COASTLINE FOR PEOPLE TO LIVE.THE EXPLOITATION RESULTED IN LOST OPPORTUNITES AND HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT. • EARLIER GOVERNMENTS MADE BAD CHOICES. EARLIER GOVERNMENTS INVESTED BADLY.THE BAD INVESTMENTS RUINED THE COUNTRY’S SAVINGS.
  14. 14. REMOVE REDUNDANCIES/ COMBINE / TRANSITIONS • THE CENTRAL PART OF THE ISLAND WAS ONCE COVERED BY TROPICAL RAINFOREST (STEPHEN, 2011). IT IS NOW GONE BECAUSE FOREIGN COMPANIES AND NAURUAN COMPANIES MINED PHOSPHATE ON NAURU. THOSE MINING COMPANIES EXPLOITED NAURU, DESTROYED THE LAND AND DIDN’T LEAVE MUCH LAND FOR PEOPLE TO LIVE. THERE IS A HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (STEPHEN, 2011). • THE PEOPLE ALSO SUFFER FROM THE BAD CHOICES OF EARLIER GOVERMENTS, WHICH INVESTED BADLY. THOSE BAD INVESTMENTS RUINED THE COUNTRY’S SAVINGS (STEPHEN, 2011).

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